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Dk. oskar seyffert 



ItUt Fellow of Corpus Christi College and Corpus Pro/at tor 
of Latin Literature in the University of Oxford 

J. E. SANDYS. Litt.D. 

Fellow and Tutor of St Johns College and 
Public Orato* in the University of Cambtidgt 


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XonDon : 




rrillK Ih'ctioiiary of Classical Antiquities, which is here offered t<> the 
-*- public, is founded on a work by Dr. Oskar Seyffert, of Berlin, which 
lias deservedly attained a wide circulation in Germany. 1 Dr. Seyffert 
is already known in England as one of the editors of a philological 
periodical, entitled the Berliner Philologisclif Wochrnschrij't, and as a 
distinguished Latin scholar, whose name is specially associated with the 
criticism of Plautus. The departments of classical learning included in 
his dictionary are the Mythology and Religion, the Literature and Art, 
and the constitutional and social Antiquities of Greece and Rome. 
Within the compass of a single volume it comprises all the subjects 
usually treated in a Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, while it 
also supplies information on matters of Mythology and Literature which 
has generally to be looked for in the pages of a Classical Dictionary. 
Besides separate articles on Greek and Roman divinities, and on the lives 
and works of the philosophers, the historians, the orators, the poets, and 
the artists of Greece and Rome, it gives a general and comprehensive 
view of such subjects as Greek and Roman Religion, Philosophy, History, 
Rhetoric, Literature, Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Music, and the 
Drama. Similarly, in the department of Antiquities, besides separate 
treatment of subordinate details, it deals with important topics, such as 
the Boule and Bcclesia, the Comitia and the Senate, Commerce and War, 
the Houses, the Ships, the Temples, and the Theatres of the ancients. 

The original text has been largely supplemented and corrected by 
Dr. Seyffert himself ; and the whole of the translation has been carefully 
revised and, in many cases, re-written or re-arranged by the editors. 
The larger part of the letter A (Abacus to Astrology) was translated by 
Mr. Stallybrass, owing to whose lamented death the remainder of the 
work was put into other hands. The succeeding articles, from Astrology 

1 Lexikon der klassischen Alterthumskunde ; Kulturgeschichte der Griechen und 
Romer ; Mythologie und Religion, Litteratur, Kunst, und Alterthilmer des Staats- und 
Frivatlebens. (Leipzig : Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1882.) 


to Hercea, have been translated and prepared for the press by Professor 
Nettleship; the second part (Hermce to Zosimus) has been translated 
under the supervision of Dr. Sandys ; while the proof sheets of the 
whole have been repeatedly read by both editors. The additions in- 
serted by the editors are generally distinguished by being placed within 
square brackets, or printed as notes at the foot of the page. Most of the 
notes and other additions bearing on Latin Literature, and a few bearing 
on Latin Antiquities, are due to Professor Nettleship ; while Dr. Sandys 
has supplied references to classical authors and modern authorities wher- 
ever such references appeared either necessary or desirable. It is hoped 
that these additions may serve to increase the usefulness of the book. 
The references to Cicero and Pliny are by the shorter sections now in 
general use. The ancient authorities quoted include Aristotle's newly 
discovered Constitution of Athens, which has been cited under the head of 
the Solonian Constitution and other articles which have passed through 
the press since the publication of the editio princeps. In this and other 
respects every endeavour has been made to bring the articles up to date. 

Dr. Sandys has written articles on the following archaeological 
subjects, which were either omitted in the original work or appeared 
to deserve a fuller treatment than was there accorded them : Mosaics, 
Pigments (under Painting), Ccelatura (under Toreutic Art), and Vases 
(with 17 illustrations). He has also supplied brief notices of the Edict 
of Diocletian, the Olympieum, the artists Mentor, Mys, Pauson, and the 
younger PolycUtus ; Philo, the architect, and three others of the same 
name who were not included in Dr. Seyffert's Lexikon. The short article 
on Fulcra is abridged from a valuable paper in the Classical Review 
by Mr. W. C. F. Anderson, Professor of Classics at Firth College, 
Sheffield; that on the Law of Gortyn has been kindly contributed by 
Mr. C. A. M. Pond, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

The number of the illustrations has been largely increased. These 
have been selected mainly from the following works : Schreiber's Kultur- 
historischer Bilder- Atlas, ed. 1888, and Bilder-Atlas zur Ilias und Odyssee,. 
1889, both published by Seemann of Leipzig; Baumeister's Denhndler 
des Klassischen Alterthums, 1884-1888, by Oldenbourg of Munich ; Guhl 
and Koner's Life of the Greeks and Romans, English edition (Chatto & 
Windus) ; and Perry's Greek and Roman Sculpture (Longmans, 1882). 
The publishers are also indebted to Messrs. George Bell & Sons for the 
additional illustrations in the article on Gems, and for the portraits of 

PBXFAI i. t 

Horace, Lucretius, l'l<it<>. and Son-atm, selected from Km"'- Antique Gems 
and Rings ( 1 S7- ) and Westropp's Handbook of Archaeology (ecL L8' 
to Messrs. Macinillan & Co. for Dr. Ddrpfeld'a Plan of Olympia and of 

the I'ropyhrn, and for the engniving of a vase by 1 1 iemn ( Vases, W^. I 'J). 
The two hitter are from Miss I larrisnn's Mytholoyy and MoHvinmts of 
Indent Allnns. The Plan of the Acropolis is copied from the Journal of 
Hellenic Studies with the kind permission of the Council of the Bellenic 
Society. That of the Roman Fora is reproduced from Droysen's His- 
torischer llandatlas, 1886. In the article on the Olympian Games, the 
metope on page 430 is a reduced copy from Overbeck's Geschichte der 
Qriechischen Plastik. In that on Vases, figs. 3 and 5 are borrowed from 
the Catalogue of Pottery in the Jermyn Street Museum. The engraving of 
the Msenads (Vases, fig. 13) is reproduced by permission from Dr. Sandys' 
edition of the Bacchcs of Euripides published by the University Press, 
Cambridge. All these additional illustrations (which are distinguished 
by an asterisk) have been selected by Dr. Sandys, who has indicated, so 
far as practicable, the original authority on which they rest, and, in the 
case of works of art, the collections in which they are to be found. 

In stating the English equivalents for Greek money, the editors 
have adopted the estimate of Professor W. W. Goodwin, in his article 
On the Value of the Attic Talent in Modern Money published in the Trans- 
actions of the American Philological Association, 1885, xvi, pp. 117-119, 
according to which the intrinsic value of a drachma is approximately 8d., 
and that of a talent £200. In the case of Roman money, they have 
followed Marquardt's Handbuch der romischen Alterthiimer in reckoning 
1,000 sesterces as equivalent to £10. * 

For the convenience of students, as well as of general readers, the 
quantities of Greek and Latin words have been marked once, but once 
only, in every article in which they occur. The Latin spelling of Greek 
words has been generally adopted, but the Greek form has, in all cases 
where it appeared advisable, been added in brackets. 


March, 1891. 

i See Preface to Third Edition of this Dictionary 



The favourable reception that has been accorded to this work has en- 
abled the publishers to issue a second edition at an exceptionally early 
date. The book has been revised by Dr. Sandys, and some minor in- 
accuracies have been removed. References to Aristotle's Constitution of 
Athens, which, in the former edition, could only be inserted in the last 
two hundred pages, have now been added in the first five hundred, wher- 
ever such addition seemed to be required. Lastly, an Index has been 
supplied, which, it is hoped, will make the work still further useful as a 
book of reference. 
September, 1891. 


The present edition has been further revised and corrected by Dr. 
Sandys. The articles in which the most considerable changes have been 
introduced are those on Comilia, Music, and Theatre. The article on 
Gomitia has been revised in accordance with the views of Mommsen ; that 
on Music takes account of Mr. Monro's recent work on the Modes of 
Ancient Music ; and that on Theatre gives some additional details re- 
specting the architectural theories of Dr. Dorpfeld. 

In stating approximate English equivalents for Roman money, Dr. 
Sandys has thought it right to reconsider the choice made by the late 
Professor Nettleship between the alternative estimates given in Mar- 
quardt's Handbuck, vol. ii., p. 71. The sum of 1,000 sesterces is there 
reckoned as equivalent, under a gold standard, to 21752 marks, or 
£10 17s. 6d. ; and, under a silver standard, to 175-41 marks, or 
£8 15s. 6d. In the former editions the gold standard was adopted, and 
1,000 sesterces taken as equivalent to £10; in the present, the silver 
standard has been preferred, and the equivalent is accordingly £8 15s. 
Under this estimate a Roman denarius is equivalent to 8|d., or very little 
more than a Greek drachma, which is here set at 8d. 

It should be added that the Index here reprinted from the Second 
Edition is the work of the late Mr. H. D. Darbishire, Fellow of St. 
John's College, Cambridge. 
December, 1894. 

cp. compare. 

q.v. quod vide. 

I.e. locus (or liber) citatun 


ib. ibidem. 

^ indicates a short syllable. 

— indicates a long syllable. 

pictionarn of Classical iltlntboloqn, 
iicligion, literature, ^rt t & Antiquities. 


Abacus (Gr. dbax, dbdkKn). (1) A square 
plate, especially the stone Blab thai covers 
tpital "i a column (see Abchitkcti bi . 
Orders of, figs. 1 and 5). (2) A dice-h 

\ mathematician's table Btrewn with 
fine Band, on which figures were drawn with 
a stilus. 1 A counting-board, on which 
sums w.ii' worked tor private and public 
accounts. The reckoning was done with 
counters lying on the board (ccUcMt) or 
with beads sliding in vertical grooves. (On 
the sideboard called Abacus, sen Tables.) 

Abolla. A thick woollen cloak, worn by 
Roman soldiers and philosophers. 

Absyrtus. Son of king jEetes, and bro- 
ther of Medea, who, in her flight with Jason 
the Argonaut, cut Absyrtus into pieces, 
and threw them one by one into the sea, so 
that her father, stopping to pick them up, 
might be delayed in his pursuit. 

Academy (Or. Ak&dimia). A grove on 
the Cephissus near Athens, sacred to the 
hero Academus, and containing a gymna- 
sium. Here Plato, whose country-house 
was near, delivered his lectures ; hence 
the school of philosophy founded by him 
received the name of " The Academy." 

Acamas(Gr. Akthnas). Son of Theseus and 
Phaedra, was brought up with his brother 
Demophoon by Elephenor, king of Euboea, 
and sent with Diomedes as ambassador to 
Troy, to persuade Priam to send Helen 
back in peace. After the fall of Troy, in 
which he took a prominent part as one of 
the heroes concealed in the wooden horse, 
he with his brother recovered his father's 
sovereignty over Attica, and then led a i 
colony from Athens to Cyprus, where he 
died. (Comp. Dexiophoox, 2.) 

Acarnan and Amphoterus (Gr. Akarnan. 
Amphoterics). Sons of Alcmseon and Cal- 
lirrhoe. Their mother, hearing of her hus- 
band's murder by Phegeus and his sons, 
prays Zeus, who loves her, to let her boys 
grow up into men at once, so that they can 
avenge their father. This done, they slay 
the sons of Phegeus at Tegea and himself 
at Psophis, offer up at Delphi the Jewels of 
Harmonia, which they have thus acquired, 

D. c. A. 

and then found a kingdom called after the 
elder of them Acarnania. (Set Ai.i-hk- 

Acastus <ir. Akastds). Son of Pellas, 
king of Iolcos, who joined the Argonautic 
expedition, though against his father's will, 
as a friend of Jason. At his father's death 
he celebrated funeral games which were 
the theme of ancient poets and artists, and 
in which Peleus was represented as par- 
ticipating. He took part in the Calydonian 
boar-hunt. But his wife Astydaineia fell 
in love with Peleus (q.v,), and this brought 
ruin on the wedded pair. His daughter was 
Laudameia, renowned for her tender love 
to Protesilaus (q.v.). 

Acca Larentia. According to the com- 
mon legend, wife of the herdsman Faustulus, 
and nurse to Romulus and Remus ; accord- 
ing to another, a favourite of Hercules, and 
wife to a rich Etruscan, Tarutius, whose 
possessions she bequeathed to Romulus or 
(according to another account) the Roman 
people. She is said to have had twelve sons, 
with whom she sacrificed once a year for the 
fertilizing of the Roman fields (arva), and 
who were thence named Arvai Brothers 
(fratres arvales). One of them having died, 
Romulus took his place, and founded the 
priesthoodso called. (See ArvalBrothers.) 
She at last disappeared on the spot where, 
afterwards, at the feast of Larentalia (Dec. 
23), the flamen of Quirmus and the pontiffs 
sacrificed to her while invoking Jupiter. 
All this, together with her name, meaning 
" mother of the Lares," shows that she was 
originally a goddess of the earth, to whose 
care men entrusted their seed-corn and their 
dead. (See Lares.) In particular she per- 
sonified the city lands and their crops. 
Probably she is the Dea Dia worshipped 
by the Arval Brothers. 

"Accensi. In the older constitution of 
the Roman army, the accensi were men 
taken from the lowest assessed class to fill 
gaps in the ranks of the heavy -armed 
soldiers. They followed the legion un- 
armed, simply in their clothes (velati, or 
accensi velnti). In action they stood in the 



rear rank of the third line, ready to pick up 
the arms of the fallen and fill their places. 
They were also used as assistant workmen 
and as orderlies. This last employment 
mav have caused the term accenaus to be 
applied to the subordinate officer whom 
consuls and proconsuls, praetors and pro- 
praetors, and all officers of consular and 
praetorian rank had at their service in ad- 
dition to lictors. In later times officers 
chose these attendants out of their own 
freedmen, sometimes to marshal their way 
when they had no lictors or had them march- 
ing behind, sometimes for miscellaneous 
duties. Thus the praetor's accensus had to 
cry the hours of the day, 3, 6, 9, and 12. 
Unlike the subordinate officers named 
apparitors, their term of office expired with 
that of their superior. 

Accius, or Attius (Lucius). A Roman 
poet, who was born 170 B.C. of a freedman 
and freedwoman, at Pisaurum in Umbria, 
and died about 90 B.C. He was the most 
prolific and, under the Republic, the most 
highly esteemed of tragic poets, especially 
for his lofty, impassioned style and power- 
ful descriptions. His talents seem to have 
secured him a respectable position in Roman 
society, which he maintained with full con- 
sciousnessof his merits. His poetical career 
can be traced through a period of thirty-six 
years, from B.C. 140, when he exhibited a 
drama under the same aediles as the octo- 
genarian Pacuvius, to B.C. 104. Of his 
tragedies, the titles and fragments of some 
fifty are preserved. Two of these treat of 
national subjects (see Prjetexta), viz., the 
Brutus and the Decius. The former dealt 
with the expulsion of the Tarquins : the 
latter with the heroic death of Decius at 
Sentinum, B.C. 295. The rest, composed 
after Greek models, embrace almost all 
cycles of legend, especially the Trojan, 
which is treated in a great variety of aspects. 
Accius likewise handled questions of gram- 
mar, literary history, and antiquities in the 
Alexandrine manner and the fashion of his 
own time, and in many different metres. 
These works (the Didasrdlica in at least 
nine books ; the Pragmatica on dramatic 
poetry and acting, etc.) have also perished. 

Ackaeus. A Greek tragic poet of Eretria, 
born about 482 B.C., a contemporary of So- 
phocles, and especially famous in the line 
of satyric drama. He wrote about forty 
plavs, of which only small fragments are 
preserved. Not being an Athenian, he only 
gained one victory. 

Acheloiis. The god of the river of that 

name between ./Etolia and Acarnania ; eldest 
of the 3000 sons of Oceanus and Tethys, and 
father of the Sirens by Sterope, the daugh- 
ter of Porthaon. As a water-god he was 
capable of metamorphosis, appearing now 
as a bull, then as a snake, and again as a 
bull-faced man. Li fighting with Heracles 
for the possession of Deianeira, he lost one 
horn, but got it back in exchange for the 
horn of Amaltheia (q.v.). As the oldest 
and most venerable of river-gods, he was 
worshipped all over Greece and her colonies, 
especially Rhodes, Italy, and Sicily. The 
oracle of Dodona, in every answer which 
it gave, added an injunction to sacrifice to 
Achelous; and in religious usage his name 
stood for any stream or running water. 

Acheron. A river in the lower world. 
(See Hades, Realm i >k. 

Achilles (Gr.AcMLleus). (1) Son of Peleus 
(king of the Myrmidons in Thessalian 
Phthia) by the Nereid Thetis, grandson of 
.Eacus, great-grandson of Zeus. In Homer 
he is duly brought up by his mother to 
man's estate, in close friendship with his 
older cousin Patroclus, the son of Menoetius. 
a half-brother of ^Eacus ; is taught the 
arts of war and eloquence by Phoenix (q.v.) 
and that of healing by the centaur Chiron, 
his mother's grandfather. But later le- 
gends lend additional features to the stor}- 
of his 3 - outh. To make her son immortal, 
Thetis anoints him with ambrosia by 'lay. 
and holds him in the lire at night, to destroy 
whatever mortal element he has derived 
from his father, until Peleus, coming in one 
night, sees the boy baking in the fire, and 
makes an outcry : the goddess, aggrieved at 
seeing her plan thwarted, deserts husband 
and child, and goes home to the Nereids. 
According to a later story she dipped the 
child in the river Styx, and thus made him 
invulnerable, all but the heel by which she 
held him. Then Peleus takes the mother- 
less boy to Chiron on Mount Pelion, who 
feeds him on the entrails of lions and boars, 
and the marrow of bears, and instructs him 
in all knightly and elegant arts. At the 
age of six the boy was so strong and swift 
that he slew wild boars and lions, and 
caught stags without net or hound. Again, 
as to his share in the expedition to Troy, the 
legends differ widely. In Homer, Achilles 
and Patroclus are at once read}' to obey 
the call of Nestor and Odysseus, and their 
fathers willingly let them go, accompanied 
by the old man Phoenix. In later leg 
Thetis, alarmed by the prophecy of Calchas 
that Trov cannot be taken without Achilles. 


in mob :i u ■ 

the boj of aine t.. i he island "f S 

u ii.-ri' in ifni.tli- dreu be grows ap among 
tin' daughters of king I .<■< 0m md by 

ode of them, Deld&meia, begets Neoptdlfr- 

,/ But Calohaa betrays hiawhere- 
abonts, and Odysseus, in concert with DT6- 
iiH ■lis, un masks the young horo. Dis- 

i as ;i merchant, be spreads ont female 
ornaments before tin 1 maidens, as well us 
u shield and spear; suddenly a trumpet 
sounds tin' call to battle, the maidens tin-. 
\ hides olatches al the arms, and de- 
clares himself eager to fight. At the 6rsl 
landing of t 1 1 . • I m the Asian i oast, 

ha wounds TelSphus (q.v.) ; at their a id, 

on the Trojan shore, Cycnus q.v.). Before 
Troy, Homer makes him the chief of Greek 

3, whom the favour of Hera and Athena 
and his own merit have placed above friend 
and foe. He is graced with all the attri- 
butes of a hero: in birth, beauty, swirl 

strength, and valour, he 1ms not his i r; 

none can resist him, the very sight of him 
strikes terror into the toe. His anger may 
be furious, his grief immoderate ; but his 
nature is at bottom kind, affectionate, and 

us. even to his enemies. Touching 
is his love for his parents, especially his 
mother, and his devotion to his friends. In 
the firsr nine years of the war he leads the 
Greeks on their main - plundering excursions 
around Troy, and destroys eleven inland and 
twelve seacoast towns. The events of the 
tenth year, brought on by the deep grudge 
he bears Agamemnon for taking away 
Briseis (daughter of Brises), form the 
subject of Homer's Iliad. When he and 
his men withdraw from the tight, the Tro- 
jans press on irresistibly : they have taken 
the camp of the Greeks, and are setting 
their ships on fire. In this extremity he 
lends Patroclus the arms his father (see 
Peleus") had given him, and lets him lead 
the Myrmidons to battle. Patroclus drives 
the Trojaus back, but falls by Hector's 
hand, and the arms are lost, though the 
corpse is recovered. Grief for his friend 
and thirst for vengeance at last overcome 
his grudge against Agamemnon. Furnished 
by Hephsestus, at the request of Thetis, 
with splendid new arms, including the 
shield of wondrous workmanship, he goes 
out against Hector, well knowing that he 
himself must fall soon after him. He makes 
frightful havoc among the enemy, till at 
last Hector is the only one that dares 
await him without the walls, and even he 
turns in terror at the sight of him. After 

• *g him line- times round the 
lea -v. i'il..- him. pierces him with 
Ins lance, trails his bodj behind his oh 
to ill'- camp, and tli pray 

'■■ tin- birds and dogs. Then with tho 
utmost pomp In- lays the loved friend of Ins 
youth in tin- -aim- grave-mound thai is to 
hold his own ashes, and founds funeral games 
in hi- honour. Tin- next night Pi 

secretly t.i his lent, and offers rich gil 

ransom Hector's body : Inn Achillas, whom 
the broken-down old king reminds "f his 

Own father, gives it ill > without ransom, and 
grants eleven days' truce for the burying. 
Alter many valiant deed- ft . TBOJAM WAS), 
he is overtaken by the fate which he had 
himself chosen : for the choice had been 
given him between an early death with un- 
dying fame and a long but inglorious lite. 
Near the Scsean < iat •• he is struck by the 
shaft of Paris, guided by Apollo. Accord- 
ing to a later legend he was wounded in 
the one vulnerable heel, and in the temple 
of Thymbrsean Apollo, whither he had gone 
unarmed to be wedded to Priam's daughter 
Polyxena (q.v.). Greeks and Trojans fight 
furiously all day about his body, till Zeus 
sends down a storm to end the fight. Seven- 
teen days and nights the Greeks, with 
Thetis and the sea-goddesses and Muses, 
bewail the dead ; then amid numerous sacri- 
fices the body is burnt. Next morning the 
ashes, with those of Patroclus and of Nestor's 
son. AntilOchus, whom Achilles had loved 
in the next degree, are placed in a golden 
pitcher, the work of Hephaestus, and gift of 
Dionysus, and deposited in the famed 
tumulus that crowns the promontory of 
Sigeurn. The soul of Homer's Achille? 
dwells, like other souls, in the lower world, 
and is there seen by Odysseus together with 
the souls of his two friends. According to 
later poets Thetis snatched her son's body 
out of the burning pyre and carried it to 
the island of Leuke at the mouth of the 
Danube, where the transfigured hero lives 
on, sovereign of the Pontus and husband of 
Iphigeneia. Others place him in Elysium, 
with Medea or Helena to wife. Besides 
Leuce, where the mariners of Pontus and 
Greek colonists honoured him with offerings 
and games, he had many other places of wor- 
ship ; the most venerable, however, was his 
tomb on the Hellespont, where he appeared 
to Homer in the full blaze of his armour, 
and struck the poet blind. In works of art 
Achilles was represented as similar to Ares, 
with magnificent physique, and hair bristling 
up like a mane. One of his most famous 


statues is that af Paris (from the Villa 
Borghese), though many take it for an Ares. 

(2) Tathts, a Greek mathematician of the 
3rd century a.d. He wrote an introduction 
to the Phcenomcnct of Aratus. 

(3) Achilles of Alexandria, about 450 
A.D., probably a Christian ; author of a 
Greek romance in eight books, the story of 
Cleitophon of Tyre and Leucippe of By- 
zantium, two lovers who pass through a 
long train of adventures before they meet. 
As the whole story is put in the mouth of 
the hero, many scenes, being told at second- 
hand, lose in liveliness ; and the flow of the 
narrative is checked by too many digres- 
sions, some interesting enough in them- 
selves, by descriptions of places, natural 

a son named Perseus. Then mother and child 
are put in a wooden box and thrown into 
the sea, but they drift to the island of Sl-ii- 
phus, and are kindly received. Perseus, 
having grown into a hero, sets out with his 
mother to seek Acrisius, who has fled from 
Argos for fear of the oracle coming true ; 
he finds him at Larissa, in Thessaly, and 
kills him unawares with a discus. 

Aero {Helenlus) A Roman grammarian 
of the end of the 2nd century a.d. He 
wrote commentaries (now lost) on Terence, 
Horace, and perhaps Persius. The collec- 
tion of scholia bearing his name dates 
from the 7th century. 

Acroliths. Statues whose uncovered ex- 
tremities are made of stone, the covered 

Scale of English Feet 
«. 8P. f '9° fjf 3™ 


(Reduced from plan by Messrs. Penrose and Schultz, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1889, pi. viii.) 

phenomena, works of art, feelings and 
passions, in which the author exhibits his 
vast reading. The style has considerable 
elegance, though often marred by an affec- 
tation of neatness and brevity. The novel 
continued to be popular until the fall of 

Acontius (Gr. Akontfds). See Cydippe. 

Acratisma (Gr. Akratisma). See Meals. 

Acrislns (Gr. Akristos). King of Argos, 
great-grandson of Danaiis, son of Abas, and 
brother of Prcetus. An oracle having de- 
clared that a son of his daughter Danae 
would take his life, he shuts her up in a 
brazen tower ; but Zeus falls into her lap in 
the shape of a shower of gold, and she bears 

parts of another material, such as wood. 

Acropolis (Gr. Akropulis). Properly = Up- 
per Town. The Greek name for the citadel 
or stronghold of a town. The Acropolis of 
Athens was situated on a plateau of rock, 
about 200 feet in height, 1,000 in breadth 
from east to west, and 460 in length from 
north to south. It was originally called 
Cecropia, after Cecrops, the ancestor of the 
Athenians, whose grave and shrine were 
shown on the spot. On the north side 
of the Acropolis was the Erechtbeum, the 
common seat of worship of the ancient 
gods of Athens, Athene Pollas, Hephaestus, 
Poseidon, and Erechtheus himself, who 
was said to have founded the sanctuary. 


I \<- boa ••■ « .1 - pouiblj N.K. of the I 
i Ileum Pisistratus, Like the ancient kings, 
had b ace on th< \> i opolis, and may 

have added 1 1"' atj loba 

te reoentlj identified, S. of the nlrech- 
theum. Tin' walla of the fortn i . 
were destroyed in the Persian wars, i 1 - 11 
and 179 B.C., and restored by ClmOn. Bnl 
the wall surrounding the fool of the hill, 

railed the FflaagtkOn or I < hinji l.'ni. :< Q< I 

■apposed t.> !»• a relic of the oldest inhabi- 
tants, was I'll in ruins. Cimon also laid 
the foundation of a new temple of Athene 
on the south si.le of the hill. This temple 
was begun afresh and oompleted in the 
most splendid style by Pericles, and called 
the Parthenon. [See Parthenon.) Pericles 

at the same time adorned the approach to 
the west side of the Acropolis with the 
glorious I'ri'ipf/lirii, and began to rebuild 
the Ereohtheum in magnificent style. [See 

Erechtheum, Proi'yl.ka.) There were 
several other sanctuaries on the Acropolis, 
that, for instance, of Artemis Brauronla, on 
the S.E. side of the Propyhna; the beautiful 
little temple of Athene Nike to the S.W. : 
and the Pandrdseum adjoining the temple 
of Erechtheus. There were many altars, 
that of Zeus Hypiitos for example, and 
countless statues, among them that of Athene 
PrSmftchSs, with votive offerings. Among 
the numerous grottos in the rock, one on 
the north side was dedicated to Pan, another 
to Apollo. 

Acta. The Latin term for official records 
of transactions, including Acta sentltus and 
Acta pupiill Rumtinl, both established by 
Caesar in his first consulship, B.C. 59. (1) 
Acta senatus. Caesar's law decreed that all 
transactions of the senate should be regu- 
larly written down and published, which had 
only been done hitherto in exceptional cases. 
The written reports were continued under 
the Empire, but Augustus put a stop to their 
publication. These documents were pre- 
served among the state archives and in the 
public libraries, where they could only be 
inspected by permission of the city pre- 
fect. At first a temporary duty imposed 
on individual senators, the business of 
reporting grew into a separate office held 
in rotation, with the title of Ab aetis 
s( luitus, and the officer holding it had a 
considerable staff of writers tinder him, 
called Actuarii. [2) The Acta [diurna) 
popvli (Romania, or Acta publ tea. urbana, 
urbis, diurna populi. or simply Acta or 
Diurna, were an official daily chronicle, 
which, in addition to official reports of 

events in the imperial family, and 

and city allan regolatioi 

the magistrates, ti 

of tie accident -, and family news 

communicated to the eclitoi 

publioly exhibited on a whiten* 

[album), which anj one might read and 

OOpy ; and there were men who m.cie ; , 

bus is of multiplying and transmitting 

such news to the jinn inees. After a time 
the originals were placed among the state- 
archivee for the benefit of those who wished 
n-.ul; them 

ActxdnHir. Aktttii'm ). Son of Aristsusby 
AntOnSfi, the daughter of I ladmusof Thebes, 
was trained by CShlrSn into a finished 
huntsman. Having either seen Artemis 
(Diana) when bathing, or boasted his su- 
periority in the chase, he was changed by 
her into a stag, and torn to pieces by his 
own hounds on Mount Cithaeron. The 
hounds looked everywhere for their master, 
and would not be pacified till Chiron 
showed them an image of him. His 9tatue 
was often set up on hills and rocks as a 
protection against the dangerous heat of the 
dog-days, of which probably the myth itself 
is but a symbol. 

Actoridae. Actoriones. iSce Moliones. 

Actuarius. See Acta. 

Acusilaiis. See Logographi. 

Admetus. Son of Pheres, king of Pherae 
in Tkessaly, who took part in the Caly- 
donian boar-hunt and the voyage of the 
Argo. Apollo served him for a time as a 
shepherd, either from love and as a reward 
for his piety, or to expiate a capital crime. 
When Admetus wooed Alcestis, the daughter 
of Pellas, and her father would only give her 
to one who should yoke lions and boars to 
a chariot, he fulfilled the task with Apollo's 
help ; indeed, the god even prevailed on the 
Moirai to release him from death, provider 
that any one would volunteer to die for him. 
He is at length seized with a mortal sickness, 
and his aged parents refusing to give up the 
remnant of their days for him, Alcestis dies 
for her husband, but is sent back to the 
upper world by Persephone, or, according 
to another story, is rescued out of the hands 
of Hades by Heracles. 

Adonis. Sprung, according to the com- 
mon legend, from the unnatural love of 
the Cyprian princess Myrrha (or Smyrna) 
for her father Clnyras, who, on becoming 
aware of the crime, pursues her with a 
sword ; but she, praying to the gods, is 
changed into a myrtle, out of whose bark 
springs the beautiful Adonis, the beloved 


of Aphrodite. While yet a youth, he dies 
wounded by a boar in hunting ; the god- 
dess, inconsolable, makes the anemone 
grow out of his blood. As she will not 
give up her darling, and Persephone has 
fallen in love with him, Zeus decrees 
that he shall pass half the year with one 
and half with the other goddess. Adonis 
( = lord) was property a Syrian god of nature, 
a type of vegetation, which after a brief 
blossoming always dies again. The myth 
was embodied in a yearly Feast of Adonis 
held by women, which, starting from Byblos 
in Syria, the cradle of this worship, came by 
way of Cyprus to Asia Minor and Greece, 
then under the Ptolemies to Egypt, and 
in the imperial age to Rome. When the river 
Adonis by Byblos ran red with the soil 
washed down from Lebanon by the autumn 
rain, they said Adonis was slain by the boar 
in the mountains, and the water was dyed 
with his blood. Then the women set out 
to seek him, and having found a figure that 
they took to be his corpse, performed his 
funeral rites with lamentations as wild as 
the rejoicings that followed over his re- 
surrection were licentious. The feast was 
held, in the East, with great magnificence. 
In Greece the celebration was much simpler, 
a leading feature being the little "Adonis- 
gardens," viz. pots holding all kinds of 
herbs that come out quickly and as quickly 
fade, which were finally thrown into the 
water. At the court of Alexandria a 
figure in costly apparel was displayed on a 
silver bier, and the next morning carried 
in procession by the women to the sea, 
and committed to the waves. In most 
places the feast was held in the hottest 

Adoption. (1) At Athens adoption took 
place either in the adopter's lifetime or by 
will; or again, if a man died childless and 
intestate, the State interfered to bring into 
his house the man next entitled by the Attic 
law of inheritance as heir and adoptive son, 
so that the race and the religious rites 
peculiar to it might not die out. None but 
the independent citizen of respectable char- 
acter could adopt, and he only while he 
was as yet without male heirs. If there 
were daughters, one of them was usually 
betrothed to the adopted son, and the rest 
portioned off with dowries. If after that a 
male heir was born, he and the adopted had 
equal rights. 

(2) At Ro7iie there were two kinds of 
adoption, both requiring the adopter to 
be a male and childless: Arrogatio and 

Adoption proper. The former could only 
take place where the person to be adopted 
was independent (sui juris , and his adopter 
had no prospect of male offspring : at the 
instance of the pontifex, and after full proof 
of admissibility, it had to be sanctioned 
by the comitia curiata. Adoption proper 
applied to those still under paternal rule 
[patria potestas), the father selling his son 
by formal muncipdtio (q.v.) to the adopter, 
who then, the paternal power being thus 
abolished, claimed the son before the court 
as his own, and the father allowed him to be 
adjudged to him. By either transaction the 
person adopted passed completely over into 
the family and rank of the adopter, and 
naturally took his name in full, but with the 
addition of a second cognomen formed from 
his own former nomen gentile by the suffix 
-anus. e.g. Publius Cornelius Scipio jEmili- 
anus (son of Lucius -Emilius Panllus). 
Women too could be adopted, but not 
arrogated ; neither could they adopt. At the 
latter end of the Republic we find a testa- 
mentary Adoption in existence, which at 
first likewise produced a change of name, 
but not of status. 

Adrasteia See Nemesis. 

Adrastus. Grandson of Bias, son of Talaus 
and Lysrniache. In a quarrel between the 
three houses reigning in Argos,theBiantidse, 
Melampodid*. and Proetida?, he is driven 
out by Amphiaraus, who also killed his 
father, flees to his mother's father, king 
Polybusof Sicyon,and inherits his kingdom. 
But, reconciled to Amphiaraus, to whom 
he gives his sister Eriphyle, he returns 
and rules over Argos. During one stormy 
night a great scuffle is heard outside the 
palace : two fugitives, Polyneices son of 
(Edipus of Thebes, and Tydeus son f 
(Eneus of Calydon i^one wrapped in a lion's 
hide, the other in a boar-skin), have sought 
refuge in the front-court, and are fightii _ 
a night's lodging. Adrastus, coming forth, 
recognises the fulfilment of an oracle which 
had bidden him marry his daughters to a 
lion and a boar. He gives Argeia to Poly- 
neices and De'ipyle to Tydeus, promising 
to conduct those princes home and rein- 
state them in their rights. Thus began 
under his lead the far-famed and fatal ex- 
pedition of the Seven against Thebes (q.v.). 
He alone escapes destruction by the help 
of his divine winged steed Areion. Ten 
years after, with the sons of the slain, the 
EpigQni (q.v.). and his own son J^gialeus, 
he again marches upon Thebes, takes and 
destroys the town, but loses his son, and 

U5V0CATUH — l.M 

■f n iei "ii his wiiv 1 1* >■■!<- at Mi 

win n\ :i> mil us ai Sloyon and Athens, be 
whs worshipped u a hero, 

Advocutus. \i Rome, under the Elepub 
lie, n oompetenl friend who gave his advice 
in ii l.iu -iii i t and came into oonrl in person, 
n< it to apeak (the patrOniu causai did thai . 
bal to Bupporl the cause by his preBenoe. 
lu the imperial age the term was applied 
to the counsel who pleaded in oonrl in the 
presence o( the partiee, for doing whioh 
he was allowed, after ilir time of Claudius, 
in take a moderate fee. 

Aii_v ton. In niaiix Greek temples, a Bpaoe 
sii apart, sometimes nndergronnd, and only 
entered by the priest, a holy of holies. 
{Set Temple.) 

JEa. The realm of the mythic JSStes : 
afterwards supposed to be Colchis on the 

M&cnS(iiv.M(il:<'is\ Ancestor of the heroic 
£acids; son of Zens byJSgina, a daughter 
of tlif river-god AsSpus in Phlius, whom 
the king of gods, in the form of an i 
carried off to the island named after her, 
where her son was born. As king of JSgina 
he ruled the Myrmidons, whom Zeus at his 
request created out of ants (Gr. myrm&kis) 
to people his island, which, according to 
one story, was uninhabited, according to 
another, stricken with pestilence. Beloved 
by the gods for his piety, when a drought 
desolated Greece, his intercession obtained 
rain from Zeus ; and the grateful Greeks 
built him in JSgina a temple enclosed by 
a marble wall. Pindar says he helped 
Poseidon and Apollo to rear the walls of 
Troy, erectiug that very portion which was 
afterwards scaled by his son Telamon, and 
his grandson Neoptolemus. His justice 
caused him after death to be made a judge 
in the lower world. At ^Egina and Athens 
he was worshipped as a demigod. His sons 
by Chiron's daughter Endei's were Telamon 
and Peleus, the fathers of Ajax and Achilles ; 
another son Phocus,by the Nereid Ps&m&the, 
was slain by his half-brothers, for which 
their father banished them. 

££diles. At Rome, two sets of magistrates, 
the Plebeian (evdiles plgbis or plebeii) and 
the Curule (cediles eiircdes). (1) The two 
Plebeian JEdiles were appointed B.C. 494 at 
the same time with the Tribuneship.of the 
Plebs, as servants of the Tribunes, and at 
first probably nominated by them till 471, 
when, like them and under their presi- 
dency, they began to be elected by the 
whole body of the Plebs. They took their 
name from the temple (irdes) of the ple- 

i Seres, in which theii official 
arohives were kept. Beside t hi 
of tin' plebi-aclta, and afterwardi ol the 
m until* consulta, it was theii dntj to make 

at the bidding of t he ti ibum 
oarry oul the death-sentences which they 
pa ' 1. 1>\ hurling thi I dow u from the 

Tai i" ii I. .1" look after the imporl 

of corn; to watch the traffii in the markets; 
ami t" organize and superintend the I'l. I 
ami Eloman Games. Like the tribune* thej 

could only be cl — m the bodj of the 

Plebs, and wore do badge oi offii e, n 
much as the toga prartexta, even aft« r they 
became an authority independent of the 
tribunes. (21 The Curtlli ./>///<>, from B.C. 
866, were taken at first from the Patrician 
body alone, BOOH after from Patricians and 
Plebeians by turns, and lastly from either. 
Elected yearly in the comitia tributa under 
the presidency of a consul, they were, from 
the first, officers of the whole people, though 
low in rank; they sat in the tetla etaruZis, 
from which they took their name, and wore 
as insignia the toga prcetexta. As in rank, 
so in the extent of their powers they stood 
above the Plebeian iEdiles, being entitled 
to exercise civil jurisdiction in market busi- 
ness, where the latter could only impose a 
tine. The functions of the two were very 
much alike, comprising : (i) the superin- 
tendence of trade in the market, where they 
had to test weights and measures, and the 
quality of goods ; to keep down the price of 
provisions, both by prohibitive measures, 
especially against regraters of corn, and by T 
the purchase and liberal distribution of 
food (euro annOnce) ; and, as regards the 
money-market, to prosecute those who 
transgressed the laws of usury ; (ii) the 
care of the streets and buildings within 
the city and the circuit of a mile outside, by 
cleansing, paving, and improving the streets, 
or stirring up those who were bound to do 
it ; by seeing that the street traffic was 
unimpeded ; by keeping in repair the 
temples, public buildings, and works, such 
as sewers and aqueducts, and seeing that 
these latter and the fire-apparatus were in 
working order ; (iii) a superintendence of 
health a7id morals, including the inspec- 
tion of baths, taverns, and low bouses, the 
putting down of all that endangered public 
order and decency, e.g. games of hazard, 
breaches of sumptuary laws, introduction 
of foreign religions, etc. ; (iv) the exhi- 
bition of Games (of which the Roman and 
Megalensian devolved on the curule, the 
Plebeian on the plebeian sediles), the super- 


jEDITUUS jEGINETAN sculptures. 

vision of festivities at the ferice Latino- 
and at games given by private men. The 
cost of the games given by themselves 
they defrayed partly out of a sum set apart 
by the State, but utterly inadequate to the 
large demands of later times ; partly out of 
the proceeds of fines which were also spent 
on public buildings, and partly out of their 
own resources. Thus the sedileship became 
an expensive luxury, and its enjoyment less 
and less accessible to men of moderate 
means. Ambitious men often spent in- 
credible sums in getting up games, to win 
the people's favour with a view to higher 
honours, though the sedileship was not 
necessary as a stepping-stone to these. In 
Cicero's time the legal age for the curule 
sedileship was thirty-seven. From B.C. 366 
their number was unchanged, till Caesar 
in B.C. 44 added two more, the Plebeian 
JEdiles Cer idles, to whom alone the cnrci 
annonce and the management of the ludi 
Ceviales were entrusted. Under the 
Empire the office of sedile lost much in 
importance by some of its functions being 
handed over to separate officers, especially 
by the transference of its jurisdiction and 
its control of games to the praetors ; and it 
fell into such contempt, that even Augustus 
had to make a tenure of it, or the tribune- 
ship, a condition of eligibility to the 
praetorship ; and succeeding emperors often 
had to fill it by compulsion. In the 3rd 
century a.d. it seems to have died out alto- 

iEditiras or iEditumus. The overseer of 
a temple that had no priest of its own (see 
Priests) ; also a major-domo. (See Slaves.) 

Aedon. Daughter ofPandiireos, wife of the 
Theban king Zethus, and mother of Itylus. 
Envious at her sister-in-law, Niobe, having 
six sons, she tries to kill the eldest, but 
by mistake kills her own. She is changed 
by Zeus into a nightingale, and for ever 
bewails her son. Later legend makes her 
the wife of an artificer Polytechnus at 
Colophon in Lydia ; she stirs the anger of 
Hera by boasting that she lives more happily 
with her husband than the goddess with 
Zeus. Hera sends Eris ( = strife) to set on 
toot a wager between husband and wife, that 
whichever finishes first the piece of work 
they have in hand (he a chair, she a gar- 
ment) shall make the other a present of a 
slave-girl. By Hera's help Aedon wins, 
and Polytechnus in vexation fetches her 
sister, Chelidonis, on a false pretext, from 
her father's house, and having reduced her 
to submission on the way, and bound her 

to secrecy on pain of death, presents her 
to his wile unrecognised as a slave. One 
day Aedon overhears her sister lamenting 
her lot at a fountain, and concerts with her 
to slay Itylus, cook him, and set him before 
his father to eat. On learning the truth, 
Polytechnus pursues the sister to her home; 
but there the gods, to prevent more horrors, 
turn them all into birds, making Pandareos 
an osprey, his wife a kingfisher, Poly- 
technus a pelican, Chelidonis a swallow, 
and Aedon a nightingale. (Camp. Procxe ) 

JEetes. Son of Helios and the Ocean 
nymph Persei's, brother of Circe and 
Pasiphae, king of iEa, father of Medea and 
Absyrtus by the ocean nymph Idyia. (See 
Argonauts and Medea.) 

Mgens. Son of Pandlon (q.v. 2) and 
Pelia. Having with the help of his brothers 
Lycus, Pallas, and Nisus wrested Attica 
from the sons of his uncle Metion, who had 
driven out his father, he seized the sole 
sovereignty. Dethroned by his brother 
Pallas and his sons, he was rescued and 
restored by his son Theseus (q.v.). Having 
slain Androgeos, son of Minos (q.v.), he 
was conquered by that king, and compelled 
to send seven youths and seven maidens to 
Crete every nine years as victims to the 
Minotaur. When Theseus set out to free 
his country from this tribute, he agreed in 
case of success to exchange the black sail 
of his ship for a white ; but he forgot to 
do so, and iEgeus seeing the old sail on the 
returning vessel, gave up his son for lost, 
and threw himself into the sea, which is 
supposed to have been named after him 
the iEgean. He had a heroSn or shrine at 
Athens. Childless by his first two mar- 
riages, and ascribing the fact to the anger 
of Aphrodite, he is said to have introduced 
her worship into Athens. (For his son 
Medus by Medea, see both.) 

iEgiale (Gr. sEgmh-ia). Daughter of Ad- 
rastus of Argos, wife of Diomedes (q.v.). 

JEgialeus. Son of Adrastus of Argos, and 
one of the Eplgoni (q.v.), who fell before 

iEgina, a nymph, daughter of the river- 
god Asopus, and, by Zeus, mother of JDacus 

iEginetan Sculptures, The marble pedi- 
ments of Athena's temple at ./Egina, dis- 
covered in 1811, restored by Thorwaldsen, 
and preserved in the Glyptothek at Munich. 
Their great value consists in the full light 
they throw on the condition of Greek art, 
especially of the iEginetan school, in B.C. 
480. (Comj>. Sculpture.) Both groups 

.1.1.1 ,1.1. II , 

WEST PBDIMSMT 0» ilil. iimi-i.i vi SO IN A. 

present, wit li lifelike accuracy and in strictly 
symmetrical diBtribntion, oombats of the 

Greeks before Troy, while Athena in the 

con ire, as protect r.'ss of the Greeks, retains 

tlir rigid attitude of the ancient religions 
statues. Of the figures, originally twenty- 
two in Qomber, ten in the weal pediment 
representing tho contest for the body of 
Patroolns, are complete, while the eleventh 
is preserved in fragments : of those in the 
east pediment representing Heracles and 
Tel&mon shielding the fallen Oicles from 
Lae.nir.lou. ti\ e remain and many fragments. 

iEgis. The storm-clou. 1 ami thunder- 
cloud of Zeus, imagined in Homer as a 
shield forged by Hephaestus, blazing bright- 
ly and fringed with tassels of gold, in its 
centre the awe-inspiring Gorgon's head. 
When Zeus shakes the SBgis, it thunders 
and lightens, and horror and perdition fall 
upon those against whom it is lifted. It is 
borne not only by Zeus " the .Egis-bearer," 
but by his daughter Athena, and occasionally 
by Apollo. As the same word means a goat- 
skin, it was explained in later times as the 
skin of the goat which had suckled Zeus 
in his infancy. At the bidding of the 
oracle, he drew it over his thunder-shield 
iu the contest with the Giants, and fastened 
on it the Gorgon's head. When the segis 
became a standing attribute of Athena, it 
was represented as a skin either shaggy or 
scaly, with a fringe of snakes and the 
Gorgon's head in the middle, and either 
serving the goddess as a breastplate, or 
hanging behind to screen the back and 
shoulders, or fastened like a shield on the 
left arm. 

JEgisthus. Son of Thyestes and his daugh- 
ter Pelopia. At his birth he was exposed 
by his mother, and brought up by shepherds. 
His uncle Atreus, husband to Pelopia, finds 
him and brings him to Mycense, thinking 
him to be his own son ; but iEgisthus and 
his real father contrive to kill him and 
seize the sovereignty of Mycenae. (See 

Atreus.) This position he loses again by 
bis cousin Agamemnon's return from exile ; 
but during that hero's absence at Troy he 
seduces bis wife Clytsemnestra, and with 

her help slays him treacherously on his 
return. In the eighth year after this 
comes young Orestes, and avenges his 
father's death by slaying yEgisthuS. 

JEgle. One of the Hesperides (</.<•.). 

JEgyptus. Son of Belus and twin-brother 
of Danaus (//.v.), who subdued the land of 
the Mrlampodes (Blackfeet), and named it 
after himself. Ignorant of the fate of his 
fifty sons, he comes to Argos and there dies 
of grief at their death; another account 
represents his only surviving son as recon- 
ciling him to his brother. 

JElianus. (1) The Tactician, a Greek 
writer on war, about 100 A.D., composed a 
work dedicated to Trajan on the Greek 
order of battle, with special reference to 
Macedonian tactics (Taktike TheOria ), which 
is extant both in its original and in an 
enlarged form. The original used falsely 
to be attributed to Arrian. 

(2) Claudius ^Elianus, called, the Sophist, 
a Roman of Prseneste, who wrote iu Greek, 
lived at Rome in the 2nd century a.d. as 
teacher of rhetoric. His surviving works 
are: (1) 20 insignificant Peasants' Letters, 
so called because attributed to Attic pea- 
sants ; (2) VaricB Histories or miscellanies, 
in 14 books, some preserved only in extracts, 
and (3) De Nature! AnimCdium. The two 
last-mentioned are copious and valuable 
collections of all kinds of curiosities in 
human and animal life, mostly taken from 
earlier writings now lost. 

iElianuni Jus. See Jurisprudence. 

JElius. (1) sElius Catus. See Jurispru- 

(2) Lucius JElius Stilo PreeeonSnus, a 
Roman grammarian bom at Lanuvium, 
about 150 B.C., an cques, and friend of 
the poet Lucilius, to whom he dedicated 
his first book of Satires : surnamed Stilo 




(from stilus, pencil) because he wrote 
speeches for public men, and Prseconinus 
because his father was a crier (prteco). He 
was so strongly attached to the party of 
Optimates, that in 100 B.C. he voluntarily 
accompanied Metellus Xurnidicus ; nto exile. 
After his return he became, the master of 
Varro and Cicero. Well versed in Greek and 
Latin literature, he applied himself chiefly 
to studying the oldest relics of his native 
tongue, commented on the Liturgies of the 
Salian priests and the Laws of the Twelve 
Tables, and earned the honour of having 
rescued the ancient Latin language from 
oblivion, and preserved some knowledge of 
it to posterity. Such scanty remnants of it 
as have come down to us in glossaries and 
the like seem to be taken chiefly from his 
writings, now all lost. 

(3) and (4< J-Jlius Lampridius and 
ffllius SpartiCtnus, Roman historians of the 
Empire. (See Scriptores Hist. Aug.") 

iEmilius Probus. See Cornelius Xepos. 

JEneas (Greek Aineias). (1) Son of 
Anchises and Aphrodite. Born on the 
mountains of Ida, he is brought up till his 
fifth year by his brother-in-law Alcathous, 
or, according to another story, by the 
nymphs of Ida, and after his father's mis- 
fortune becomes ruler of Dardanos. Though 
near of kin to the royal house of Troy, he 
is in no hurry to help Priam till his own 
cattle are carried off by Achilles. Yet he 
is kighry esteemed at Troy for his piety, 
prudence, and valour ; and gods come to his 
assistance in battle. Thus Aphrodite and 
Apollo shield him when his life is threatened 
by Diomed, and Poseidon snatches him out 
of the combat with Achilles. But Priam 
does not love him, for he and his are destined 
hereafter to rule the Trojans. The story of 
his escape at the fall of Troy is told in 
several ways : one is, that he bravely cut 
his way through the enemy to the fastnesses 
of Ida ; another, that, like Antenor. he was 
spared by the Greeks because he had always 
counselled peace and the surrender of 
Helena ; a third, that he made his escape in 
the general confusion. The older legend 
represents him as staying in the country, 
forming a new kingdom out of the wreck of 
the Teucrian people, and handing it down to 
his posterity. Indeed several townships on 
Ida always claimed him as their founder. 
The story of his emigrating, freely or under 
compulsion from the Greeks, and founding 
a new kingdom beyond seas, is clearly of 
post-Homeric date. In the earlier legend 
he is represented as settling not very far 

from home; then they extended his wander- 
ings to match those of Odysseus, always 
pushing the limit of his voyagings farther 
and farther west. The poet Stesichorus 
(about 600 B.C.) is, so far as we know, the 
first who brings him to Italy. Later, in 
face of the fast rising power of Rome, the 
Greeks conceived the notion that .Eneas 
must have settled in Latium and become 
the ancestor of these Romans. This had 
become a settled conviction in their minds 
by the beginning of the 3rd century B.C., 
when Tima?us, in the Roman interest, com- 
pleted the Legend of .Eneas, making room 
in it for Latian and Roman traditions ; and 
at Rome it was soon taken up and developed 
into a dogma of the state religion, repre- 
senting the antagonism between Greece 
and Rome, the new Troy. From that time 
verse and prose endeavoured to bring the 
various places with which the name of 
.Eneas was connected into historic and 
geographic harmony, now building on a 
bare resemblance of names, now following 
kindred fables and the holy places of 
Aphrodite Aineias, a goddess of sea and 
seafaring, whose temples were generally 
found on the coasts. Thus by degrees the 
story took in the main the shape so 
familiar to us in Vergil's JEne'id. .Eneas 
flees from the flames of Troy, bearing on 
his shoulders the stricken Anchises with 
the Penates, leading his boy Ascanius and 
followed by his wife Creusa ( who is lost 
on the way), till he comes to Mount Ida. 
There he gathers the remnant of the 
Trojans in twenty ships, and sails by way 
of Thrace and Delos to Crete, imagining 
that to be the destination assigned him by 
Apollo. But driven thence by pestilence, 
and warned in a dream that Italy is his 
goal, he is first carried out of his course to 
Epirus, and then makes his way to Sicily, 
where his father dies. He has just set out 
to cross to the mainland, when a hurricane 
raised by his enemy Juno casts him on the 
coast of Carthage. Here Juno and Venus 
have asrreed that he shall marry Dido : but 
at Jupiter's command he secretly quits 
Africa, and having touched at Sicily. Cumae, 
and Caieta (Gaeta), arrives, after seven 
years' wandering, at the Tiber's mouth. 
Latlnus, king of Latium, gives him leave 
to build a town, and betroths to him his 
daughter Lavinia. Turnus. king of rhe 
Rutuli, to whom she had been promised 
before, takes up arms in albance with 
Mezentius of Caere : in twenty days the war 
is ended by .Eneas defeating both. Accord- 

BOLUS .Kl;\l;n M. 


bag to another ranfan (not Vergil's), be 'lis 
appeared after the victor] on the Nam 
ana was worshipped an the god Japiter 
is. Tin Roman version, in its earliest 
forms, as we see il in Nsevius and Hindus, 
brought £neas almost into contact with 
tin' founders "i Borne, domains and Remus 
being regarded as children of lus daughter 
Ilia by the god Mars, In later times, to 
fill up duly the space between the Fall of 
.mil the Founding of Rome, the line 
,'t All'.ui kings, descended from Silvias, bis 
son by Lavinia, was inserted between bim 
and Romulus. 

(•_') /Eheas, named u the Tactician," a 
Greek military author, wrote ahout 860 B.C. 
a book on the Art <>f War. of which only 
a small part on siege-operations, usually 
entitled ntiorkeWcOn, is preserved; it is 
in exposition, and contains much 
valuable historical information, 

iEolus. (1) Grandson of Deuc&lion, son 
of Hellen by the nymph Orsels, brother of 
Porus and Xuthus ; king of Magnesia in 
Thessaly, and mythic ancestor of the 
.Eolian race, his sous being founders of the 
.Eolian settlements spread all over Greece. 
By his wife Eiutrete he has seven sons: 
( 'rctht us, founder of Iolcus, and father, by 
Tyro, of jEsou (Jason"s father), of Pheres 
(founder of PhSrse in Thessaly, and father 
of Admetus and Lycurgus), and of Amy- 
thaon (father of Bias and Melampns : 
SlaifphAs, founder of Ephyra (Corinth), 
father or Glaucus and grandfather of 
Bellerophon ; Atlidmcis, king of Orchome- 
nus, father of Phrizus and Helle ; Sal- 
iiii'iihiis, builder of Salmone in Elis, father 
of Tyro ; De'iOn, king of Phoeis, father of 
Actor, Phylucus, and Cepkalus : Magnes, 
father of Dictys and Polydectes, who 
colonize the island of Seriphus (see Per- 
seus) ; Perieres, king of Messenia, father 
of Aphareus and Leucippus. Also five 
daughters : Candce, mother by Poseidon 
of Epopeus and Aloeus (see Aloads) ; 
Alcyone (see Ceyx) ; Peisidice ; Cdlyce, 
mother of Endymion ; and Perimede. 

(2) In Homer a son of Hippotes, and a 
favourite of the gods, whom Zeus has ap- 
pointed keeper of the winds. On his 
-Eolian island, floating in the far west, its 
steep cliff encircled by a brazen wall, he 
lives in unbroken bliss with his wife and 
his six sons and six daughters, whom he 
has wedded to one another. He hospi- 
tably entertains Odysseus, gives him the 
unfavourable winds shut up in a leathern 
bag, and a kindly breeze to waft him on 

his voyage. But n ben the hero's 
open the bag, the winds breal 
blov, Inn. back to the 2 I thi u 

£oloj drives linn from Ins d 

till tO the gods. In • i • • I hi- 

dwells mi one "f the £olian it 

mirth of Sicily, l.ip.ira or StTODgJ le, W lure, 

'In' 'l "ii a mountain, he holds the winds 

imprisoned in the hollow o| the sum. 
he do, <eem to have receive I 

worship. He was, moreover, brought into 
genealogical connection with £olus of 
Thessaly, whose m,ii .Mimas begets Hippotes, 
ami he (by Melanippd) s tt emu/ JBoIub, kirn: 

"f .Kolis in .Etnlia; tins .lvilus gives his 

daughter Arne, the beloved of Poseidon, 
to a guest-friend from lietapontnm in 
Luoania, where she has two sons by the 
god, the third ASolus and Boeotus. These, 
adopted by the Metapontian, kill his wife 
Autolyte and run away, Boeotus returning 
with Arne to his grandfather, and -Eolus 
settling in the isles named after him, and 
founding the city of Lipara. 

.ffildra. Festival of the swing. See 
Icaiuus, 1. 

JEquItas. At Rome, the personification of 
equity or fairness, as opposed to the justice 
that decides by the letter of the law. She 
was represented as a stately virgin with 
her left hand open, and often with a pair 
of scales. 

jErarii. By the constitution of Servius 
Tullius (see Cextckia), the JErarii were 
citizens not settled on land of their own, 
and therefore not included in any one of the 
property-classes founded on landownership. 
The term was also applied to those standing 
outside of the tribal union, who were ex- 
cluded from the right of voting and from 
military service, and were bound to pay 
a poll-tax in proportion to their means. 
Citizens in the classes and tribes could be 
expelled from their tribe by the censors in 
punishment for any fault, and placed 
among the ^Erarii. But when the latter 
were likewise admitted into the tribes (B.C. 
308), being enrolled in the city tribes (B.C. 
304\ which were on that account less 
esteemed than the country ones, a penal 
transfer to the iErarii consisted in expulsion 
from one's proper tribe and removal to one 
of the city tribes till at least the next 

iErarium. The state-treasury of Rome, 
into which flowed the revenues ordinary 
and extraordinary, and out of which the 
needful expenses were defrayed. It was 
kept in the basement of the temple of Saturn. 



under the charge of the qutestors. A special 
reserve fund was the JEvavium mmctius, 
in which the proceeds of receipts from the 
manumission-tax (one twentieth of the freed 
slave's value) were deposited in gold ingots. 
When Augustus divided the pro- 
vinces into senatorial and impera- 
torial, there were two chief treasuries. 
The senatorial treasury, which was 
still kept in the temple of Saturn, 
was left under the control of the 
senate, but only as a matter of formal 
right. Practically it passed into the 
hands of the emperors, who also 
brought the management of the 
treasuries under their own eye by 
appointing, instead of the qusestors, 
two prcBfecti oevarii taken from those 
who had served as praetors. Besides, 
they diverted into their own Fiscus 
all the larger revenues, even those 
that legally belonged to the jErarium. 
When in course of time the returns 
from all the provinces flowed into 
the imperial treasury, the senatorial 
^Erarium continued to exist as the city 
treasury. The JEr&rium militare 
was a pension - fund founded by 
Augustus in a.d. 6, for disabled 
soldiers. Its management was en- 
trusted to three prcefccti ccrarii 
militaris. It was maintained out of 
the interest on a considerable fund, 
and the proceeds of the heritage and 
sale duties. 

Aerope. Daughter to Catreus of 
Crete (q.v.), who was given up by her 
father to Nauplius to be sold abroad. 
Married to Atreus (q.v.), she bore 
Agamemnon and Menelaus, but was 
thrown into the sea by her husband 
for her adultery with his brother 

JEsacus. Son of Priam by Arisbe, 
who had learnt the art of interpreting 
dreams from his maternal grandfather 
Merops, and being consulted by his 
father as to Hecuba's bad dreams 
before the birth of Paris, advised 
him to expose a child so clearly 
doomed to be the destruction of 
Troy. In despair at having caused the 
death of his wife Asterope (or Hes- 
peria) he threw himself into the sea, 
and was changed into a bird, the diver. 

jEschines. (1) The Socratic, son of a 
sausage-maker at Athens, lived in the most 
pinching poverty, but would not let it dis- 
courage him in his zeal for learning. Some 

time after the death of Socrates, to whom 
he had clung with faithful affection, in B.C. 
399, jEschines, probably to mend his for- 
tunes, removed to Syracuse, and there found 
a patron in the younger Dionysius. On the 


(Naples, National Museum.) 

fall of that tyrant, he returned to Athens, 
and supported himself by writing speeches 
for public men. He composed Dialogues, 
which were prized for their faithful de- 



n i ipi ion i oi ind the i li 

their ityle, Three paendo Plati ■ die 

oonjeoturafly asci *!•>-■ I t" him : 
That Virtu* 'an t» Taught; AxiOchut. ot 
on t)eatk t and Eryxias, or on Riches, But 
ii is doubtful whether they are reallj from 
his hand. 

./ ichines tin Orator, born a< Athens 

189, in ;i low station. As a youth, he 
assisted Ins father in keeping an elementary 
Bohool, then acted as clerk to several in 

• magistrates, was for a time an actor 
in third-rate parts, till an accident rem 
him from the stage, when he became secre- 
tary to the esteemed orators and statesmen 
Aristophon and Eulmlus, at whose recom- 
mendation In- was twice elected to a ijovern- 

menl olerkship Having thus acquired a 
Bound knowledge of the laws and oi legal 

'linns, and being gifted with consider- i 
able talent, fine elocution and a dignified 
manner, to which his experience on the 
stage had contributed, he now came forward 
as a public speaker, and soon became an 
important personage. As a member of the 
embassy sent to Philip of nfacedon for the 
conclusion of peace, B.C. 347, he was won 
over by the king to second the plans which 
proved so fatal to Athens, and was therefore 
accused of high treason by Tiniarelms and 
Demosthenes in B.C. 346; but he managed 
to clear himself by a triumphant attack on 
the private life of Timarchus. In B.C. 342 
Demosthenes, who hated him, the head oi 
the Macedonian party, as bitterly as he was 
hated by him, renewed the charge in his 
oration On the False Embassy. -Eschines, 
however, met it successfully by an equally 
brilliant speech bearing the some title. His 
unpatriotic conduct occasioned the war with 
Philip, which led to the overthrow of the 
Athenians and Thebans at Chferonea, 338, 
and set the seal to the Macedonian supre- 
macv over Greece. His own fall at last was 
brought on by his hatred of Demosthenes. 
jEschines had previously brought a charge 
of illegality against Ctesiphon for proposing 
the distinction of a golden crown for 
Demosthenes. The charge was repeated 
B.C. 330, in a brilliant oration nominally 
directed. 4 gainst Cte$iphon,but really aimed 
at his old rival. He was completely crushed 
by Demosthenes' great speech On the Crown, 
and being condemned to pay a fine of 1,000 
drachmas, went into voluntary exile at I 
Rhodes, where he is said to have opened a ; 
school of oratory. Thence he removed to 
Samos, and died B.C. 314. Beside the three 
orations named (Against Timarchus, On the 

FaUi Embassy, Agaii phon), we 

li.i\ •• audi f his nam- | elvt 

« from Rh 
but really forged by a later band. Among 

tl ratoi i "t Ins t ime .1. 

1 1 Iii-iii li' 

ated with the utmost can and reflexion, 
they have full" 

I Imt lack the terseness, the rhythm. 
and the moral inspiration oi those of 
Demosthenes. They wen- spoken ■■( in 
antiquity as the Three Qraces. 

.ffischyliis. The earliest of the thn 
tragic poets of (ireece, son of Euphi 
Be was born at Eleusis, near Athi 
526, of an old and noble stock, fought at 
Marathon, Salamis and PlatSBSB, and in his 
26th Year appeared as a writer of t] . 
and rival of Pratinas and Ghosrllus, though 
he did not win his first victory till 488 b.c. 
About 47(1 he lived in Sicily, at the court 
of Hiero of Syracuse, and composed his 
.Minimis for the consecration of the city 
of .Etna, founded by that king in the place 
of the ancient Catana. On his return to 
Athens he w T as beaten by the young Sop! 
with his very first play, but vanquished him 
again the next year with the Tetralogy of 
which the Si w n against Thebes formed a 
part. After the performance of his On sU ia, 
u.c 459, he quitted home once more, per- 
haps in disgust at the growing power of the 
democracy : and after three years' residence 
at Grela in Sicily, was killed, says one story. 
by an eagle dropping a tortoise on his bare 
skull. The inhabitants of Gela buried his 
remains, and honoured them with a splendid 
monument. At a later time the Athenians, 
on the motion of the orator Lycurgus, 
placed a brazen statue of him, as well as of 
Sophocles and Euripides, in the theatre : by 
a decree of the people a chorus was granted 
for every performance of his plays, and the 
garland of victory voted him as though he 
were still living among them. His trage- 
dies, like those of the ether two, were pre- 
served in a special standard copy, to guard 
them against arbitrary alterations. His 
son Euphorion was also an esteemed tragic 
poet, so was his sister's son Philocles and 
his descendants for several generations. 
(See Tragedy.) The number of iEschylus's 
plays is stated as 90, of which 82 are still 
known by title, but only 7 are preserved : 
(1) The Persians, performed in 473 B.C., 
was named from the chorus. Its subject 
was the same as that of Phrvnichus' 
Phcenissee, the defeat of Xerxes at Salamis. 
but was differently treated. (2) The Seven 



against Thebes, part of a Tetralogy, em- 
bracing the cycle of Theban legend, of which 
La'ius and CEdlpus formed the first two 
pieces, and the satyric drama Sphinx the 
conclusion. (3) The Suppliants, the re- 
ception of Danaus and his daughters at 
Argos, evidently part of another Tetralogy, 
and, to judge by the simple plot and its 
old-fashioned treatment, one of his earliest 
works. (4) Prometheus Bound, part of a 
Trilogy, the Prometheia, whose first and 
last pieces were probably Prometheus the 
Fire-bringer and Prometheus Unbound. 
Lastly, the Oresteia, the one Trilogy which 
ha8 survived, consisting of the three 
tragedies, (5) Agamemnon, the murder of 


(Rome, Capitoline Museum.) 

that hero on his return home ; (6) The 
C'hoephorce, named from the chorus of 
captive Trojan women offering libations 
at Agamemnon's tomb, in which Orestes 
avenges himself on jEgisthus and Clytaem- 
nestra; and (7) The Eumenldes, in which 
Orestes, pursued by the Furies, is acquitted 
by the Areopagus at Athens. This Trilogy, 
composed B.C. 458, and probably the last 
work exhibited by -<Eschjdus at Athens, 
gives us an idea of the whole artistic con- 
ception of the poet, and must be looked upon 
as one of the greatest works of art ever 
produced. The style is marked by sub- 
limity and majesty, qualities partly attri- 
butableto the courageous and serioustemper 
of the time, but chiefly the offspring of the 

poet's individuality, which took delight in 
all that is great and grand, and loved to 
express itself in strong, sonorous words, an 
accumulation of epithets, and a profusion 
of bold metaphors and similes. His view 
of the universe reveals a profoundly philo- 
sophic mind, so that the ancients call him 
a Pythagorean ; at the same time he is pene- 
trated by a heartfelt piety, which conceives 
of the gods as powers working in the interest 
of morality. However simple the plot of 
his plays, they display an art finished to 
the minutest detail. His Trilogies either 
embraced one complete cycle of myths, or 
united separate legends according to their 
moral or mythical affinity; even the satyric 
dramas attached to the Tragedies stand 
in intimate connexion with them. ^Eschylus 
is the true creator of Tragedy, inasmuch 
as, by adding a second actor to the first, 
he originated the genuine dramatic dialogue, 
which he made the chief part of the play 
by gradually cutting down the lyrical or 
choral parts. Scenic apparatus he partly 
created and partly completed. He intro- 
duced masks for the players, and by gay 
and richly embroidered trailing garments, 
the high buskin, head-dresses, and other 
means, gave them a grand imposing aspect, 
above that of common men ; and he fitted 
up the stage with decorative painting and 
machinery. According to the custom of 
the time, he acted in his own plays, practised 
the chorus in their songs and dances, and 
himself invented new dance figures. 

iEsculapius. See Asclepius. 

JEson, son of Cretheus by Tyro {see 
iEoLUS, 1 ) , king of Iolcos in Thessaly, was de- 
posed by his half-brother Pelias, and killed 
while his son Jason was away on the Argo- 
nautic Expedition. (C'omp. Argonauts.) 

M sopu s (Gr . Aisopos). The f amo us writer 
of fables, the first author who created an 
independent class of stories about animals, 
so that in a few generations his name and 
person had become typical of that entire 
class of literature. In course of time, 
thanks to his plain, popular manner, the 
story of his own life was enveloped in an 
almost inextricable tissue of tales and 
traditions, which represent him as an ugly 
hunchback and buffoon. In the Middle 
Ages these were woven into a kind of 
romance. A Phr3 r gian by birth, and living 
in the time of the Seven Sages, about 600 
B.C., he is said to have been at first a slave 
to several masters, till Iadmon of Samos set 
him free. That he next lived at the court 
of Croesus, and being sent by him on an 

.KS\ MM-.I I. \i, WII'I'K. 


••mil. i to I telphi, u as murdered by i be 
priests then, ii pure fiction. Undei bia 

were propagated in all parts ..m . 
at Ural only Ii\ tradition in the month 01 
i be |n ople, .1 m altitude of proae tales : 
nig the leaaoni of life under the gain oi 
i ibli a about animals. We know bow 

<:es, during liis last ila\s in p] 

waa engaged in turning the fables "f /Esop 
into verse. The tiist written collection ap 
■ have been set on fool by Dome trine 

-I riial. Timi. B.C. 800. Tin' collections ot' 
.fjsojj'e Fables that have comedown ions 
arc, in part, late proae renderings of the 
version in choliambics by Babrius {</.>. i, 
which still retain here and there a 
oi verse; partly products of the rhetorical 
Bohools, and therefore of very different 
periods and degrees of merit. 

JSsymnetse (" regulators," "judges"). A 
name given in some Greek cities to the 
ordinary magistrates and judicial function- 
aries. 1m earlier times the term was also 
applied to persons appointed for a definite 
term (or until the completion of their task) 
for patting an end, by legislation, to in- 
ternal quarrels. Sometimes an cesymnetis 
was voluntarily chosen by the community 
for life, and entrusted with supreme and 
unlimited power. The office of (saymnetes 
may to a certain extent be compared with 
the Roman dictatorship, though the latter 
was never conferred without a strict limi- 
tation of time. 

iEthra. daughter of Pittheus, king of 
Tnezeii, mother of Theseus by .Egeus or, 
according to another account, by Poseidon. 
While Homer merely mentions her as a 
servant of Helen at Troy, later legend 
adds that, when the Dioscuri took Aphidnae 
and set free their sister whom Theseus 
had carried off, they conveyed iEthra to 
Sparta as a slave, whence she accompanied 
Helen to Troy : and that on the fall of that 
city, they brought her grandsons Acamas 
and Deniophoon back to Athens. 

Aetion. A Greek painter in the latter 
half of the 4th century B.C., especially 
famed for his picture of Alexander the 
Great's wedding with the beautiful Roxana, 
B.C. 328. 

Aetius (Gr. Actios). Of Amida in Mesopo- 
tamia, a Greek physician of the 6th century 
A.D., who lived at Constantinople as im- 
perial physician in ordinal - }". He was the 
author of a great miscellan}' on pathology 
and diagnosis in sixteen books. 

Afranius (Lucius). The chief master of 
the Fdbiila Togata. (Sec Comedy.) Flour- 

ished m.i . 100. In 1 

life In- took nfenander for In- mod) 

with great I him witty 

and a master "i langua I judge by 

the number "i tie- tit- 

which have survived more than fi ■.<■., with 

scanty fragments , he was a prolific authoi 

from tin in u i- gather that his sub 

mostly taken from family life. Bis plays 

kept i u of the -t lire longer than 

those of most comic | t-, i,. bag still acted 

in Nero's time. 
Agamedes. Son of Erglnus of ( > ; 

J, and a lure of the building art. like 

his brother TrophSnius (q.v.). 

Agamemnon. The Atre'td, i.e. son of 
Aliens, and hrother r>t Menelaus. Driven 
from ItyoSnsa after the murder of Atreus 
((/.r.) by Thyestes, the two young princes 
try to Sparta, where king Tyndareos gives 
them his daughters in marriage, Clyta-m- 
nestra to Agamemnon, and Helena to 
Menelaus. \\"hite the latter inherits his 
father-in-law's kingdom, Agamemnon not 
only drives his uncle out of Mycenae, but 
so extends his dominions that in the war 
against Troy for the recovery of Helena the 
chief command is entrusted to him as the 
mightiest prince in Greece. He contributes 
one hundred ships manned with warriors, 
beside lending sixty to the Arcadians. (On 
the immolation of his daughter Iphigeneia 
at Aulis, sec Iphigexeia.) In Homer he is 
one of the bravest lighters before Troy ; yet, 
by arrogantly refusing to let Chryses, priest 
of Apollo, ransom his daughter Chrysei's, 
who had fallen to Agamemnon as the prize 
of war, he brings a plague on the Grecian 
host, which he afterwards almost ruins by 
ruthlessly carrying off Brisei's the prize of 
Achilles, who henceforth sits sulking in his 
tents, and refuses to fight. After the fall 
of Troy, Agamemnon comes home with his 
captive, the princess Cassandra ; but at 
supper he and his comrades are murdered 
by his wife's lover _Egisthus, while the queen 
herself kills Cassandra. Such is Homer's 
account : the tragic poets make Clytsem- 
nestra, in revenge of her daughter's immo- 
lation, throw a net over Agamemnon while 
bathing, and kill him with the help of 
JEgisthus. In Homer his children are 
Iphianassa, Chrysotheniis, Laodice, and 
Orestes : the later legend puts Iphigeneia 
and Electra in the place of Iphianassa and 
Laodice. Agamemnon was worshipped as 
a hero. 

Aganippe, a spring sacred to the Moses 
on Mount Helicon, near Thespise in Boeotia, 



whose water imparted poetic inspiration. 
Also the nymph of the same, daughter of 
the river-god Permessus. 

(Paris, Louvre.) 

Agasias. A Greek artist of Ephesus, 
probably in the 1st century B.C. The 
Borghese Gladiator in the Louvre is from 
his hand. (See Sculpture.) 

Agatharchldes. A Greek grammarian of 
Cnidus, who lived at Alexandria in the 
2nd century B.C. as tutor, and afterwards 
guardian, of a prince. He composed several 
historical works (one on the successors of 
Alexander), a well written performance, 
and a description of the Red Sea in five 
books. Of the former only a few fragments 
remain, of the last some considerable ex- 
tracts from the first and fifth books. 

Agatharchus. A Greek painter of 
Samos, the inventor of scene-painting. (See 

Agathias. Of Myrina in Asia Minor, a 
Greek poet and historian, born about 530 
a.d., lived at Constantinople as a jurist, and 
died about 582. By his Kyklos, a collec- 
tion of his own and contemporary poems, 
topically arranged in eight books, he helped 
to originate the Greek Anthology (a.v.), 
which still contains 101 epigrams by him. 
In his last years he wrote, in a laboured 
florid style, a history of Justinian in five 
books, treating of the years a.d. 552-8 in 
continuation of Procopius. 

Agathodaemon ( = good daemon). In Greek 
mythology a good spirit of the cornfields 
and vineyards, to whom libations of un- 

mixed wine were made at meals. In works 
of art he is represented as a youth, holding 
in one hand a horn of plenty and a bowl, in 
the other a poppy and ears of corn. (Comp. 

Agathon. A tragic poet of Athens, born 
B.C. 448, a friend of Euripides and Plato, 
universally celebrated for his beauty and 
refined culture. The banquet he gave iu 
honour of his dramatic victory of B.C. 417 
is immortalized in Plato's Symposidn. He 
was, together with Euripides, at the court 
of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, and pro- 
bably died there about B.C. 402. He appears 
to have carried still further the rhetorical 
manner of Euripides, adopting entirely the 
views of the sophist Gorgias; and his 
namby-pamby style is ridiculed by Aristo- 
phanes. On the stage he introduced several 
innovations : he was the first to make the 
chorus a mere intermezzo, having nothing 
to do with the action, and in his tragedy 
of Anthus (= flower) he invented both 
characters and plot for himself, instead of 
resorting to old myths. 

Agave (Gr. Agaitc). Daughter of Cadmus 
and wife of Echion. She, with other women, 
in a bacchanalian frenzy 
tore to pieces her own son 
Pentheus (q.v.). 

Agdistis. See Rhea. 

Ages. Since the time of 
Hesiod, the Greeks, and the 
Romans after them, gene- 
rally assumed the existence 
of four ages. 

(1) The age of gold, in 
w T hich Kronos or Saturnus 
was king. During this 
period mankind enjoyed per- 
petual youth, joy, and peace 
undisturbed, reaping in their fulness the 
fruits which the earth spontaneously brought 
forth. Death came upon them like a soft 
slumber ; and after it they became good 
dozmones, watching men like guardians in 
their deeds of justice and injustice, and 
hovering round them with gifts of wealth. 

(2) The golden age was succeeded by 
that of silver. This was inferior to the 
golden both in physical and mental force. 
The people of the silver age remained for 
a hundred years in the condition of children, 
simple and weakly. Even if they attained 
maturity, their folly and arrogance pre- 
vented their living long. They continued 
to exist after death as spirits, living be- 
neath the earth, but not immortal. 

(3) Zeus then created the brazen age, so 




(Gem in British 
Museum. J 

AM i. \ \< . l i; l'l BLK l 3. 


named because Is i' all implements were 
made ol brass. The men, furnished « ith 
gigantic limbs end irresistible physics] 
strength, destroyed ssoh other bj deeds of 
violenoo, end perished si their death, 

1 The iron eras 
the generation of work and laboi 
culture. ' Sara and toil till on the daj 
night ; truth and modesty are departed : mis 
chief alone survives, and there is nothing 
to arrest the progress ol deoaj , 

Agela. In Crete, an associa inths 

for joint training; AgeUtUs, the captain of 
an agela. {Set box cation, I.) 

Ageladas. A Greek artisl of the firsl half 
of the 5th century b.c, Earned for bis images 
of gods and Olympian victors, wrought in 
metal. His reputation was much enhanced 
by the fact thai Phidias, Myron, and Poly- 
L-iitns were his pupils. 

Agema. Th»< guard in the Macedonian 
army ; in which the cavalry were a troop 
(tie) formed of noblemen's sons who had 
grown upas pages in the royal service, while 
the infantry consisted of the hypaspistce 
(o.v.), to whom the argyntspidSa </■?'.', were 
added later as heavy infantry. 

Agenor. (1) Son of Poseidon and Libya, 
kiiiix of Phoenicia, brother to Belus, and 
father of Cadmus and Europa (q.v.). 

2 Son of Autenor by Theano, a priestess 
of Athena, and one of the bravest heroes 
of Troy. In Homer he leads the Trojans in 
storming the Greek entrenchments, rescues 
Hector when thrown down by Ajax, and 
even enters the lists with Achilles, but is 
saved from imminent danger by Apollo. In 
the post-Homeric legend he dies by the 
hand of Neoptolemus. 

Ager Publicus ( = common land). The 
Latin name for the State domains, formed 
of territory taken from conquered states. 
The Romans made a practice, upon every 
new acquisition of land, of adding a part 
of it, usually a third, to the domain. So 
far as this land was under culture, por- 
tions of it were sometimes assigned to 
single citizens or newly-founded colonies in 
fee simple, sometimes sold by the quaestors 
on the condition that, though the purchaser 
might bequeath and alienate it, it still re- 
mained State property. In token of this 
it paid a substantial or merely nominal 
rent (vcctlgal), and was called ager privatus 
vectigCHisque or qiuestoriits. The greater 
part was left to the old occupiers, yet not 
as free property, but as rent-paying land, 
and was called ager publicus stipendiarius 
datus assignatus ; the rest remained under 

D. C. A. 

ment, and .■ . let b 
CM oni ■ 
by public pro pro- 

visional hl'Iii ox seisin, occuptttio, « 
view to cultivation, in i 
tithe of the coi n ra - a fifth ol I be 

Emit, and reserving its right ol resnm] 
Such Beisin was called pouestio. [t 

be bequeal herw is<- aliens 

never became private property, bn 

, tble pro- 
perty of th Though the Plebeians 

hud as good a right to occupy lands won 
by their aid as tin I Lcians. yet in 

the early times of the Republic thi> right 

was exercised by the latter alone, partly 
because they had the greater command 
of means and men, and partly because by 
the right of the stronger they excluded 
the Plebeians from benefiting by the Ager 
Publicus. Against this usurpation 'he 
Plebeians waged a bitter and unbroken 
warfare, claiming not only a share in newly 
conquered lands, but a wholesale rei 
bution of existing possessiOnSs, while the 
Patricians strained every nerve to maintain 
their vested interests, and managed to 
thwart the execution of all the enactments 
1 from time to time in favour of the 
Plebeians. Even the law of the tribune 
Gaius Licinius Stolo (B.C. 377), limiting 
posscssiones to 500 iugera (acres) per man, 
and ordering the distribution of the re- 
mainder, were from the first eluded by the 
possessores, who now included both Patri- 
cians and well-to-do Plebeians. All possible 
means were employed, as pretended deeds 
of gift and other similar devices. The 
threatened extinction of the Italian pea- 
santry by the great wars, and the rapid 
growth of huge estates (latifundia) worked 
by slaves, occasioned the law of Tiberius 
Gracchus (B.C. 133), retaining the Licinian 
limit of 500 acres, but allowing another 
250 for each son, and granting compensation 
for lands resumed by the State. The land 
thus set free, and all the Ager Publicus that 
had been leased, except a few domains indis- 
pensable to the State, were to be divided 
among poor citizens, but on the condition 
that each allotment paid a quit-rent, and 
was not to be alienated. But again, the 
the resistance of the nobility practically 
reduced this law to a dead letter ; and the 
upshot of the whole agrarian movement 
stirred up by Tiberius and his brother 
Gaius Gracchus was, that the wealthy 
Romans were not only left undisturbed 
in their posscssiones, but were released 




from paying rent. In the civil wars of 
Sulla the Ager Publicus in Italy, which 
had been nearly all used up in assignations, 
received so vast an increase by the ex- 
termination of whole townships, by pro- 
scriptions and confiscations, that even after 
all the soldiers had been provided for, there 
remained a portion undistributed. Under 
the Empire there was hardly any left in 
Italy ; what there was, whether in Italy or 
in the provinces, came gradually under the 
control of the imperial exchequer. 

Agesander (Gr. AgSsand/rds). A Greek 
artist of the school of Rhodes. The cele- 
brated group of the Laocoon is the joint 
work of Agesander, Athenodorus, and Poly- 
dorus. (See Laocoon.) 

Agger. In Roman siege-works, the mound 
or embankment raised against an enemy's 
walls. (See Sieges.) 

Agla'ia. One of the Graces. (See 

Agnatio. The Latin name for the 
relationship of real or adoptive descent 
from one father, which was necessarily 
expressed by identity of clan-name (see 
Name, 2.) A brother and sister were 
agnati, but her children were no longer 
agnati to his. At first agnati alone were 
entitled to inherit property or act as 
guardians; it was but gradually that the 
cogndti (q.v.) came to have a place b3 T their 
side, till Justinian abolished the right of 
agnates, and brought that of cognates to 
complete recognition. 

Agon. The. Greek name for a musical 
( = artistic) or gymnastic contest. The um- 
pires who conducted them, and gave away 
the prizes, were called Agonothetce. (On 
those who officiated at scenic games in 
Athens, see Drama.) At Rome such con- 
tests, modelled on those of the Greeks, 
became frequent before the fall of the Re- 
public ; under the Empire they came round 
at periods of several years, like the great 
Grecian games. The most famous of all, 
which held its ground to the end of anti- 
quity, was the Agon C'apitollnus, founded 
by Domitian in 86 A.D., and recurring every 
four years. He had an Odeum (q.v.) built 
for the musical performances, and a Stadion 
for the athletic combats, both in the 
Campus Martins. Another great Agon was 
held in 248 a.d. in honour of the city 
having stood for a thousand years. 

Agonothetes. See Agon. 

Agora ( = assembly). The Greek name for 
the market-place, a consecrated open space, 
which in coast towns usually lay on the 

seaside, in inland towns at the foot of the 
castle hill. As the centre of the city life, 
commercial, political, and religious, it was 
adorned with temples, statues, and public 
buildings, and planted with trees, especially 
planes. When newly built or rebuilt in 
late times, it was generally square, and sur- 
rounded by colonnades. In most towns it 
was the place for assemblies of the people. 

Agoracritus. A Greek artist of Paros, 
who lived in the latter half of the 5th 
century B.C., and was a favourite pupil of 
Phidias. His noblest work was considered 
to be the statue of Nemesis, 40 feet in 
height, which some judges, on account of 
its excellence, took for a production of the 
elder artist. In any case it was said that 
Phidias had allowed the name of Agora- 
critus to be inscribed on several of his 

Agoranomus ( = market-master). In many 
Greek towns a magistrate somewhat re- 
sembling the Roman sedile. At Athens ten 
agoranomi were chosen by lot every year, 
five for the city, and five for the port of 
Piraeus. They looked especially after the 
retail trade, gave strangers leave to engage 
in it, tested weights and measures, as well 
as the quality of goods, confiscating and 
destroying what was spoilt ; they settled dis- 
putes between buyers and sellers on the spot, 
or, if a suit at law was neeessary, presided 
over it [Aristotle's Const, of Athens, c. 51]. 

Agraulos. Daughter of Cecrops (q.v.). 

Agriculture. (1) Agriculture was in Gru ee 
a leading industry, at least as early as Homer. 
The soil was stubborn, fertile plains being 
comparatively few, and mountains and rocky 
ground preponderating. But, favoured by 
a genial climate, agriculture was carried on 
almost everywhere with a zeal to which the 
wants of a dense population added their 
stimulus. That it was regarded as the 
very groundwork of social life is shown by 
the fact that its guardian goddess Demeter 
(Lat. Ceres) presided also over wedlock and 
law. It was looked upon as the most 
legitimate way of earning a livelihood. It 
was carried to the highest pitch in the 
Peloponnesus, where every scrap of culti- 
vable soil was made to yield its crop, as 
may be seen to this day by the artificial 
terraces that scarp every mountain-slope. 
Much care was bestowed on irrigation. 
Scarcity of water was supplemented by 
artificial means: provision was made against 
irregular burets of mountain torrents by 
embanking and regulating the natural out- 
lets, while moist lands were channelled and 

At .Klil 1 .11 RE 


stagnant «. >'■ i I. Watei ■■.-. i 

tributed everj « her* bj dib hea and oa 
under tti" supervision of State officials; 
and lawa of anoienl date guarded against 
the unfair use of a water-course 
■ mu's damage. 

land was mainly cultivated by slaves 
and serfs, though field-labour was not 
deemed dishonourable to the freeman, ex- 
oepl where law and custom forbade ln> 
jing in any sort of handicraft, as at 
I rit'S, especially Ar- 

cadia, the old-world plan of every man till- 
ing his field with his own hand remained in 
to the latest times; ami even emiuent 
statesmen like 1'hilopnemen would not give 
it up. Pour kinds of grain were chiefly 
grown: wheat, barley, and two kinds of 
spelt, to all of which the climate allowed 
two sowings in the year, beside millet, 
sesame, various leguminous plants, and 
1 sorts of herbage for fodder. With 
no less diligence was Greek husbandry ap- 
plied to gardening, especially to the cultiva- 
tion of the vine. This, while steadily pur- 
sued on the mainland, was developed to an 
extraordinary extent in the islands, most of 
which, owing to their mountainous character, 
did not alfbrd their inhabitants sufficient 
arable soil. In olive-culture no part of 
Greece competed with Attica, which also 
produced the best figs, the fruit most widely- 
cultivated. Kitchen-gardening was prac- 
tised on the largest scale in Boeotia. Con- 
sidering the enormous consumption of 
flowers in wreaths, the rearing of them, es- 
pecially of the rose, lily, narcissus, and violet, 
must have been a lucrative business, at 
least in the neighbourhood of great towns. 
Meadow-farming was of next to no import- 
ance, few districts having a soil adapted for 
it, and such meadows as there were being 
used for pasture rather than haymaking. 

(2) In Italy. In Italy also the existence 
of the community was regarded as based 
upon agriculture. This is proved by the 
practice of marking the site of the future 
walls of a new town by a furrow drawn 
with the plough. At Rome especially, the 
body of irremovable peasantry long formed 
the core of the commonwealth. In political 
life the free peasant was the only factor 
held in account, and accordingly in war the 
object was to increase the number of free 
peasants by planting them out on as much 
of borderland as could be wrested from the 
enemy. In early times agriculture was 
thought the only respectable calling in 
which a Roman citizen could engage : and 

il Labour on the land « ■ • hi Id Is on- 
qualified esteem and a - bi 
apon persons in high pi 

Husbandry was mainly di the 

at tirst Spelt, till, in the ."iili cimiiiii;, B.I , 

u heal began to take a place be lide it. They 
barley, millet, and leguminous 

plants, as w.-ii as turnips, greens, and I 
for fodder. On irrigation and drainage the 
Italians bestowed much pains. The] I 

lack i lands, either for pasture or 

haymaking; and from an early time these 
were artificially watered. The cultivation of 
the vine and olive extended as that of grains 
declined (see below); so did the growth 
of orchard-fruit, which, under the late 
Republic and the early Empire, received 
a vast expansion both from the improve- 
ment of native kinds and the introduction 
and naturalization of many foreign fruits. 
In earlier times the prime favourite among 
fruit trees had been, as in Greece, the 
nutritious fig. Agriculture proper was 
ruined by the acquisition of the first extra- 
Italian possessions, Sicily and Sardinia ; for 
the corn supplied by r the provincials as tri- 
bute in kind began to be used, not only in 
provisioning the armies, but in feeding the 
urban population. (See Anxoxa.) As the 
State, to humour the rabble of Rome, sold 
this corn at the lowest possible prices, 
sometimes even below its value, the growth 
of cereals ceased to be profitable ; farmers 
kept it down to a minimum, and took to 
cattle-breeding or raising wine and oil. 
These branches of industry not only flou- 
rished in the face of competition, but with 
judicious management were highly remu- 
nerative. The death-blow was given to the 
Italian peasantry by the increasing employ- 
ment of slaves and the absorption of small 
farms in large estates (see LatifcxdiumX 
On these, besides the growth of wine, oil, 
and fruit, the breeding of birds, game, and 
cattle was carried on, as well as woodcraft, 
and special industries, pottery, charcoal- 
burning, and others. 

Farming implements, in addition to the 
plough (q.v.) usually drawn by oxen, which 
was much the same among Greeks and 
Romans, and always very imperfect, in- 
cluded a great variety of spades, hoes, and 
mattocks, and among Romans the harrow, 
the use of which among the Greeks is 
doubted. The season for sowing all cereals 
was usually autxvmn. At harvest the stalks 
were cut with the sickle about half-way 
down, and the rest left standing as stubble. 



to be either burnt or utilized for manure. 
The process of threshing (q.v.) was very- 
defective. (For ancient works on hus- 
bandry, see Geoponici.) 

Agrimensores. The Latin name for land- 
surveyors, otherwise called grOmdtid, from 
groma, their measuring instrument. This 
consisted of two dioptric rods crossing each 
other at right angles and fastened on an 
iron stand so as to turn horizontally; on 
the four arms stood four upright dioptrce, 
with threads stretched across the holes, and 
in taking observations the threads of two 
opposite dioptrce had to cover each other. 
The measuring was done on the same prin- 
ciple as the marking-out of a temphtm by 
the Augurs (q.v.), viz. by drawing in the 
centre of the piece of land two lines inter- 
secting at right angles, one from north to 
south (cardo maximus), the other from 
east to west (dScum&nus maximus) : the 
further division of the ground was effected 
by parallels to these lines (liviites). It 
was not until the imperial period that land- 
surve3 T ing became a separate profession. 
Then surveyors were prepared in special 
schools and appointed by the State, both 
for quarter-master's duty in camp and for 
measurements under Government ; they 
decided as judges in fixing boundaries, 
and were consulted as specialists in dis- 
putes affecting land. Thus a literature 
arose, half mathematical, half legal, the 
remains of which extend over the first six 
centuries a.d. The earliest of these gro- 
matici, or writers on land-measurement, is 
Frontinus (q.v.), from whose work, written 
from 81-9G A.D., and dealing more with the 
legal side of the subject, extracts are pre- 
served in the commentary of Aggenus 
Urbicus. Hyginus, Balbus, and probably 
Siciilus Flaccus, nourished in the time of 
Trajan ; later still, Nipsus, Innocentius, and 

Agrippa (Marcus Vipsanius). Born B.C. 
63, died B.C. 12. He was the friend, son-in- 
law, general, and minister of Augustus. He 
was also a speaker and writer of some re- 
pute. Under his supervision was carried 
out the great survey of the Roman empire 
which Caesar had begun in 44 B.C. With 
the help of the materials thus obtained he 
constructed a circular Map of the "World. 
About B.C. 7, Augustus had it engraved on a 
large scale in marble, and set up for public 
use in the colonnade built bj- Agrippa's 
sister Polla (port tens Pollw). It may be 
regarded as the source and model of all 
succeeding aids to geography, especially 

the Itineraries (q.v.) and the Peutinger 
Table. A book on the results of the sur- 
vey, which Agrippa had begun writing, 

(Berlin Mu&euin.) 
Ohv. Head of Agrippa, wearing the corona classica. 
Ii>-v. Neptune with Dolphin and Trident. 
S C=Sonatus consulto. 

was continued and published, by order of 
Augustus, under the title of Chorogrciphia. 

Agyieus. A title of Apollo (q.v.) as god 
of streets and highways. 

Aias (Lat. Aiax). (1) Son of the Locrian 
king Oileus, hence called the Locrian or 
Lesser Aias in contrast to the Telamonian. 
In forty ships he led the Locrians to Troy, 
where, notwithstanding his small stature 
and light equipment, he distinguished him- 
self beside his gigantic namesake, especially 
in the battle by the ships and that over the 
body of Patroclus. He was renowned for 
hurling the spear, and as the swiftest 
runner next to Achilles. On his voyage home, 
to appease the anger of Athena, he suffered 
shipwreck on the Gyrsean rocks off the 
island of Myconos or \ according to another 
story) on the southernmost point of Eubcea. 
Poseidon indeed rescued him on the rocks : 
but when he boasted of having escaped 
against the will of the gods, the sea-king 
with his trident smote off the rock on which 
he sat, and he sank in the waves. Later 
accounts sa}' that the goddess's anger fell 
upon him because, at the taking of Troy, 
when Cassandra had taken refuge at her 
altar and embraced her image, he tore h'er 
away by force, so that the statue fell. 
Though Agamemnon took the maiden from 
him, the Greeks left the outrage on the 
goddess unpunished, and on their way home 
she wreaked her wrath on the whole fleet. 
He, like other heroes, was said to be still 
living with Achilles in the island of Leuce. 
The Locrians worshipped him as a hero, 
and always left a vacant place for him in 
the line of battle. 

(2) Son of Telamon of Salamis, and half- 
brother of Teucer ; called the Great Aias, 
because he stood head and shoulders higher 

\ll'l ■ - \l.i'\\IK\KS 


thu il her < hero* 1 [• brings 

twelve ship I roy, where he proves turn 
i onlj i" aohillea in strength and 
braver] . end while i hal hero holds = «. J > > ■ • r 
from tne Bght, be is the mainstay "I the 
n . e i" ciallj v\ ben t be Trojans bave 
i.ikru their oamp bj 1 01 m and are pu 
the battle to their Bhips. [n the struggle 
over the corpse of Patroolus, be and bis 
namesake the son of Olleus oovei Bfenel&tls 
and MerlOnea while they carry off their 
(alien comrade. When Thfitis offered the 
arms and armour of Achilles as a prise for 
the worthiest, they were adjudged, not to 
Aias, bat to his only competitor Odysseus. 
Trojan oaptiveB bore witness that the 

cunning of Odysseus had ■ 1 01 u ■ them morn 
harm than tho valour of Achilles. Aias 
thereupon, according to t ho post-Homeric 

I, killed himself in anger, a feeling he 

still cherished against Odysseus even in the 
lower world. The later legend relates that 
he was driven mad by the slight, mistook 
the Hocks in the camp for his adversaries, 
and slaughtered them, and on coming to his 
senses again, felt so mortified that he fell 
on his sword, the gift of Hector after the 
duel between them. Out of his blood sprang 
the purple lily, on whose petals could be 
Bed the first letters of his name, At. At. 
His monument stood on the Rhoetean pro- 
montory, where he had encamped before 
Troy, and upon which the waves washed 
the coveted arms of Achilles after the ship- 
wreck of Odysseus. As the national hero of 
Salamis, he had a temple and statue there, 
and a yearly festival, the Aianteia : and he 
was worshipped at Athens, where the tribe 
Aiantis was named after him. He too was 
supposed to linger with Achilles in the 
island of Leuce. By Tecmessa, daughter 
of the Phrygian king Teuthras, whom he 
had captured in one of the raids from before 
Troy, he had a son Eurysaces, who is said 
to have removed from Salamis to Attica 
with his son or brother Phihpus, and founded 
flourishing families, which produced many 
famous men, for instance Miltiades, Cinion, 
Alcibiades, and the historian Thucydides. 

Aides (AidOncus). See Hades. 

Ajax. See Aias. 

Ala. The Latin name for (1) a wins; in 
the line of battle. Till the extension of the 
citizenship to the Italian allies, the wings 
consisted of their contingents, vis. 10,000 
foot and 1,80*3 horse to every consular 
army of two legions. Thus cila came to 
mean the allied contingent that composed 
a wing (sec Cohort and Legion). But it 

meant moi to the 

cohorts that a be Enfanti v of the 

alius, t he ''a\ airy oi the I OUtU 

on an ■"'' * > men (6 turma, of 80 

each ). I luring the imp< i ial p< riod, when 
all the cavalry was raised in i he , 
the a riven to a cavalry 

division of 61 * ' or else 1,000 mi n th 

divided into |i;, the other into '_' I turma. 

The ulir were commanded by yrafecXi 
i qultum, 

{'_') A back room in a Roman house. See 
B01 si: 

Alabastr6n. See Vessels, 

Alastor. The Greek term for an aveng- 
ing (Lemon, who dogs the footsteps of 
criminals, visiting the sins of fathers on 
their offspring. 

Album. The Latin word for a board 
chalked or painted white, on which matters 
of public interest were notified in black 
writing. In this way were published the 
yearly records of the pontifex(«eeAHHALE8 . 
the edicts of praetors (q.v.), the roll of 
senators, the lists of jurors, etc. 

Alcaeus (Or. Alkaius). A famous lyric 
poet of Mytilene in Lesbos, an elder con- 
temporary of Sappho. Towards the end of 
the 7th century B.C., as the scion of a noble 
house, he headed the aristocratic party in 
their contests with the tyrants of his native 
town, Myrsllus, Melanchrus, and others. 
Banished from home, he went on romantic 
expeditions as far as Egypt. When the 
tyrants were put down, and his former 
comrade, the wise Pittacus, was called by 
the people to rule the State, he took up 
arms against him also as a tyrant in dis- 
guise ; but attempting to force his return 
home, he fell into the power of his oppo- 
nent, who generously forgave him. Of his 
further life nothing is known. His poems 
in the jEolic dialect, arranged in ten books 
by the Alexandrians, consisted of hymns, 
political songs (which formed the bulk of 
the collection), drinking songs, and love 
songs, of which we have but a few miser- 
able fragments. In the opinion of the 
ancients, his poems were well constructed 
while their tone tallied with the lofty pas- 
sion and manly vigour of his character. 
The alcaic strophe, so much used by his 
admirer and not unworthy imitator, Horace, 
is named after him. [For a relief repre- 
senting Alcseus and Sappho, see Sappho.] 

Alcamenes (Gr. Alk&menes). A Greek 
artist of Athens or Lemnos, and a pupil of 
Phidias, who flourished towards the end of 
the 5th century B.C. Following his master's 



ideal tendency, he devoted himself mainly 
to religious subjects, working like him in 
various materials, gold and ivor}', bronze 
and marble. His statue of the winner 
in the Pentathlon was stamped as classic 
by the epithet of EnkrinomSnos, as the 
Doryphoros of Polyclitus was by that of 
Kdnon. About 436 B.C. he was employed 
with Phidias in decorating the temple of 
Zeus at Olympia. The marble groups of 
the battle of Centaurs and Lapithae in its 
western pediment are his work. Of these 
considerable remains have been brought to 
light by the recent German excavations. 
(See Olympian Games, fig. 2.) 

Alcathous (Gr. Alkdthoos). The son of 
Pelops and Hippodameia. He slew the 
lion of Cithseron, which had torn to pieces 
Euippus, the son of Megareus. Thus he 
won the daughter of Megareus, Eua?chma, 
and the sovereignty of Megara. With 
Apollo for his friend and helper, he rebuilt 
the city walls, and reared one of the two 
castles, Alcathoe, with temples to Artemis 
and Apollo. A singing stone in the castle 
was shown as the one on which the god laid 
down his lyre when at work. Alcathous' 
eldest son, Ischepolis, fell in the Calydonian 
hunt ; the second, Callipolis, running in with 
the news to his father when sacrificing to 
Apollo, scattered the altar fire, and Alcathous 
struck him dead with a firebrand for the 
supposed sacrilege. By his daughters Auto- 
medusa and Peribcea, the wives of Iphlcles 
and Telamon, he was grandfather to Iolaus 
and Aias (Ajax). 

Alcestis (Gr. Alkestis). Daughter of 
Pelias, renowned for her tender love for 
her husband Admetus, and her voluntary 
death on his behalf. (See Admetus.) 

Alcldamas (Gr. Alktdamas). A Greek 
rhetorician of Elsea in iEolis, pupil and 
successor of Gorgias, a contemporaiy and 
opponent of Isocrates. Two declamations, 
bearing his name, have come down to us, 
one an imaginary indictment of Palamedes 
by Odysseus, the other a speech on the 
Sophists ; but the latter only can with any 
probability be attributed to him. It is a 
cleverly written argument, intended to 
show that the culmination of rhetorical 
training consists in the power of speaking 
extempore on any subject from mere notes 
of the arrangement ; not the practice of 
carefully writing out speeches, and then 
learning them by heart for public delivery. 

Alcides (Gr. Alkidcs). A surname of 
Heracles (q.v.). 

Alcinous (Gr. Alklnoos). King of the 

Ph?eacians {q.v.), with whom Odysseus, and 
in later legend Jason and Medea, find shelter 
and aid. (See Odysseus and Argonauts. ) 

Alciphron (Gr. Alkiphr&n). A Greek 
rhetorician of the 2nd century A.D., author 
of a collection of 118 fictitious Letters in 
three books. These, written in tolerably pure 
style and tasteful form, profess to be from 
sailors, peasants, parasites, and In tn rce. 
They are sketches of character, ingeniously 
conceived and carried out, which give us a 
vivid picture of the then state of culture, 
especially at Athens : the letters from 
' ■ la mb are particularly interesting, as their 
plots are taken from the New Attic Comedy, 
especially the lost plays of Menander. 

Alcmaeon (Gr. Alkmaioit |, of Argos. Son 
of Amphiaraus (q.v.) and Eriphyle. As his 
father, in departing on the expedition of 
the Seven against Thebes, has bound him 
and his brother Amphilochus, then mere 
boys, to avenge him on their faithless 
mother, Alcmaeon refuses to take part in 
the second expedition, that of the Epigdni 
{q.v.}, till he has first fulfilled that filial 
duty ; nevertheless his mother, bribed by 
Thersander with the garment of Har- 
nwnia, persuades him to go. The real 
leader at the siege of Thebes, he slays the 
Theban king, Laodamas, and is the first to 
enter the conquered city. On returning 
home, he, at the bidding of the Delphian 
Apollo, avenges his father by slaying his 
mother, with, or according to some accounts, 
without, his brother's help: but immediately, 
like Orestes, he is set upon by the Erinves, 
and wanders distracted, seeking purification 
and a new home. Phegeus, of the Arcadian 
Psophis, half purifies him of his guilt, and 
gives him his daughter Arsinoe or Alphe- 
siboea to wife, to whom he presents the 
jewels of Harmonia, which he has brought 
from Argos. But soon the crops fail in the 
land, and he falls into his distemper again, 
till, after many wanderings, he arrives at 
the mouth of the Acheloiis, and there, in an 
island that has floated up, he finds the 
country promised by the god, which had 
not existed at the time of his dying mother's 
curse, and so he is completely cured. He 
marries Achelous' daughter, Callirrhoe. by 
whom he has two sons, Acarnan and Am- 
photerus. Unable to withstand his wife's 
entreaties that she may have Harmonin's 
necklaee and robe, he goes to Phegeus 
in Arcadia, and begs those treasures of 
him, pretending that he will dedicate them 
at Delphi for the perfect healing of his 
madness. He obtains them: but Phegeus. 

\l < MAN U.I.Mh.YI AUII. 

train I he I rul b sta hi ns to way 

i.i\ linn on his road, and rob bin of hu 

mi' ami his life ; and then Ainu.' On 

iun si'iis avenge their Father's death on 

these murderers. Alomason, like his father, 

reoeived divine bonours after death ; be bad 

aotuary :ii Thebes, and a1 Psophis a 

Berated tomb. 

Alcnian (Gr. Ml.iihun. The founder of 
Dorian lyric poetry, a Lydian of Sardes. 1 1 ■■ 
oame to Sparta in his youth as a slave, was 
get free, and Beems even to have reoeived 
the citizenship: he flourished in the latter 
half of the Till century u.c. Ho abandoned 
the old ndinic m ilitliyrambio poetry, writ- 
ten in hexameters, and oomposed in various 
metres Hymns, l'a'aus, l'rosndia, Parthtoia, 
Scdlia, and Erotics, the last of which he 
was su]ipiiscil to have invented. His dialect 
was the Doric, softened by Epic and iEolic 
forms. Of his six books of poems a few 
fragments only are preserved ; one, a rather 
long one, was found in Egypt. 

Alcmene (Gr. Alkmeni), Daughter of 
Electryon, wife of Amphitryon (q.v.), mother 
of Heracles by Zeus. On her connexion with 
Rhadamanthys, see Rhadamanthys. After 
her son's translation to the gods she fled 
from the face of Eurystheus to Athens, but 
went back to Thebes, and died there at a 
great age. She was worshipped at Thebes, 
and had an altar in the temple of Heracles 
at Athens. 

Alcyone (Gr. AlkpSne). (1) Daughter of 
^olus, wife of Ceyx (q.v. 2).— (2) One of 
the Pleiades. 

Alcydneus (Gr. Alkydneus). Son of Ura- 
nus and Gcea, the eldest and mightiest of 
the giants, who could not be overtaken by 
death in his own birthplace. Hence, in 
the war with the giants, Heracles had to 
drag him away from Pallene before he 
could kill him with his arrows. Legend 
also tells of a giant Alcyoneus who stole 
the oxen of Helios from the island of 
Erytheia, and as Heracles was crossing 
the Thracian isthmus of Pallene, crushed 
twelve of his wagons and twenty-five men 
with a huge piece of rock, which was 
shown on the spot. When he hurled it 
at Heracles himself, the hero struck it 
back with his club, and killed Alcyoneus 
with the same blow. 

Aldobrandini Marriage. See Painting. 

Alecto. One of the Greek goddesses of 
vengeance. (Sec Erinyes.) 

Alexander (Gr. Alexandras). (1) See 

(2) Alexander jEtolus (the /Etolian) of 

Pleuron in ffitolia, lived abort * 
Alexandria, being employed bj Ptolemy in 
.u i angina ' be ti agedies and at j i io dramas 
in the Library, He was aftei • the 

c "i in Macedonia. 

As a writer of tragedies be wa 

of the so-called Pleiad. He al o tried 

bis l I al ihorl epios, al epi) i i 

and the like, of wniohsome graceful frag- 
ments are preserved. 

("it A (ircek iln-t i .ric i;i 1 1 nf the 2nd cen- 
tury a. n., son of the rhetorician Numfinlus. 
lie composed a work on figures of speech, 
of which one extract and a free Latin ver- 
sion by Aqulla lininaiiiis have survived. 

(4) Alexander of Aphrodtmcu in (.'aria, 
about 200 a. ti.. called ExSgetSa for his 

services in expounding the doctrine of 
Aristotle, wrote valuable commentaries on 
several Aristotelian treatises (especially 
the Metaphysics) as well as original works 
on Fate and Free-will, on the Soul, and 

(5) Alexander of Trail fx in Lydia, a 
Greek physician, lived in the 6th century 
a.d. at Rome, and made a careful collection 
from older writers on therapeutics, in 
twelve books. 

Alexandra. See Cassandra. 

Alexandrian Period. Sec Literature. 

Alexikakos ( = \varding off evil). An epi- 
thet of Apollo and Heracles. 

Alexis. Alexis and Antiphanes were the 
most prolific and important writers of the 
Middle Attic Comedy. Alexis was born at 
Thurii, B.C. 392. He attained the age of 
106, writing to the last, and is said to have 
died on the stage with the crown on his 
head. He was the reputed author of 245 
plays, of which numerous extracts are 
still extant, showing considerable wit and 
elegance of language. He was uncle to 
the poet Menander. 

Alimentarii. The Latin name, during 
the imperial period, for children of needy 
but free-born parents, who, out of the in- 
terest of funds invested for the purpose, 
received monthly contributions to their sup- 
port in goods or money up to a certain age 
(fixed in the case of boys at eighteen, in that 
of girls at fourteen). This scheme, the object 
of which was to encourage people to marry, 
and so to check the alarming decrease of the 
free population, was started by the Emperor 
Nerva (a.d. 96-98), and extended by Trajan 
to the whole of Italy. Succeeding emperors 
also, down to Alexander Severus (222-235), 
founded such bursaries ; and private citizens 
in Italy and the provinces, as, for instance 




the younger Pliny, vied with them in their 

Aloadae or Alolda>. Sons of Poseidon 
by Iphiinedeia, the wife of Aloeus, son of 
Canace (see JEolos, 1) and Poseidon; their 
names were EphidUes and Otus. They 
grew every year an ell in breadth and a 
fathom in length, so that in nine years" time 
they were thirty-six feet broad and fifty- 
four feet high. Their strength was such 
that they chained up the god Ares and kept 
him in a brazen cask for thirteen months, 
till their stepmother Eribcea betrayed his 
whereabouts to Hermes, who came by 
stealth and dragged his disabled brother 
out of durance. They threatened to storm 
heaven itself by piling Ossa on Olympus 
and Pelion on Ossa, and would have done it, 
says Homer, had not Apollo slain them with 
his arrows ere their beards were grown. 
The later legend represents Ephialtes as in 
love with Hera, and Otus with Artemis. 
Another myth represents Artemis as slaying 
them by craft in the island of Naxos. She 
runs between them in the form of a hind : 
they hurl their spears, and wound each other 
fatally. In the later legend the}' expiate 
their sins in the lower world by being bound 
with snakes to a pillar, back to back, while 
they are incessantly tormented by the 
screeching of an owl. On the other hand, 
the}' were worshipped as heroes in Naxos, 
and in the Bceotian Ascra were regarded as 
founders of the city and of the worship of 
the Muses on Mount Helicon. 

Alope. Daughter of Cercyon of Eleusis, 
and, by Poseidon, mother of Hippothoon 
<q.r.) ; after whose birth her father was 
going to kill her, but the god changed her 
into a fountain. 

Alpheus. See Arethusa. 

Alphesibcea (or Arslnoe). Daughter of 
Phegeus and first wife of Alcmson, whom, 
though unfaithful, she continued to love, 
and was angry with her broth 3rs for killing 
him. Her brothers shut her up in a box, 
and brought her to Agapenor, king of 
Tegea, pretending that she had killed her 
husband. Here she came by her end, 
having compassed her brothers' death by 
the hand of Alcmseon"s sons. 

Altar. Originally a simple elevation 
above the ground, made of earth, field- 
stones, or turf; and such altars continued 
to be used in the country parts of Italy. But 
altars for constant use, especially intemple 
service, were, as a rule, of stone, though 
in exceptional cases they might be made of 
other materials. Thus, several in Greece 


(Berlin Museum.) 

were built out of the ashes of burnt-offer- 
ings, as that of Zeus at Olympia. One at 
Delos was made of goats' horns. Their 
shape was very various, the four-cornered 
being the commonest, 
and the round less 
usual. A temple 
usually had two 
altars : the one used 
for bloodless offer- 
ings standing before 
the deity"s image in 
the cella, and the 
other for burnt-offer- 
ings, opposite the 
door in front of the 
temple. The latter 
was generally a high 
altar, standing on a 
platform which is cut into steps. Being an 
integral part of the whole set of buildings, 
its shape and size were regulated by their 
proportions. Some few of these high altars 
were of enormous dimensions ; the one at 
Olympia had a platform measuring more 
than 125 feet round, while the altar itself, 
which was ascended by steps, was nearly 
25 feet high. In Italy as well as Greece, 
beside the altars attached to temples, there 
was a vast number in streets and squares, 
in the courts of houses (see cut), in open 
fields, in sacred groves, and other precincts 
consecrated to the gods. Some altars, like 
some temples, were dedicated to more than one 
deity ; we even hear of altars dedicated to all 
the gods. On altars to heroes, see Heroes. 

Althaea. Daughter of Thestius, wife of 
(Eneus, king of Calydon, mother of Tydeus, 
Meleager (<?.£.), and Dei'aneira. 

Altis. The sacred grove near Olympia 
(q.v.), in which the Olympic Games were 
celebrated. (See Olympia.) 

Amalthea (Gr. Amaltheia). A figure in 
Greek mythology. The name was sometimes 
applied to a goat, which suckled the newborn 
Zeus in Crete, while bees brought him honey, 
and which was therefore set among the stars 
by her nursling : sometimes to a nymph 
who was supposed to possess a miraculous 
horn, a symbol of plenty, and whose descent 
was variously given. According to one 
version she is the daughter of the Cretan 
king Melisseus, and brings up the infant 
god on the milk of a goat, while her sister 
Melissa (a bee) offers him hone}-. The horn 
of the goat is given to her by Zeus, with 
the promise that she shall always find in 
it whatever she wishes. From her the 
cornucopia passed into the possession of 



tin- i i « bo n a i glad i" 

inge n for ln> own horn, whioh 

had broken off. It is al 
mte "i I'ii nyans, of I'luiiis, and other 

i . uililv felicity, 
Amazons (Qr.AmAtdnia; "bn 
\ mythioaJ nation oJ women-y anion, whose 
headquarti planed by enrlj l 

11 Chem oyra, on i he Thei mOdAn, 
i'ii the Bontheni hore of the ICnxine. In 
rants they also appear on the 
Oanoasns and on the Don, where the 
nation called Sauri'miata* was supposed to 
luuo sprung from their union with the 
Scythians. They suffered no nun anwmg 
them : the sons bom of their intercourse 
with neighbouring nations they either killed 
ut back to their fathers; the girls they 
brought tip to be 
warriors, burning 
the right breast off 
for the better 
handling of the 
bow. Their chief 
deities were said 
to be Arcs and the 
Taurian Artemis. 
Even in Homer 
they are repre- 
sented as making 
long marches into 
Asiatic territory: 
an army of them 
invading Lyeia is 
cut to pieces by 
Bellerophon ; 
Priam, then iu his 
youth, hastens to 
help the Phrygians 
against them. 
They gained a firm 
footing in Greek 
song and story 
through Arctinus 
of Miletus, in 
whose poem their 
queen Penthe- w.»//. 

sileia, daughter of AMAZ0N AFTEK polyclitus. 

Ares, as ^Priam's (Berlin Museum.) 

ally, presses hard on the Greeks, till she 
is slain by Achilles. After that they be- 
came a favourite subject with poets and 
artists, and a new crop of fable sprang up: 
Heracles wars against them, to win the 
girdle of their queen, Hippolyte ; Theseus 
carries off her sister Antlope, they in 
revenge burst into Attica, encamp on the 
Areopagus of Athens, and are pacified by 
Antiope's mediation, or, according to an- 


i • i a\ e- and - Bupp 

of Amnions were shown ueai M.-m, and 
in I Cuba a and Thi arj . In woi ks c 

the \hi... 

maids, though always will, two Li' 
and usually "li li"i BOme timet iii 

Scythian dress fa tight fur tunic, with a 
"i many folds ovei it, and a kind 
of Phrygian cap), sometimes in Q 
1 1 i an tunic tucked up and the right shoul- 
der bare"), armed with a hall Mild, 
. spear, bow, and quiver, etc. 
The most famous statues of them iu an- 
tiquity were those by Phidias, Polyclitus, 
and Cresllas, io one or other of which, as 

types, existing specimens are traceable. 

S« out.: Among the surviving sculptures 

representing an Amazonian contest should 
be especially mentioned the reliefs from 
the frieze of Apollo's temple at Bassse in 
Arcadia (in the British Museum, London). 

Ambarvalia. The Italian festival of bless- 
ing the fields, which was kept at Rome on 
May 29th The country people walked in 
solemn procession three times round their 
fields in the wake of the su-ove-taur-tlia, 
i.e. a hog, ram, and bull, which were sacri- 
ficed after a prayer originally addressed 
to Mars, afterwards usually to Ceres and 
other deities of agriculture, that the fruits 
of the fields might thrive. Comp. Arvai. 

Ambitus ilit., a going round) meant at 
Rome the candidature for a public office, 
because going round among the citizens was 
originally- the principal means of winning 
their favour. When unlawful means began 
to be used, and bribery in every form was 
organized into a system, the word came to 
mean obtaining of office by illegal means. 
To check the growing evil, laws were 
passed at an early period, and from time 
to time made more severe. The penalties, 
which ranged at different times from tines 
and inadmissibility to office to banishment 
for ten years and even for life, produced 
no lasting effect. At last a special stand- 
ing criminal court was established for 
trying such cases, till under the Empire 
recourse was had to a radical change in 
the mode of election. 

Ambrosia. Anything that confers or 
preserves immortality: (1) the food of the 
gods (as nectar was their drinks, which 
doves, according to Homer, bring daily to 
Zeus from the far west : (2) the anointing oil 
of the gods, which preserves even dead men 
from decay : \3) the food of the gods' horses. 



Amburbram. The Latin name for a 
solemn procession of the people, with the 
various orders of priesthood led by the 
pontiles three times round the boundaries 
of Rome. It was only resorted to at a 
time of great distress, and the animals 
destined to make atonement, viz. a hog, a 
ram, and a bull (the so called sudvetaurilia, 
see Ambarvalia), were sacrificed with 
special prayers outside the city. 

Ameipsias. A Greek poet of the old 
comedy, contemporary with Aristophanes, 
whom he twice overcame. Of his plays 
only slight fragments remain. 

Ammianus Marcellinus. The last Roman 
historian of any importance, born at Antioch, 
in Syria, about 330 a.d., of noble Grecian 
descent. After receiving a careful educa- 
tion, he early entered military service, and 
fought under Julian against the Alemanui 
and Persians. In the evening of his days 
he retired to Rome, and about 390 began 
his Latin history of the emperors (Reruin 
Gcstdrum Libri), from Nerva, a.d. 96, to 
the death of Valens, in thirty-one books. 
Of these there only remain books xiv.-xxxi., 
including the period from 353 to 378 a.d., 
which he relates for the most part as an 
eye-witness. As his work may be regarded 
as a continuation of Tacitus, he seems, on 
the whole, to have taken that writer for 
his model. He resembles Tacitus in judg- 
ment, political acuteness, and love of truth. 
A heathen himself, he is nevertheless fair 
to the Christians. But he is far inferior 
in literary culture, though he loves to dis- 
play his knowledge, especially in describing 
nations and countries. Latin was a foreign 
language to him ; hence a crudeness and 
clumsiness of expression, which is made 
even more repellent by affectation, bom- 
bast, and bewildering ornamental imagery. 

Amnion (or Hammon • Egyptian Amun, 
the hidden or veiled one). A god native 
to Libya and Upper Egypt. He was re- 
presented sometimes in the shape of a ram 
with enormous curving horns, sometimes in 
that of a ram-headed man, sometimes as a 
perfect man standing up or sitting on a 
throne. On his head was the royal em- 
blems, with two high feathers standing up, 
the symbols of sovereignty over the upper 
and under worlds ; in his hands were the 
sceptre and the sign of life. In works of 
art his figure is coloured blue. Beside him 
stands the goddess Muth (the " mother," 
the "queen of darkness," as the inscriptions 
call her), wearing the crown of Upper Egypt 
or the vulture-skin (see cut). His chief 

temple, with a tar-famed oracle, stood in 
an oasis of the Libyan desert, twelve days' 
journey from Memphis. Between this 
oracle and that of Zeus at Dodona a con- 
nexion is said to have existed from very 
ancient times, so that the Greeks early 
identified the Egyptian god with their own 
Zeus, as the Romans did afterwards with 
their Jupiter ; and his worship found an 
entrance at several places in Greece, at 
Sparta, Thebes, and also Athens, whence 
festal embassies were regularly sent to the 
Libyan sanctuary (see Theoria). When 
the oracle was consulted by visitors, the 
god's symbol, made of emerald and other 
stones, was carried round by women and 
girls, to the sound of hymns, on a golden 
ship hung round with votive cups of silver. 
His replies were given in tremulous shocks 
communicated to the bearers, which were 
interpreted by a priest. 


Amor. The god of love. See Eros. 

Ampelius (Lucius). A Roman writer not 
earlier than the 2nd century a.d. He was 
the author of a notebook, Liber Memori- 
alise which contains a scant)- collection of 
astronomical, geographical, and historical 
jottings. Paltry as the book is, a state- 
ment in its chapter on the wonders of the 
world has mainly led to the discovery (in 
1878) of the magnificent sculptures of Per- 
gamuin, now at Berlin. 

Amphiaraus, of Argos, the son of Oi'cles 
and Hypermnestra, great-grandson of the 
seer, Melampus. In Homer he is a favourite 
of Zeus and Apollo, alike distinguished as 
a seer and a hero, who takes part in the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, in the voyage of the 



oauts, and the expedition of the Seven 

rhebCM. I ><• ■ 'II. I li-<l lo Atil'IIMtllH 

.1 - 1 • • I, iui'I wedded to his 

Eriphfle, be agrees thai an} future differ- 
between them shall be settled bj her. 
She, lniln"l by PolyneioSs with the fatal 
necklace "I his ancestress Harmdnia, insists 
on hex husband joining the war against 
Thebes, though he foresees thai it will end 
fatally for him, and in departing charges 

liis youthful sons and Atnplii- 

l&chus ('/■'■• to avenge liis ooming death. 
His wise warnings are unheeded by the 
other princes; Ins justice and prudence 
even bring him into open strife with the 
savage Tydeus ; yel in the fatal closing con- 
test he loyally avenges liis death on the 
Theban Melanippus. In the flight, jnal as 
the sprat- of rericljhnfinus is descending 

on him, Zrtts interposed to save the pious 

prophet and make him immortal by cleav- 
ing the earth open with his thunderbolt, 
and bidding it swallow up Amphiaraus, 
together with his trusty charioteer Baton, 
like himself a descendant of lielampus. 
From that time forth Amphiaraus was wor- 
shipped in various places as an oracular 
god, especially at Oropus on the frontier 
of Attica and Boeotia, where he had a 
temple and a famous oracle for the inter- 
pretation of dreams, and where games were 
celebrated in honour of him. 

Amphidrdniia. Ar Athens, a family fes- 
tival, at which newborn infants received 
religious consecration. See Education'. 

Amphictyons {Grr. AmpMktydnSs). This 
Greek word meant literally "dwellers 
around," but in a special sense was applied 
to populations which at stated times met at 
the same sanctuary to keep a festival in 
common, and to transact common business. 
The most famous and extensive union of 
the kind was that called par excellence 
the Amphictyonic League, whose common 
sanctuaries were the temple of Pythian 
Apollo at Delphi, and the temple of Deineter 
(Ceres i at Anthela, near Pylse or Thermo- 
pylae. After Pyla? the assembly was named 
the Pylaan, even when it met at Delphi, 
and the deputies of the league pylagoraj. 
The league was supposed to be very ancient, 
as old even as the name of Hellenes ; for 
its founder was said to be Amphictyon, the 
son of Deucalion, and brother of Hellen, the 
common ancestor of all Hellenes. It included 
twelve populations : Malians, Phthians, 
.finianes or (Etceans, Dolopes, Magnetians, 
Perrhoebians, Thessalians, Locrians, Dorians, 
Phocians, Boeotians, and Ionians, together 

with the oolonii h. Though In 

times their extent and 

il, ; Si in point of luu thl 

equal ngnl i, Beside pi otet tint,' and pre- 
serving i li two land q and 

brating from the year B66 b.i . onward 
Pythian Qames, the league «;h bound to 
maintain oei tain principles of interna 
right, which forbade them, for ins 

ever to ilrsti'oy utterly any I ity of the 

leagut k ater, even in time 

of war. To the assemblies, which met 
every spring and [autumn, each nation 
two hieromnSmOnSs | wardens of holy 
things i and several ]>yln;/orm. Tin- 
took part in the debates, buf only the 
former had the right of voting, when a 
nation included several states, these took 
by turns the privilege of sending deputies. 
But the. stronger states, snoh as the Ionian 
Athens or the Dorian Sparta were probably 
allowed to take their turn oftener than the 
rest, or even to send to every assembly. 
When violations of the sanctuaries or of 
popular right took place, the assembly 
could inflict fines or even expulsion : and 
a state that would not submit to the punish- 
ment had a "holy war"' declared against 
it. By such a war the Phocians were ex- 
pelled B.C. 346, and their two votes given 
to the Macedonians ; but the expulsion of 
the former was withdrawn because of the 
glorious part they took in defending the 
Delphian temple when threatened by the 
Gauls in 279 B.C., and at the same time 
the jEtolian community which had already 
made itself master of the sanctuary, was 
acknowledged as a new member of the 
league. In 191 B.C. the number of members 
amounted to seventeen, who nevertheless 
had only twenty-four votes, seven having 
two votes each, the rest only one. Under 
the Roman rule, the league continued to 
exist ; but its action was now limited to 
the care of the Delphian temple. It was re- 
organized by Augustus, who incorporated 
the Malians, Magnetians, -Enianes, and 
Pythians with the Thessalians, and sub- 
stituted for the extinct Dolopes the city 
of Mcopolis in Acarnania, which he had 
founded after the battle of Actium. The 
last notice we find of the league is in the 
2nd century a.d. 

Amphllochus. Son of Amphiaraus and 
Eriphyle, Alcmaeon's brother. He was a 
seer, and according to some took part in 
the war of the Epigoni and the murder of 
his mother. He was said to have founded 
the Amphilochian Argos (near Neokhori) in 




Acarnania. Later legend represents him 
as taking part in the Trojan War, and on 
the fall of Troy going to Cilicia with 
Mopsus (q.v.), and there founding a famous 
oracle at Mai) us. At last the two killed 
each other while fighting for the possession 
ot' it. 

Amphlon and Zethus. The Boeotian Dios- 
curi, twin sons of Antiope {q.v.) by Zeus, 
though the later legend makes Zethus a son 
of Epopeus. Exposed on Mount Cithseron, 
they are found and brought up by a shep- 
herd ; when grown up, they recognise their 


(Rome, Spada Palace.) 

mother, who has fled from imprisonment at 
Thebes, where she has been ill-treated by 
Dirce. the wife of Lycus who governs 
Thebes as guardian to Lai'us. They avenge 
their mother by tying her tormentress to 
the horns of a bull, which drags her to 
death. They then cast her corpse into a 
spring near Thebes, which takes from her 
the name of Dirce. Seizing the sovereignty 
bv slaying Lycus, or, according to another 
account, having it given up to them by 
Lycus at the bidding of Hermes, they 

fortify Thebes with walls and towers, be- 
cause (says Homer), despite their strength, 
they could no more inhabit the wide town 
without a wall to defend it. Zethus brings 
up the stones with his strong arm, while 
Amphion, a harper of more than mortal 
skill, fits them together by the music of his 
lyre. Zethus marries Thebe, the daughter 
of Asopus, or, according to another account, 
Aedon, daughter of Pandareos (q.v.) ; Am- 
phion is the luckless husband of Niobe, and 
after seeing the ruin of his family, is said 
to have killed himself, and to have been 
been buried in one grave with his brother 
at Thebes. The punishment of Dirce is 
the subject of the marble group by Apollo- 
nius and Tauriscus, known as the Farm si 
Bull (now at Naples). (For cut, see Dirce, 
and comp. Sculpture.) 

[In the Antiope of Euripides, and else- 
where, the two brothers were sharply con- 
trasted with one another, Zethus being the 
rude and strong and active huntsman, 
Amphion the gentle and contemplative 
musician. This contrast is exemplified in 
works of art, especially in the fine relief 
in the Spada Palace. (See cut)]. 

Amphiprostylus. A temple with an open 
colonnade at each end. See Temples. 

Amphithalamos. A bedroom in a Greek 
dwelling-house. See House. 

Amphitheatron. A circular theatre, i.e. 
a building in which the space for spectators 
entirely surrounds that where the spectacle 
is exhibited. These buildings, designed for 
combats of gladiators and wild beasts 
(venat tones), were first erected in Italy, 
but in Campania sooner than at Rome. 
The first known at Rome were temporary 
wooden structures, like that of Scribonius 
Curio, who in B.C. 50 made an amphitheatre 
out of two revolving theatres by joining 
them back to back, or that of Caesar in 46. 
The first stone amphitheatre, erected by 
Statilius Taurus in B.C. 29, was burnt down 
in the fire of Nero, who then built a 
wooden one again. A second one of stone 
was begun by Vespasian, consecrated by 
Titus, a.d. 80, and finished by Domitian 
(all three of the Flavian gens). The ruins 
of this Amphitheatrum Flavium, which 
was 158 feet high, and accommodated 
87,000 spectators, are the famous Colos- 
seum. In the provinces too the large 
towns had their amphitheatres, of which 
the best preserved are those of Verona 
and Capua in Italy, Aries and Nimes in 
France. Of this last our first two illustra- 
tions give the elevation and the ground-plan 

\MI'llll'l;l IK \miiiiti:vox. 


An amphitheatn mi usually an oval 
buildii i ounding an an »" "f like 

shape, « hioh sometimes, as al Komi 
Capua, uas ii plank floor resting on dei p 
underground w tils, i be ■paces nndi i 

and machine! \ for trans- 
formal ioni . I'll' 1 exterior whs formed of 

al aroades, one then e the ol her, the 
lowe i one admitting to a oorridor, which 
ran round the building, and oul oi which 

lases led up to the various rows of 
In i he t !oloBseum this firel aroade 

is ador I with I loric, i lio sccniiil wiili 

the i bird with Corinl bias " en id 

columns; the fourth is a wall decorated 

— 1 



(1) i in; A-urii ITHEATR1 \ I nIMEB. 

(External elevation.) 





Ground plan in four quarter*. 

A. Bird's eye view of seats rising in tiers to highest part 
of external iuclosure. 

B. Plan of highest storey, exposed by removal of highest 
tiers of seats. 

C. Plan of intermediate storey, exposed by removal of 
highest and intermediate tiers. 

D. True ground plan, or plan of lowest storey. 

with Corinthian pilasters, and pierced with 
windows (sec Architecture, figs. 8-10). 

Immediately round the arena ran a high, 
massive wall, with vaults for the animals 
and for other purposes. On it rested the 
pddium, protected by its height and by 
special contrivances from the wild beasts 
when fighting ; here were the seats of 
honour, e.g. at Rome, those of the imperial 
family, the officers of state, and the Vestal 
Virgins. Above the podium rose the seats 

of mil . the 

i i k, 
lenighta, and thi 
bisons. Women al in the hi 
oi i be building, undi i 

bich w ere port ioned ofl i"i the 

oommon people. The whole i i foi 

could I" ihi i i Er i 'in and rain by 

an vn ning supported on ma ts, bii b were 

i liai iMt ted 
the oppi ' oiroumference. 'I 
ni o i"' Is id under water for I be ezhifa 
oi sea-fights, the so-called naumdehice 

Amphitrite, daughter oi Nereus 
Doris, is the wife of Posi idon and queen of 
the sea, Poseidon saw her dancing with 
the Nereids on the island of Naxos 
carried her off. According to anothei 
count she fled from him to Atlas, when the 
god's dolphin spied her out and brought 
her to him. In Homer she is not yet called 
Poseidon's wife, but a sea-goddess, who 
beats the billows against the rocks, and 
has the creatures of the deep in her keep- 
ing. Her son is the sea-god Triton. She 
had no separate worship. She is often 
represented with a net confining her hair, 
with crabs' claws on the crown of her head. 
being carried by Tritons, or by dolphins 
and other marine animals, or drawn by 
them in a chariot of shells. As the Romans 
identified Poseidon with their Neptune, so 
they did Amphitrite with Salacia, a god- 
dess of the salt waves. 

Amphitryon. Son of Alcseus, grandson of 
Perseus, and king of Tiryns. His father's 
brother, Elektryon, king of Mycenae, had 
occasion to go out on a war of vengeance 
against Pterelaiis, king of the Taphians and 
Teleboans in Acarnania and the neighbour- 
ing isles, whose sons had carried off his 
cattle, and have slain his own sons, all but 
young Licymnius. He left Amphitryon in 
charge of his kingdom, and betrothed to 
him his daughter Alcmene. On his return 
Amphitryon killed him, in quarrel or by 
accident, and, driven away by another 
uncle, Sthenelus, fled with his betrothed 
and her brother Licymnius to Creon. king 
of Thebes, a brother of his mother Hippo- 
nome, who purged him of blood-guilt, and 
promised, if he would first kill the Tau- 
messian fox, to help him against Pterelaus : 
for Alcmene would not wed him till her 
brethren were avenged. Having rendered 
the fox harmless with the help of Cephalus 
(q.v.) he marched, accompanied by Creon, 
Cephalus, and other heroes, against the 



Teleboans, and conquered their country. 
Pterilaus' daughter Comsetho had first 
killed her father by plucking out the 
golden hair, to whose continual possession 
was attached the boon of immortality be- 
stowed on him by Poseidon. He slew the i 
traitress, and, handing over the Taphian , 
kingdom to Cephalus, he returned to Thebes 
and married Alcmene. She gave birth to 
twins ; Iphicles by him, and Heracles by 
Zeus. At last he falls in the war with 
Erginus (q. v.), the Minyan king of Orcho- 

Amph6ra, Lat. (Gr. Amphoreus). A two- 
handled, big-bellied vessel, usually of clay, 
with a longish or shortish neck, and a mouth 
proportioned to the size, sometimes resting 
firmly on a foot, but often ending in a blunt 
point, so that in the store-room it had to lean 
against the wall, or be sunk in sand, and 
when brought out for use, to be put in a 
basket, wine-cooler, or hollow stand. (See 
Vessels, fig. 2, a and b). It served to 
keep oil, honey, and more especially the 
wine drawn off from the big fermenting 
vats. It was fastened with a clay stopper, 
plastered over with pitch, loam, or gypsum, 
and had a ticket stating the kind, the 
year, and the quantity of the wine it con- 
tained. The Greek amphoreus was a 
large liquid measure, holding nearly 9 gal- 
lons (see Metretes), the Roman measure 
called amphora held 6 gallons and 7 pints. 

Amphoterus. See Acarnan. 

Ampliatio. The Latin term for a delay 
of verdict pending the production of further 
evidence in a case not clear to the judges. 
Comp. Comperendinatio. 

Ampulla. See Vessels. 

Amicus. Son of Poseidon ; a gigantic 
king of the Bebrycians on the Bithynian 
coast, who forced every stranger that landed 
there to box with him. When the Argo- i 
nauts wished to draw water from a spring i 
in his country, he forbade them, but was 
conquered and killed in a match with Poly- 
deuces (Pollux). 

Amymone. A daughter of Danaus (q.v.), 
and mother of Nauplius by Poseidon. 

Anacreon. A Greek lyric poet, born about 
550 B.C. at Teos, an Ionian town of Asia, 
whose inhabitants, to escape the threatened 
yoke of Persia, migrated to Abdera in 
Thrace B.C. 540. From Abdera Anacreon 
went to the tyrant Polycrates, of Samos, 
after whose death (B.C. 522) he removed to 
Athens on the invitation of Hipparchus, 
and lived there, till the fall of the Peisis- 
tratidse, on friendly terms with his fellow 

poet Simonldes and Xanthippus, the father 
of Pericles. He is said to have died at 
Abdera, in his eighty-sixth year, choked by 
the stone of a dried grape. A statue of 
him stood in the Acropolis at Athens in 
the guise of an aged minstrel inspired by 
the wine-god. For Anacreon was regarded 
as the type of a poet who, in spite of age, 
paid perpetual homage to wine and love. 
Love and wine and merry company formed 
the favourite subjects of his light, sweet, 
and graceful songs, which were cast in the 
metres of the ^Eolic poets, but composed 
in the Ionic dialect. Beside fragments of 
such songs and of elegies, we have also a 
number of epigrams that bear his name. 
His songs were largely imitated, and of 
such imitations we have under his name 
a collection of about sixty love-songs and 
drinking-songs of very various (partly 
much later) dates, and of different degrees 
of merit. 

Anacrlsls. In Attic law, the preliminary 
examination of the parties to a suit. 

Anaxagoras. A Greek philosopher, of 
Clazoinenae in Asia Minor, born about 500 
B.C. Sprung from a noble family, but wish- 
ing to devote himself entirely to science, he 
gave up his property to his kinsmen, and 
removed to Athens, where he lived in in- 
timacy with the most distinguished men, 
above all with Pericles. Shortly before the 
outbreak of the Peloponnesian War he 
was charged by the political opponents of 
Pericles with impiety, i.e. with denying the 
gods recognised by the State ; and though 
acquitted through his friend's influence, he 
felt compelled to emigrate to Lampsacus, 
where he died soon after, aged 72. He not 
only had the honour of giving philosophy 
a home at Athens, where it went on flourish- 
ing for quite a thousand years, but he was 
the first philosopher who, by the side of 
the material principle, introduced a spiritual, 
which gives the other life and form. He 
laid down his doctrine in a work On Nature 
in the Ionic dialect, of which only frag- 
ments are preserved. Like Parmenides, 
he denied the existence of birth or death; 
the two processes were rather to be de- 
scribed as a mingling and unmingling. The 
ultimate elements of combination are in- 
divisible, imperishable primordia of infinite 
number, and differing in shape, colour, and 
taste, called by himself " seeds of things," 
and by later writers (from an expression 
of Aristotle) hdmeedmerc, i.e. particles of 
like kind with each other and with the 
whole that is made up of them. At first 

\N \\ \\l»i;ll»KS \\<Yi:\\i\l MONIMKNTUM 


w it h'>ut order . bat 1 1 1 . - 
divine spirit simple, pure, pe ionless 
the anarranged matter into 
motion, end therein created oat of ohi 

v world. This move at, pro 

ing from the centre, works on fei 

t rating farther and farther the infinite 

Urn the applicat ion of the spirit nal 

prinoiple was rather indicated than fully 

. irrieo oat by Anaxagorw; he himself 

explains phenomena by physical 

. -. and only when be cannot find I hese, 
falls bach on the action of divine reason. 

Anaxamli iilrs A Greek poet of the 
Middle Comedy, a Rnodian, nourish 
B76 B.C. He is stated to have been the 
tirst who made love affairs the snbject of 
iv. His plays were characterised by 
brightness and bumonr, bat only fragments 
of them are preset 

Anaxlmander Hr. -mandrds). AG 
philosopher of Miletus: born B.C. 611; a 
younger contemporary of Thales and I'li.r.-- 
o$des. Ho lived at the court of Polyor&tes 
of Samos, and ilied b.c. 547. In his philo- 
sophy the prima] essence, which he was the 
tirst to call principle, was the immortal- 
imperishable, all-including infinite, a kind 
of chaos, out of which all things proceed, 
ami into which they return. He composed, 
in the Ionic dialect, a brief and somewhat 
36 on his doctrine, which may 
be regarded as the earliest prose work on 
philosophy ; but only a few sentences out 
of it are preserved. The advances he had 
made in physics and astronomy are evi- 
denced by his invention of the sun-dial. 
his construction of a celestial globe, and his 
iirst attempt at a geographical map. 

Anaximenes. 1 1 A Greek philosopher of 
Miletus, a younger contemporary and pupil 
of Anaximander, who died about 502 B.C. 
He supposed air to be the fundamental 
principle, out of which everything arose by 
rarefaction and condensation. This doctrine 
he expounded in a work, now lost, written 
in the Ionian dialect. 

_ A Greek sophist of Lampsacus, a 
favourite of Philip of Macedon and Alex- 
ander the Great. He composed orations and 
historical works, some treating of the ac- 
tions of those two princes. Of these but 
little remains. On the other hand, he is 
the author of the Rhetoric dedicated to 
All cander, the earliest extant work of this 
kind, which was once included among the 
Vorks of Aristotle. 

Anchises. Son of Capys, of the royal 
house of Troy by both parents, ruler of 

"ii Mount [ds kphr 
him for J ■ j — beauty, aid bait him ■ 

Dm having, in hi i » si n 

ed "i' her favoni . I 

to \ ;i ions of > I 

killed, or struck blind by tin- li 

\ ■ i - i 1 r o pr o si ate I !>• di bled 
as borne "in of burning Tiny ,i, hi 

shoulders, and as sharing his waul. 
over the Bee, and aiding liiin with liis 

el, i HI i bej reach | Irep&nnm in Sicily, 
where he dies, and is buried on Mount 


Ancilg. The small oval sacred shield, 
curved inwards on either side, which was 
.-aid to have fallen from heaven in the reign 
ot' Xiiuia. There being a prophecy that the 
stability of Rome was bound up with it, 
NomS had eleven others made exactly like 
it by a cunning workman, Ma mucins Ve- 
turius, so that the right one should i 
stolen. The care of these arms, which 
were sacred to Mars was entrusted to the 

'axcii.ia BoKNE by two salii, with 

legend in etruscan characters. 

Above = Gk. ATKYAJS, ancile; below= AAKE, 

-4Ic<rtts, the owner's name. (Gem in Florence.) 

Salii (q.v.), who had to carry them through 
the city once a year with peculiar cere- 
monies. At the conclusion of their songs 
Mainurius himself was invoked, and on 
March 14th they held a special feast, the 
Mamuralia, at which they sacrificed to 
him, beating on a hide with staves, prob- 
ably to imitate a smith's hammering. It 
is likely that the name Mainurius conceals 
that of the god Mars (or Mamers) himself. 

Ancyranum Monumentum. The monu- 
ment of Ancyra (now Angora), a marble 
slab, of which the greater part is pre- 
served. It belonged to the temple of 
Augustus at Ancyra, and contained the 
Latin text of a Greek translation of the 
report drawn up by that emperor himself 
on the actions of his reign {Index Rerum 
a se Gestarum). By the terms of his will 
this report, engraved in bronze, was set 



up in front of his mausoleum at Rome, and 
copies were made of it for other temples 
of Augustus in the provinces. 

Andabatae. See Gladiators. 

Andocides. The second in order of time 
in the roll of Attic orators. He was born 
B.C. 439, and belonged by birth to the 
aristocratic party, but fell out with it in 
415, when he was involved in the famous 
trial for mutilating the statues of Hermes, 
and, to save his own and his kinsmen's 
lives, betrayed his aristocratic accomplices. 
Having, in spite of the immunity promised 
him, fallen into partial at'tmia (loss of civic 
rights), he left Athens, and carried on a 
profitable trade in Cyprus. After two 
fruitless attempts to recover his status at 
home, he was allowed at last, upon the 
fall of the Thirty and the amnesty of B.C. 
403, to return to Athens, where he suc- 
ceeded in repelling renewed attacks, and 
gaining an honourable position. Sent to 
Sparta in B.C. 390, during the Corinthian 
War, to negotiate peace, he brought back 
the draft of a treaty, for the ratification 
of which he vainly pleaded in a speech 
that is still extant. He is said to have 
been banished in consequence, and to 
have died in exile. Beside the above- 
mentioned oration, we have two delivered 
on his own behalf, one pleading for 
his recall from banishment, B.C. 410 ; 
another against the charge of unlawful 
participation in the mysteries, B.C. 399 ; 
a fourth, Against Alcibiades, is spurious. 
His oratory is plain and artless, and its 
expressions those of the popular lan- 
guage of the day. 

Androgeos. Son of Minos, kins: of 
Crete by Pasfphae. Visiting Athens 
at the first celebration of the Pana- 
thenaea, he won victories over all the 
champions, when king ^Egeus, out of 
jealousy, sent him to fight the bull of 
Marathon, which killed him. Accord- 
ing to another account he was slain in 
an ambush. Minos avenges his son by 
making the Athenians send seven youths 
and seven maidens every nine years as 
victims to his Minotaur, from which 
Theseus at last delivers them. Funeral 
games were held in the Ceramicus at 
Athens in honour of Androgeus under the 
name of Eurygyes. 

Andromache. The daughter of Eetion, 
king of the Cilician Thebes, is one of the 
noblest female characters in Homer, dis- 
tinguished alike by her ill-fortune and her 
true and tender love for her husband. Hec- 

tor. Achilles, in taking her native town, 
kills her father and seven brothers : her 
mother, redeemed from captivity, is carried 
off by sickness ; her husband falls by the 
hand of Achilles; and when Tro}- is taken 
she sees her one boy, Astyanax (or Scaman- 
der), hurled from the walls. She falls, as 
the prize of war, to Neoptolemus, the son 
of her greatest foe, who first carries her 
to Eplrus, then surrenders her to Hector's 
brother, Helenus. After his death she re- 
turns to Asia with Pergamus, her son by 
Neoptolemus, and dies there. 

Andromeda. Daughter of the ^Ethiopian 


(Rome, Capitoline Museum.) 

king Cepheus (a son of Belus) by Cassiopeia. 
Cassiopeia had boasted of being fairer than 
the Nereids, and Poseidon to punish the 
profanity, sent a flood and a sea-monster. 
As the oracle of Ammon promised a rid- 
dance of the plague should Andromeda be 
thrown to the monster, Cepheus was com- 
pelled to chain his daughter to a rock on 
the shore. At this moment of distress Per- 
seus appears, and rescues her, her father 
having promised her to him in marriage. 
At the wedding a violent quarrel arises 
between the king's brother, Phineus, to 


w l ihe bad bwn betrol bed before, and 

Perseus, who tnrni his rival into stone 
with the I bead. Andromeda fol- 

Pereeo . and bet i 

be i minus line "i i •. 
. V 1 1 h • 1 1 : i set her among the stars. 

Andionitis. The men's apartments in a 
\m eek boose. Si < 1 1 < ► i BE. 

Androtlon. A Greek historian, an Athe- 
nian, and a pupil of I mimics, who was 
ad of making an illegal proposal and 
went into baniahmrui ;n Megara. (We 
have tli" speech oomposed by Demosthenes 
for one of the aoonsers.) At Megara he 
wrote a liistniv of Attioa (see Attiusi in 
al least 12 books, "lie of the best of that 
class nt' writings; but only fragments of it 

have survived. 

Angdistis. See Km: a. 

Anius. Son of A]iollo by Rhoeo or Creiisa, 
whoso father, Stiiphylns of Naxos, a son of 
Dionysus and Ariadne, committed her to 
the sea in a box. She was carried to Delos, 
and there gave birth to her son Anius. 
Apollo taught him divination, and made 
him his priesl and king of Delos. His son 
Thasus, like Linus and Actseon, was torn 
to pieces by dogs, after which no dogs were 
allowed in the island. His daughters by 
the nymph DorippG, being descendants of 
Dionysus, had the gift of turning anything 
they pleased into wine, corn, or oil ; but 
when Agamemnon on his way to Troy 
wished to take them from their father by 
force, Dionysus changed them into doves. 

Annalists. A series of writers on Roman 
history, older than those usually called 
the historians, beginning about 200 B.C., 
and covering about a century and a half. 
They related their country's story from its 
first beginnings down to their own times, 
treating the former briefly, the latter in 
full detail, and at first always in Greek, 
like Fabius Pictoe and Cincius Alimen- 
tds. With Porcius Cato (q.v.) com- 
menced composition in Latin and a livelier 
interest in native history, which constantly 
stimulated new efforts to celebrate the 
deeds of their forefathers. Two main char- 
acteristics of these annalists are the free 
use the}- made of their predecessors, and an 
inclination to suppress unfavourable facts, 
which gradually grew into a habit of 
flattering the national vanity by exaggera- 

Works dealing in this manner with the 
whole of Roman history, or large sections 
of it, continued to be written in Cicero's 
time. The leading annalists of this class 

D. C. A. 

ni'' : I '\ ii II I m ■ 

Calfi 188 ; 

h'ANMi l coo hi in B.C. 122; i . wh.. 

u rote aiiout the same tinn 

• •t Anndli i I i u i'ii i,m \m ii 
a ■ "in' mp Sulla, anthor - 

twenty-three b'">l<s, from the Gallic 

n to his "« ii time -. bis yo 


all Soman history in sen oty-five bo 

I.h lMi - .M \' i k. who " ithor 

of the earlier history, in twenty-one books. 
Borne few writers, on the other hand, con- 

tin'-' i tie in- ( . i .. h, 

' r periods: first, GfiLIUB Antiiwi i i;. 
aboul B.C. L20 (whose history of the Second 
Punic War in seven books, was noted for its 
accuracy); then SEMPBONIUS A ski, no, about 
B.C. 100, who, in his account of events he 
had taken part in (Merum Gcstamm Lihri, 
fourteen at least), was the first who, not 
content with barely relating facts, tried to 
explain the reasons of them ; and Cornelius 
Siskxxa, who lived 120-67 B.C. and wrote at 
least twenty-three books on the brief p 
between the Social War and Sulla's dicta- 
torship. To these works, in which history 
has begun to assume the character of me- 
moirs, we may add the autobiography of 
Cornelius Sulla the dictator (Rerum 
Sua nun Co, mm nt&rii in twenty-two books), 
which he wrote in self-justification at the 
end of his career. He died B.C. 78. All 
these works are lost, except scanty frag- 
ments ; but the later Greek and Roman 
writers had made full use of them. 

Annals (Annclles). Year-books. From 
early times a record of all important events 
at Rome had been kept in chronological order 
by the high priest (pontifex maxlmus) 
for the time, who every year exhibited in his 
official residence a whited board (album), 
on which, after the names of the magistrates 
for the year, occurrences of all kinds — 
war, dearth, pestilence, prodigies — were set 
down briefly according to their dates. These 
annates pontificutn or annates maxtini 
i supposed to be so called after the pontifex 
maximus), though destroyed at the burn- 
ing of Rome by the Gauls, B.C. 389, were 
restored as far as possible, and continued 
till B.C. 130. Collected afterwards in eighty 
books, they were at once utilized and super- 
seded by the so-called Annalists {q.v.). 

Anna Perenna. An ancient Italian god- 
dess, about whose exact attributes the 
ancients themselves were not clear. She is 
probably the moon-goddess of the revolving 
year, who every month renews her youth, 




and was therefore regarded as a goddess 
who bestowed long lite and all that contri- 
butes to it. About full moon on the Ides 
^tifteenth) of March (then the first month of 
the year,), in a grove of fruit trees at the first 
milestone on the Flaminian Way, the Eomans 
held a merry feast under the open sky, 
wishing each other as many years of life 
as they drank cups of wine. The learned 
men of* the Augustan age identified Anna 
with Dido's sister, who, on the death of that 
queen, had fled from Carthage to JEneas 
in Italy, but, having excited Lavinia's 
jealousy, threw herself into the Xumicius, 
and became the nymph of that river. 

Annona. A Latin word meaning the 
year's produce, especially in wheat, the 
staple food of the city population; it was 
afterwards applied to the corn provided by 
the State to feed that population. As 
Italian agriculture decayed, and the city 
poptilation steadily increased, the question 
of its maintenance became a constant care 
to the State, which, on the conquest of the 
first two provinces, Sicily and Sardinia, at 
once doomed them, especially the former, 
to the task of victualling the armies and 
feeding Rome, by imposing a tithe on corn, 
and forbidding its exportation to any country 
but Italy. The tenth paid as tribute, and 
other corn bought up by the State, was sold 
by the aediles at a moderate price, usually 
on terms which prevented the treasury 
being a loser. Thus till the time of the 
Gracchi the cura annonce was confined to 
the maintenance of a moderate price ; but 
the corn law of Gaius Gracchus, B.C. 123. 
laid on the State the obligation to deliver 
to any Roman householder on demand 6{ 
bushels of wheat a month at a fixed price, 
which even in cheap times was less than half 
the cost price ; and Clodius in B.C. 58 went 
further, and made the delivery entirely 
gratuitous. By the year B.C. 46, the number 
of recipients had risen to 320,000, and the 
yearly outlay to a sum equivalent to £650,000. 
Csesar then reduced the recipients to 150,000 ; 
but their number grew again, till Augustus 
cut it down to 200,000, whose names were 
inscribed on a bronze table, and who received 
their monthly portion on presentation of a 
ticket. This arrangement as a whole re- 
mained in force till about the end of the 
Empire, except that in the 3rd century 
bread was given instead of grain. And, 
side by side with these gratuitous doles, 
grain could always be bought for a mode- 
rate price at magazines filled with the 
supplies of the provinces, especially Egypt 

and Africa, and with purchases made by 
the State. The expenses of the annona 
fell mainly on the [imperial treasury, but 
partly on that of the senate. From Augus- 
tus' time the cura annonoz formed one of 
the highest imperial offices, its holder, the 
pra>fcctits annona;, having a large staff 
scattered over Rome and the whole empire. 
The annona, like so many other things, 
was personified by the Romans, and became 
a goddess of the importation of corn, whose 
attributes were a bushel, ears of wheat, 
and a horn of plenty. 

Antaeus. Son of Poseidon and Ge (the 
earth) ; a huge giant in Libya, who grew 
stronger every time he touched his mother 
Earth. He forced all strangers to wrestle 
withhim, and killed them when conquered, till 
Heracles, on his journey to fetch the apples 
of the Hesperides, lifted him off the ground, 
and held him aloft till he had killed him. His 
tomb was shown near Tingis in Mauretania. 

Antae. A templum in antls was a temple 
in which the hall at either end was formed 
by prolongations of the side-walls (Lat. 
antae), and a row of columns between the 
terminal pilasters of those prolongations. 
See Temples, fig. 1. 

Anteia (otherwise Sthenobcea). Wife of 
Prcetus of Tiryns ; by slandering Belle- 
rophon (q.v.), who had rejected her offers 
of love, she caused her husband to attempt 
his life. 

Antenor. A Trojan of high rank, husband 
to Athena's priestess Theano, the sister of 
Hecuba. When Menelaus and Odysseus, 
after the landing of the Greeks, came as 
envoys to Troy, demanding the surrender 
of Helen, he received them hospitably, pro- 
tected them from Paris, and then as always 
advised peace. Because of this leaning to the 
Greeks, it was alleged in later times that 
he betrayed his native city by opening its 
gates to the enemy ; in return for which his 
house, known by the panther's hide hung out 
of it, was spared, and he and his friends 
allowed to go free. One account was, that 
he sailed with Menelaus, was driven out of 
his course to Cyrene, and settled there, 
where his descendants the Antenoridae were 
worshipped as heroes. Another, which be- 
came the accepted tradition, represented 
him as leading the Heneti, when driven 
out of Paphlagonia, by way of Thrace and 
Ulyria, to the Adriatic, and thence to the 
mouth of the Padus (Po), where he founded 
Patavium (Padua), the city of the Veneti. 

Anteros. The god of requited love, 
brother of Eros {q.v.). 


Aii(osi^n,iin \ Latin word denoting 
originally I ha wldiai i fight ing in fronl of 
iln' standard! during ;> battle; afterward! 
a pioked bod] 1 In every legion, free of bug- 
nnd intended to advance in fronl of 
the line of battle and seise important flints, 
.11 in open i he batl le. 

Atitevorta. See I Iarmekta. 

Antlicstcria. A feast al Athens held in 
honour of Dionyaue. Comp. Dionysia (4). 

Anthology t garland of Bowers). The 

Greek word anthSlfigla mean! s collection 

of short, especially epigrammatic poems, by 

me authors; we si ill possess one such 

■ iii m dating from antiquity. Collec- 
tions of inscriptions in verso had nioro limn 

once been set on fool in early times tor anti- 
quarian purposes. Tho first regular antho- 
logy, entitled St&ph&nde | wreath), was 
attempted by Melekget of Gftd&ra in the 1st 
century h.i'.; it contained, beside liis own 
compositions, poems arranged according to 
their initial letters, by forty-six contem- 
porary and older authors, including Axohl- 
[Qchus, .Vinous, Sa]i|ilio, AnacrSdn, Simon- 
ides, etc, together with a prologue still 
extant. This collection was enriched, about 
li k i a. p., by Philippus of Thesaalonloa, with 
select epigrams by about thirteen later 
authors. Other collections were under- 
taken soon after by Diogenidnus of Hera- 
cleia and Strati})} of Sardis, and in the 
6th century by Agathids of Myrina, in 
whose KyktSs the poems are for the first 
time arranged according to subjects. Out 
of these collections, now all lost, Oonstan- 
titnis CSphdldS of Constantinople, in the 
10th century, put together a new and com- 
prehensive anthology, classified according 
to contents in fifteen sections. From this 
collection the monk Maxim us Planudes, 
in the 14th century, made an extract 
of seven books, which was the only one 
known till the year 1606. In that year the 
French scholar Saumaise (Salmasius) dis- 
covered in the Palatine Library at Heidel- 
berg a complete manuscript of the antho- 
logy of Constantinus Cephalas with sundry 
additions. This MS., with all the other 
treasures of the library, was carried off to 
Rome in 1623, whence it was taken to Paris 
in 1793, and back to Heidelberg in 1816. 

The epigrams of the Greek anthology, 
dating as they do from widely distant ages 
down to the Byzantine, and being the pro- 
duction of more than three hundred dif- 
ferent authors, are of very various merit : 
lint many of them are among the pearls of 
Greek poetry, and could hardly have sur- 

vivi-'l anli h ■ collection, 

togel her with the i iota tore i f spi 
grams found in inscriptions, the Anthology 

opens to US 11 view of I In- < 1 • - \ ■ - 1 . . | . I ■ i • - 1 1 1. of 

i in . branch of ' rreek Litea at oi t m h 
can scarcely obtain in I he oa i oi 
besides affording valuable information on 
Hellenic language, history, :i n. I manni 
i he oi" i different periods. 

Roman literatut e ha i do reallj anoii at 
collection of so comprehensive a character, 

I lie so-called Latin Anthology having lioen 
gathered by modern scholars out of the 
i ial found scattered in various MSS. 
Among these, it is true, Saumaise's MS. oi 
the Tih century, now in Paris, has a col- 
loeiion of about 380 poems, bu: those, with 
a few exceptions, are of very late author- 

Antlddsis ( = exchange of properties). An 
arrangement peculiar to the Athenians, by 
which a citizen summoned to perform one 
of those services to the State named lii- 
tourgim (q-v-), if he thought a richer than 
he had been passed over, could challenge 
him to exchange possessions, binding him- 
self in that case to discharge the obliga- 
tion. Each party could then have the 
other's property put in sequestration and 
his house sealed up ; and within three days 
they handed in, before the proper authority 
and under oath, an inventory of their goods. 
If no amicable agreement was come to, and 
the judge's decision went against the plain- 
tiff, he was bound to perform the public 
service ; otherwise the defendant submitted 
either to the exchange or to the service. 

Antigone. (1) Daughter of (Edipus and 
Iocasta, who accompanied her blind father 
into exile. After his death in Attica she 
returns to Thebes, and, in defiance of her 
uncle Creon's prohibition, performs the last 
honours to her brother Polyneices, fallen in 
single fight with Eteocles, by strewing his 
body with dust. For this she is entombed 
alive in the family vault, and there hangs 
herself; and her betrothed, Heemon. the son 
of Creon, stabs himself beside her corpse. 
Such is the version of Sophocles. Another 
tradition represents Antigone and Argeia, 
the widow of Polyneices, as secretly burn- 
ing his body by night on the funeral pile 
of Eteocles. When seized by the guards, 
Creon hands her over to Hsemon for execu- 
tion ; but he hides her in a shepherd's hut, 
and lives with her in secret wedlock. Their 
son, grown up and engaging in some funeral 
games at Thebes, is recognised by a birth- 
mark peculiar to the family. To escape 



Creon's vengeance, Hsemon kills both Anti- 
gone and himself. 

(2) Antigone, daughter of Eurytlon and 
wife of Peleus (q.v.), hanged herself for 
grief at the supposed infidelity of her 

Antigonus. A Greek writer of Carystus, 
about 240 B.C., author of a collection of all 
kinds of curiosities and fictions in natural 
history. The work is now extant only in 
a much abbreviated form, and is of no 
value but for its numerous quotations and 
fragments from lost writings. 

Antigrapheus. The name of a financial 
officer at Athens. See Grammateus. 

Anticleia. Daughter of Autolycus, wife 
of Laertes, and mother of Odysseus (q.v.). 

Antilochus. The son of Nestor, who 
accompanied his father to the Trojan War, 
and was distinguished among the younger 
heroes for beauty and bravery. Homer 
calls him a favourite of Zeus and Poseidon. 
The dearest friend of Achilles next to 
Patroclus, he is chosen by the Greeks to 
break the news to him of his beloved com- 
panion's fall. When Memnon attacks the 
aged Nestor, Antilochus throws himself in 
his way, and buys his father's safety with 
his life. He, like Patroclus, is avenged by 
Achilles, in whose grave-mound the ashes 
of both friends are laid ; even in the lower 
world Odysseus beholds the three pacing 
the asphodel meadow, and in after times 
the inhabitants of Ilium offered to them 
jointly the sacrifices due to the dead on the 
foreland of Sigeum. 

Antimachus. A Greek poet and critic 
of Colophon, an elder contemporary of 
Plato, about 400 B.C. By his two princi- 
pal works — the long mythical epic called 
Thebais and a cycle of elegies named after 
his loved and lost Lyde, and telling of 
famous lovers parted by death— he became 
the founder of learned poetry, precursor and 
prototype of the Alexandrians, who, on 
account of his learning, assigned him the 
next place to Homer amongst epic poets. 
In striving to impart strength and dignity 
to language by avoiding all that was com- 
mon, his style became rigid and artificial, 
and naturally ran into bombast. But we 
possess only fragments of his works. As 
a scholar, he is remarkable for having set 
on foot a critical revision of the Homeric 

Antmous. A beautiful youth of Claudio- 
polis in Bithynia, a favourite and travelling 
companion of the emperor Hadrian. He 
drowned himself in the Nile, probably from 

melancholy. The emperor honoured his 
memory by placing him among the heroes, 
erecting statues and temples, and founding 
yearl}- games in his honour, while the 
artists of every province vied in pourtray- 
ing him under various forms, human, heroic, 
and divine ; e.g. as Dionysus, Hermes, 
Apollo. Among the features common to 
the many surviving portraitures of An- 
tinous are the full locks falling low down 
the forehead, the large, melancholy eyes, 
the full mouth, and the broad, swelling 
breast. Some of these portraits are among 
the finest works of ancient art, for instance, 
the colossal statue in the Vatican, and the 
half-length relief at the Villa Albani. (See 
cut.~i There is also a fine bust in the Louvre. 

-° JBMM SK. 

(Rome, Villa Albani.) 

Antiope. (1) In Homer a daughter of 
the Boeotian river-god Asopus, mother by 
Zeus of Amphion and Zethus. In later 
legend her father is Nycteus of Hyria or 
Hysiae. As he threatens to punish her for 
yielding to the approaches of Zeus under 
the form of a satyr, she flees to Epopeus 
of Sicyon. This king her uncle Lycus 
kills by order of his brother Nycteus, now 
dead, and leads her back in chains. Ar- 
rived on Mount Cithseron, she gives birth to 
twins, Amphion by Zeus, Zethus by Epopeus, 
whom Lycus leaves exposed upon the moun- 
tain. After being long imprisoned and ill- 
treated by Dirce, the wife of Lycus, she 
escapes to Cithaeron, and makes acquaintance 
with her sons, whom a shepherd has brought 
up. She makes them take a frightful ven- 
geance upon Dirce (see Amphion - |, for doing 

wiirnwi ANTONINUS. 


which lii"insu-. drivei ber mad, and sin- 
wanders through! Greece, till PI is, king 

nf PhQoia, heals and marries her 

2) A ai il ippfllj '■ ■ 'i'"'' " "I the 

■ ins; who, ao ting to one account, 

i prii .• of w ar to Theseua for bia 
ahare in rttr&clfis' campaign againsl the 
Ami i ding to anol ber, w aa carried 

by It i in and hi* friend Piritl 
When ili" Amasons attacked Athena bo re- 
turn, ahe is variously represented as | ■•-]- 
suading them to peace, or (ailing in l>;»ttl" 
against them by t he side of Theseus; or, 

. as killc I by Heracles, w lau she inter- 
rupted tli" marriage of her beloved Theseus 
with Phsedra, Her son by Theseua was 

Antlphanes. The most prolific and im- 
portant author, with Alexis, of the Attic 
Middle Comedy; he came of a family which 
had migrated from Larissa in Thessaly : 
was born B.C. -I' >S, ami died at the age of 
71 He is said to have written 2i>i> plays, 
of which over '2' K I are known to us by 
their titles and fragments, yet he won the 
prize only thirteen times. He is praised 
for dramatic ability, wit, and neatness of 

Antlphllus. A Greek painter born in 
Egypt in the latter half of the 4th cen- 
tury B.C., a contemporary and rival of 
Apelles ; he probably spent the last part 
ot his life at the court of the first Ptolemy. 
The ancients praise the lightness and dex- 
terity with which he handled subjects of 
high art, as well as scenes in daily life. 
Two of his pictures in the latter kind 
were especially famous, one of a boy blow- 
ing a fire, and another of women dressing 
wool. From his having painted a man 
named Gryllos (=pig) with playful allu- 
sions to the sitter's name, caricatures in 
general came to be called gryUoi. [Pliny, 
II. .V.. 35. 114, 138]. 

Antiphon. The earliest of the ten great 
Attic orators, born B.C. 480 at Rhamnus in 
Attica, son of the sophist Sophllus, to whom 
he owed his training. He was the founder 
of political eloquence as an art, which he 
taught with great applause in his own 
school of rhetoric ; and he was the first 
who wrote out speeches for others to deliver 
in court, though he afterwards published . 
them under his own name. He also played 
an active part in the politics of his time as 
a leading member of the oligarchical party, 
and the real author of the deathblow which 
was dealt to democracy in 411 B.C. by the 
establishment of the Council of Pour Hun- 

dred. Then be wenl aa lor to 

Sparta, t" purchase peace at any pi i 
the ii On thi 

of the i i Hundred he was ■ 

high treason, and in spit" nf a 

defence the firs) Bpeech he had ever made 
in public -was condemned t" death B.o. 

111. < >t tin' sixty orations attributed to 
him, only fifteen are preserved, all on trials 

for murder: Imt only three of them ar>> 
"s. The rest | nam"' I <■ ha- 
logie$. because every four are the first and 
second speeches of both plaintiff and de- 
fendant on the same subject) are mere 
exercises. Antiphon's speeches exhibit the 
art of oratory in its rudimentary stage as 
regards both substance and form. 

Antisthenes. A Greek philosopher of 
Athens, born about 440 B.C., but only a half 
citizen, because his mother was a Thracian. 
He was in his youth a pupil of Gorgias, 
and himself taught for a time as a sophist, 
till, towards middle life, he attached himself 
to Socrates, and became his bosom friend. 
After the death of Socrates in B.C. 399 
he established a school in the gymnasium 
Kynosarges, the only one open to persons 
of half-Athenian descent, whence his fol- 
lowers bore the name of Cj'nici (Kynikoi). 
He lived to the age of seventy. Like 
Socrates, he regarded virtue as necessary, 
indeed, alone sufficient for happiness, and 
to be a branch of knowledge that could |be 
taught, and that once acquired could not 
be lost, its essence consisting in freedom 
from wants by the avoidance of evil, i.e. 
of pleasure and desire. Its acquisition 
needs no dialectic argumentation, only 
Socratic strength. His pupils, especially 
the famous Didgenes of Sinope, degraded 
his doctrine to cynicism by depreciating 
all knowledge and despising the current 
morality of the time. His philosophical 
and rhetorical works are lost, all but two 
slight declamations on the contest for the 
arms of Achilles, the Aias and Odysseus; 
and even their genuineness is disputed. 

Antistius Labeo (Quintus). A renowned 
jurist of Augustus' time, a man of wide 
scholarship and strict republican views, 
which lost him the emperor's favour. His 
writings on law amounted to 400 books, 
portions of which are preserved in the 
Pandects of Justinian's Corpus Juris. 
Aiming at a progressive development of 
law, he became the founder of a school of 
lawyers named Procidians after his pupil 
Sempronius Proculus. See Ateius Capito. 

Antoninus. (1) Marcus Aurelius, sur- 



named PhildsOphus, born at Rome a.d. 121. 
His real name was M. Annius Verus ; at 
the desire of the emperor Hadrian he was 
adopted by his successor T. Aurelius An- 
toninus Pius, married his daughter Faus- 
tina, and became emperor in a.d. 161. 
During his benevolent reign the empire had 
to face dire distresses, famine, pestilence, 
and constant wars with the Parthians in 
the east, and the Marcomanni and other 
Germans in the north, during which he 
proved himself a prudent and active sove- 
reign. In the midst of a new war with 
the already vanquished Marcomanni he 
died in A.D. 180, probably at Sirmium in 
Pannonia. In his youth he was a pupil of 
the orator Fronto, and loved him warmly 
to the last, even after giving up rhetoric 
and devoting himself to the Stoic philoso- 
phy. The gentleness and amiability of 
his nature comes out both in his letters 
to Fronto (q.v.) and in his Self-contem- 
plations, which are the moral reflections 
of a Stoic in clumsy, over-concise, and 
often obscure Greek. 

(2) Antoninus LibcrCdis, a Greek gram- 
marian of about 150 A.D., perhaps a freed- 
man of Antoninus Pius ; he wrote a collec- 
tion, called Metamorphoses, of forty-one 
myths dealing with transformations, most 
of which is based on ancient authorities 
now lost, and is therefore valuable as a 
source of mythological knowledge. 

Anubis. An Egyptian 
god, son of Osiris, con- 
ductor and watcher of 
the dead, whose deeds he 
and Horus (q.v.) were 
supposed to weigh in the 
balance in presence of 
their father Osiris. He 
was represented with 
the head of a jackal or 
dog-ape. The worship of 
Anubis was introduced 
among the Greeks and 
Romans (who represented 
him in the form of a dog), 
together with that of 
Serapis and Isis. espe- 
cially in the time of the 
emperors, as he was identified with Hermes. 

Apagoge. A technical term of Athenian 
law, meaning the production of a criminal 
taken in the act before the proper magis- 
trate, who then took him into custody, or 
made him find bail. The name was also 
given to the document in which the accuser 
stated the charge. But if the officer was con- 

ducted to the spot where the accused was 
staving, the process was called SphSglris. 

Apaturla. The general feast of the Phra- 
tries {q.v.) held chiefly by Greeks of the 
Ionian race. At Athens it lasted three days 
in the mouth of Pyanepsion (Oct.-Nov.), and 
was celebrated with sacrificial banquets. 
On the third day the fathers brought their 
children born since the last celebration 
before the members (phrStors) assembled 
at the headquarters of each phnitria, and 
after declaring on oath their legitimate 
birth, had their names inscribed on the roll 
of phratores. For every child enrolled a 
sheep or goat was sacrificed, which went 
to furnish the common feast. On the same 
day the fathers made their children who 
were at school give proofs of their progress, 
especially by reciting passages from poets, 
and those who distinguished themselves 
were rewarded with jmzes. 

Apelles. The greatest painter of anti- 
quity, probably born at Colophon or in the 
Island of Cos, who lived in the latter half 
of the 4th century B.C. After studying at 
Ephesus, and receiving theoretical instruc- 
tion in his art from Pamphilus at Sicyon, 
he worked in different parts of the Greek 
world, but especially in Macedonia, at the 
court of Philip and that of Alexander, who 
would let no other artist paint him. While 
doing ready justice to the merits of con- 
temporaries, especially Protogenes, he could 
not but recognise that no one surpassed him- 
self in grace and balanced harmony. These 
qualities, together with his wonderful skill 
in drawing and his perfect and refined 
mastery of colouring (however simple his 
means), made his works the most perfect 
productions of Greek painting. Among the 
foremost were the Alexander with lightning 
in his hand, painted for the temple of 
Artemis at Ephesus, in which the fingers 
appeared to stand out of the picture, and 
the thunderbolt to project from the panel ; 
and the Aphrodite A nadyomene ( = rising), 
painted for the temple of Asclepius at Cos, 
which Augustus brought to Rome and set 
up in the temple of Caesar, and which, 
when the lower part was damaged, no 
painter would attempt to restore. We owe 
to Lucian a description of an allegorical 
picture of Slander bv this painter. [Pliny, 
H. X, 35. 79-97.] 

Aphrodite (Lat. Venus). The Greek god- 
dess of love. Her attributes combine, with 
Hellenic conceptions, a great many features 
of Eastern, especially Phoenician, origin, 
which the Greeks must have grafted on to 

Al'llliol.l I I. 


ilnii luiiii' DOtioni i" vii v old timet, This 
doable nal are ippmi immediately in the 

ol her "i igin. I 
oldest Greeks she ni the daughter "f X"us 
:111c 1 Dioni and is sometimes called 
name bei from • vei J early time 

ippeare ae Aphro-glneia, the foam- 
1 : 1 , 1 Anady&mlnl, " slm 

who rises" out of ill" tea, and Bteps ashore 
nil Cyprus, which had been colonised bj 
Phoenicians time ou( "f mind; even us far 
baoh as Bomer she is Kypria, the Cyprian. 
The same transmarine and Eastern origin 
of ber worship is evidenced by 1 1 1« - Legend 
of the isl" "i Cythera, on which she was 
snpposed to bave first landed out of a sea- 


Again, the common conception of her as 

goddess of love limits her agency to the 
sphere of human life. But she is, at the 

sum" time, a power of nature, living and 
working in th" three elements of air, earth, 
and water. As goddess of the shifting 
gale ami changeful sky, she is Aphrodite 

I'n'i iiin, the " heavenly," and at many places 
in Greece and Asia ber temples crowned 
the heights and headlands; witness the 
citadels of Thebes and Corinth, and Mount 
Ervx in Sicily. As goddess of storm and 
lightning, she was represented armed, as 
at Sparta and Cy there; and this perhaps 
explains why she was associated with Are 
(liars) both in worship and in legend, and 
worshipped as a goddess of victory. 

The moral conception of Aphrodite Urania 
as goddess of the higher and purer love, 
especially wedded love and fruitfulness, 
as opposed to mere sensual lust, w T as but 
slowly developed in the course of ages. 

As goddess of 
the sea and mari- 
time traffic, espe- 
cialh- of calm 
seas and prosper- 
ous voyages, she 
was widely wor- 
shipped by sailors 
and fishermen at 
ports and on sea- 
coasts, often as 
the goddess of 
calm, while 
Poseidon was the 
god of distur- 
bance. Next, as 
regards the life of the earth, she is the 
goddess of gardens and groves, of Spring 
and its bounties, especially tender plants 
and flowers, as the rose and myrtle ; hence. 


With the sacred cone, or sym- 
bol of- Aphrodite, in a conven- 
tional representation of the tem- 
ple at Paphos. 

mm the fruitful and bountiful 

•hipped in. - 1 "i all ;ii the 1 the 

n which In r !>irl li li.nn 1 Ik 
celebrated at Paphos in Cyprus comp. 

cut . But tO 'hi I, h"i I mi.- • 

is opposed a 1 • irhen ber 

creation 1 n ither and dii 

■ l m ber inconsolable grief I 
beloved Adonis i </.» mbol I 

tation in its prime. 

in the Hi" of gods and mem, ihi -!i"w.s 
her power as the golden, bw» tiling 

goddess Of beauty and love, which >li" 

knows how ti. kiinilo or to keep away. 
outshines all the goddesses in grace and 
loveliness; in her girdle she wears united 

all th" magic charms that can bewitch the 
wisest man and subdue the very gods. Her 
retinue consists of Eros (Cupid), the Hours. 
the Graces, Peitho (persuasion), Pathos and 
Himfirds pirsonihcations of longing and 
yearning'. By uniting the generations in 
the bond of love, she becomes a goddess of 
marriage and family life, and the conse- 
I quent kinship of the whole community. As 
such she had formerly been worshipped at 
Athens under the name of Pandemos ( = all 
the people's), as being a goddess of the 
whole country. By a regulation of Solon, 
I the name acquired a very different sense, 
j branding her as goddess of prostitution ; 
then it was that the new and higher mean- 
ing was imported into the word Urania. 
In later times, the worship of Aphrodite 
as the goddess of mere sensual love made 
rapid strides, and in particular districts 
assumed forms more and more immoral, 
in imitation of the services performed to 
love-goddesses in the East, especially at 
Corinth, where large bands of girls were 
consecrated as slaves to the service of the 
gods and the practice of prostitution. And 
later still, the worship of Astarte, the 
Syrian Aphrodite, performed by eunuchs, 
spread all over Greece. 

In the Greek myths Aphrodite appears 
occasionally as the wife of Hephsstus. Her 
love adventures with Ares are notorious. 
From these sprang Eros and Anteros, Har- 
monia, the wife of Cadmus, and Deimos 
and Phobos (fear and alarm), attendants 
on their father. By Anchises she was the 
mother of iEneas. The head-quarters of 
her worship were Paphos, Amathus. and 
Idalidn (all in Cyprus), Cnidus in Dorian 
Asia Minor, Corinth, the island of Cythera, 
and Eryx in Sicily. As mother of Harmonia, 
she was a guardian deity of Thebes. Among 
plants, the myrtle, the rose, and the apple 



were specially sacred to her as grddess of 
love ; amongst animals, the ram, he-goat, 
hare, dove, sparrow, and other creatures of 
amorous nature (the ram and dove being 
widely-current symbols of great antiquity) ; 
as sea-goddess, the swan, mussels, and 
dolphin ; as Urania, the tortoise. 

In ancient art, in which Aphrodite is one 
of the favourite subjects, she is represented 
in a higher or lower aspect, according as 
the artist's aim was to exhibit Urania or 
the popular goddess of love. In the earlier 
works of art she usually appears clothed, 
but in later ones more or less undraped ; 
either as rising from the sea or leaving the 
bath, or (as in later times) merely as an 
ideal of female beaut} 7 . In the course of 
time the divine element disappeared, and 
the presentation became more and more 
ordinary. While the older sculptures show 

' &*c 


(Munich, Glyptothek.) 

the sturdier forms, the taste of later times 
leans more and more to softer, weaker out- 

lines. Most renowned in ancient times were 
the statue at Cnidus by Praxiteles (a copy 


(Paris, Louvre). 

of which is now at Munich, see fig. 2), and 
the painting of Aphrodite Anadyomene by 
Apelles. Of original statues preserved to 
us, the most famous are the Aphrodite of 
Melos (Milo, see fig. 3) now at Paris, and that 
of Capua at Naples, both of which bring out 
the loftier aspect of the goddess, and the 
Medicean Venus at Florence, the work of 
a late Attic sculptor, Cleomenes, in the 
delicate forms of face and body that pleased 

a younger age. On the identification of 

Aphrodite with the Roman goddess of love, 
see Venus. 

Aphthonius. A C4reek rhetorician of An- 
tioch, about 400 A.D., a pupil of Libanius, 
who wrote a schoolbook on the elements of 
rhetoric, the Progymnasmdtd, or " First 
Steps in Style," much used in schools down 
to the 17th century. This book is really 
an adaptation of the chapter so named in 
Hermogenes' Rhetoric. A collection of 
fortj- fables by jEsop also bears his name. 

Apicius {Marcus Gavius). A glutton, 
who lived under Augustus and Tiberius. 
He borrowed the last name from an epicure 
of the republican age, and wrote a book 

\liM\ \|-U| |.M 


upon oookary. Ha poisoned himself f"i fear 

ii ring, though at the tin f hit 

he was --till worth £76,000, His came be- 
caim .1 proverb, eo that we find an Apiciut 
C<rliu$. author oi ■ oolleotion oi reoipes in 
benl ln,A ReCtt2lndrta,8rdoenturj ld 

Apion. A Qreeh grammarian oi the 1st 
ii-v a. n., a |ni|iil "f I tldymus, and presi- 
dent "f the philological \ lexandria. 
He also worked bra time at fiome under 
Tiberius and Claudius. A vain, boastful 
man, he travelled about the Greek cities, 
giving popular leotures on Homer. Of his 
many writings we have only fragments left. 
The glosses on Homer that bear his name 
1 later origin ; on the other hand, the 
Homeric lexicon of the sophist ApollSnius 
is based on his genuine Homeric flosses. 
His bitter complaint, Against tin Jews, ad- 
dressed to Caligula at the instance of the 
Alexandrians, is best known from Josephus' 
noble reply to it. 

Apodectae (apodektai— receivers). The 
Athenian name for a board of ten magis- 
trates yearly appointed by lot, who kept 
accounts of the moneys coming in to the 
State from various sources, took possession 
in the council's presence of the sums raised 
by the proper officers, and after cancelling 
the entries in their register, handed the 
money over to the several treasuries. 

Apdgraphe (Gr.). An inventory, or 
register: also, in Attic law, a copy of a 
declaration made before a magistrate. 

Apollo (Gr. Apollon). Son of Zeus by 
Leto (Latona), who, according to the legend 
most widely current, bore him and his 
twin-sister Artemis (Diana) at the foot of 
Mount Cynthus in the island of Delos. 
Apollo appears originally as a god of light, 
both in its beneficent and its destructive 
effects ; and of light in general, not of the 
sun only, for to the early Greeks the deity 
that brought daylight was Helios, with 
whom it was not till afterwards that Apollo 
was identified. While the meaning of his 
name Apollo is uncertain, his epithets of 
Phoebus and Lycius clearly mark him as 
the bright, the life-giving, the former also 
meaning the pure, holy ; for, as the god 
of pure light, he is the enemy of darkness, 
with all its unclean, uncouth, unhallowed 
brood. Again, not only the seventh day 
of the month, his birthday, but the first 
day of each month, i.e. of each new-born 
moon, was sacred to him, as it was to Janus, 
the Roman god of light ; and according to 
the view that prevailed in many seats of 
his worship, he withdrew in winter time 

either to rannj [grout oi to the 1 1 
i ... i . . i t i who dwell in perpetual light in the 
atmosl north, and ret irned in spring to 
dispel the pon si i oi winter with I 
When the fable relafc ■ that immediately 
after his birth, with the first shot from his 
bow he slew the drs ron P 
DelphynS), a hideous offspring ol Gsm and 
guardian of the Delphian oracle, what 
to be denoted must be the spring 
viotory over winter, thai filled the land 
with foul marsh and mist. As the nod 
of light, hia festivals are all in spring or 
summer, and many of them still plainly 
reveal in certain features his true and 
original attributes. Thus the Ddphinia, 
held at Athens in April, commemorated 
the calming of the wintry sea after the 
equinoctial gales, and the consequent re- 
opening of navigation. As this feast was 
in honour of the god of spring, so was the 
Thargllia, held at Athens the next month, 
in honour of the god of summer. That the 
crops might ripen, he received firstfruits 
of them, and at the same time propitiatory 
gifts to induce him to avert the parching 
heat, so hurtful to fruits and men. About 
the time of the sun's greatest altitude (July 
and Augusts, when the god displays his 
power, now for good and now for harm, the 
Athenians offered him hecatombs, whence 
the first month of their year was named 
HecatomboeSn, and the Spartans held their 
Hyadnthia [see Hyacinthus). In autumn, 
when the god was ripening the fruit of their 
gardens and plantations, and preparing for 
departure, they celebrated the Pyanepsia 
(q.v.), when they presented him with the 
firstfruits of harvest. Apollo gives the crops 
prosperity, and protection not only against 
summer heat, but against blight, mildew, 
and the vermin that prey upon them, such 
as field-mice and grasshoppers. Hence he 
was known by special titles in some parts 
of Asia. He was also a patron of flocks and 
pastures, and was worshipped in many dis- 
tricts under a variety of names referring 
to the breeding of cattle. In the story of 
Hermes (q.v.) stealing his oxen, Apollo is 
himself the owner of a herd, which he gives 
up to his brother in exchange for the lyre in- 
vented by him. Other ancient legends speak 
of him as tending the flocks of Laomedon 
and Admetus, an act afterwards repre- 
sented as a penalt} T for a fault. As a god 
of shepherds he makes love to the nymphs, 
to the fair Daphne (q.v.), to Cordnis (see 
Asclepius), and to Cyrene, the mother of 
Aristaeus, likewise a god of herds. Some 



forms of his worship and some versions of 
his story imply that Apollo, like his Bister 
Artemis, was regarded as a protector of 
tender game and a slayer of rapacious 
beasts, especially of the wolf, the enemy of 
flocks, and himself a symbol of the god's 
power, that now sends mischief, and now 
averts it. Apollo promotes the health and 
well-being of man himself. As a god of 
prolific power, he was invoked at weddings ; 
and as a nurse of tender manhood and 
trainer of manly youth, to him (as well as 
the fountain-nymphs) were consecrated the 
first offerings of the hair of the head. In 
gymnasia and palastra- he was worshipped 
equally with Hermes and Heracles ; for he 
gave power of endurance in boxing, with 
adroitness and fleetness of foot. As a war- 
like god and one helpful in fight, the 
Spartans paid him peculiar honours in their 
Carneia (q.v.), and in a measure the Athe- 
nians in their Bocdromia. Another Athe- 
nian festival, the Mctageitnia, glorified him 
as the author of neighbourly union. In 
many places, but above all at Athens, he was 
worshipped as Agyicus, the god of streets 
and highways, whose rude symbol, a conical 
post with a pointed ending, stood by street- 
doors and in courtyards, to watch men's exit 
and entrance, to let in good and keep out 
evil, and was loaded by the inmates with 
gifts of honour, such as ribbons, wreaths of 
myrtle or bay, and the like. At sea, as well 
as on land, Apollo is a guide and guardian, and 
there, especially under the name Delphinius, 
taken from his friend and ally the dolphin, 
the symbol of the navigable sea. Under 
this character he was widely worshipped, 
for the most part with peculiar propitiatory 
rites, in seaports and on promontories, as 
that of Actiiun, and particularly at Athens, 
being also regarded as a leader of colonies. 
While he is Alexicdcus (averter of ills) in 
the widest sense, he proves his power most 
especially in times of sickness ; for, being 
god of the hot season, and himself the 
sender of most epidemics and the dreaded 
plague, sweeping man swiftly away with 
his unerring shafts, he can also lend the 
most effectual aid ; so that he and his son I 
Asclepius were revered as the chief gods 
of healing. As a saviour from epidemics i 
mainly, but also from other evils, the pcean \ 
(q.v.) was sung in his honour. 

In a higher sense also Apollo is a healer 
and saviour. From an early time a strong I 
ethical tinge was given to his purely phy- 
sical attributes, and the god of light became 
a god of mental and moral purity, and there- 

fore of order, justice, and legality in human 
life. As such, he, on the one hand smites 
and spares not the insolent offender, Tityofl 
for instance, the Aloldae, the overweening 
Niobe, and the Greeks before Troy ; but. on 
the other hand, to the guilt-laden soul, that 
turns to him in penitence and supplication, 
he grants purification from the stain of 
committed crime (which was regarded as 
a disease clouding the mind and crushing 
the heart), and so he heals the spirit, and 
readmits the outcast into civic life and 
religious fellowship. Of this he had him- 
self set the pattern, when, after slaying 
the Delphian dragon, he fled from the 
land, did seven years* menial service to 
Admetus in atonement for the murder, and 
when the time of penance was past had 
himself purified in the sacred grove of bay- 
trees by the Thessalian temple, and not till 
then did he return to Delphi and enter on 
his office as prophet of Zeus. Therefore 
he exacts from all a recognition of the 
atoning power of penance, in the teeth of the 
old law of vengeance for blood, which only 
bred new murders and new guilt. The 
atoning rites propagated by Apollo's wor- 
ship, particularly from Delphi, contributed 
largely to the spread of milder maxims of 
law, affecting not only individuals, but 
whole towns and countries. Even without 
special prompting, the people felt from time 
to time the need of purification and expi- 
ation; hence certain expiatory rites had 
from of old been connected with his festivals. 

As the god of light who pierces through 
all darkness, Apollo is the god of divination, 
which, however, has in his case a purely 
ethical significance ; for he, as prophet and 
minister of his father Zeus, makes known his 
will to men, and helps to further his govern- 
ment in the world. He always declares the 
truth ; but the limited mind of man cannot 
always grasp the meaning of his sayings. 
He is the patron of every kind of prophecy, 
but most especially of that which he imparts 
through human instruments, chiefly women, 
while in a state of ecstasy. Great as was 
the number of his oracles in Greece and 
Asia, all were eclipsed in fame and import- 
ance by that of Delphi (q.v.). 

Apollo exercises an elevating and inspiring 
influence on the mind as god of Music. 
which, though not belonging to him alone 
any more than Atonement and Prophecy, 
was yet pre-eminently his province. In 
Homer he is represented only as a player 
on the lyre, while song is the province of 
the Muses ; but in course of time he grows 



tha ^'"l, »•< tlii'.v are ti> tea, ol 

song and poetry, and iatharafora Mut&gitlt 
(Leader oi tha tfuaea) as well u maater ol 
tin' ohorio danoe, which goea with music and 

s.'ii;;. An. I, us the friend of aU dial 
mil's life, in' is intunati iated with 

tin' <i races. 

Standing in these manifold relatioi 
nature and man, Apollo at all times held 
a prominent position in the religion oi the 
Greeks; ami as early as Eomer his name 
is coupled with those of Zens and Athena, 
as it' between them the three poaai Bsed the 
sum total of divine power. His worship 
was diffused equally over all the n 
in which Greeks with settled ; but from 

remote antiquity he had 1 n the chief ^.nl 

of the Dorians, who were also the firSl to 
raise him into a type of moral excellence. 
The two chief centres of Ins worship were 
the Island of Delos, his birthplace, where, 
at his magnificent temple standing by the 
sea, were held every live years the festive 
games called Delia, to which the Greeh 
states sent solemn embassies; and Delphi, 
with its oracle and numerous festivals go 
Pythia, Thboxknia). Foremost among the 
seats of his worship in Asia was Patiira in 
Lycia with a famous oracle. 

To the Romans Apollo became known 
in the reign of their last king Tarquinius 
Superbus, the first Roman who consulted 
the Delphian oracle, and who also ac- 
quired the Sibylline Books (q.v.). By the 
influence of these writings the worship of 
Apollo soon became so naturalized among 
them, that in B.C. 431 the}- built a temple 
to him as god of healing, from which the 
expiatory processions (sec Supplicatioxes^ 
prescribed in the Sibylline books used to set 
out. In the Lectisternia (q.v.), first insti- 
tuted in B.C. 399, Apollo occupies the fore- 
most place. In 212 B.C., during the agony 
of the Second Punic War, the Ludi Apollv- 
ndrcs were, in obedience to an oracular 
response, established in honour of him. 
He was made one of the chief gods of 
Rome by Augustus, who believed himself 
to be under his peculiar protection, and 
ascribed the victory of Actium to his aid ; 
hence he enlarged the old temple of Apollo 
on that promontory, and decorated it with 
a portion of the spoils. He also renewed 
the games held near it, previously everv 
two years, afterwards every four, with 
gymnastic and artistic contests, and 
regattas on the sea ; at Rome he reared 
a splendid new temple to him near his 
own house on the Palatine, and transferred 

tie I. inli SaCtUdrt I "/I . to him 

I liana. 

The manifold aymfa Apollo 

■pond with tha multitude of bii attribute*. 
The oomn ha lyre or the 

bow, according as he wa .^ the 

god "I aong or aa tha far-hitting a 
The Delphian diviner. Pythian Ap llo, in 
indicated by the Tripod, which waa also the 
favourite offering al his altars, a 
plants the bay, used tor | hi 1 1 rota- 

tion, was early .-acred to him (fee DaP] 
It was planted round his temples, and 
plaited into garlands of victory at the 
1'ythian games. The palm-tree was also 
sacred to him, for it was under a palm-tree 
that he was born in Delos. Among animals, 
the wolf, the dolphin, the snow-white and 
musical swan, the hawk, raven, crow, and 
snake were under his special protection ; 
the last four in connexion with his pro- 
phetic functions. 

In ancient art he was represented as a 
long-haired but beardless youth, of tall yet 
muscular build, and handsome features. 
Images of him were as abundant as his 
worship was extensive : there was scarcely 
an artist of antiquity who did not try his 


(Rome, Vatican Museum.) 

hand upon some incident in the story of 
Apollo. The ideal type of this god seems 
to have been fixed chiefly by Praxiteles and 
Scopas. The most famous statue preserved 



of him is the Apollo Belvedere in the Vati- 
can (fig. 1), which represents him either as 
tightiDg with the Pythian dragon, or with 
his segis frightening back the foes who 
threaten to storm his sanctuary. Other 
great works, as the Apollo Musagetes in the 
Vatican, probably from the hand of Scopas, 
show him as a Citharcedus in the long 
Ionian robe, or nude as in fig. 2. The 
Apollo Sauroctonus (lizard-killer), copied 
from a bronze statue by Praxiteles, is es- 
pecially celebrated for its beauty. It re- 
presents a delicate youthful figure leaning 
against a tree, dart in hand, ready to stab 
a lizard that is crawling up the tree. It 
is preserved in bronze at the Villa Albani 
in Rome, and in marble at Paris. 


(Rome, Capitoline Museum.) 

Apollodorus. (1) A Greek poet of the New 
Comedy, born at Carystus, between 300 and 
260 B.C. He wrote forty-seven plays, and 
won five victories. From him Terence bor- 
rowed the plots of his Phormio and Hecyra. 

(2) A Greek grammarian and historian, 
of Athens, about 140 B.C., a pupil of Aris- 
tarchus and the Stoic Pansetius. He was a 
most prolific writer on grammar, mythology, 
geography, and history. Some of his works 
were written in iambic sendrii, e.g. a geo- 
graphy, and the Chronica, a condensed 

enumeration of the most important data in 
history and literature from the fall of Troy, 
which he places in B.C. 1183, down to his 
own time, undoubtedly the most important 
of ancient works on the subject. Besides 
fragments, we have under his name a book 
entitled Bibliotheca, a great storehouse of 
mythological material from the oldest theo- 
gonies down to Theseus, and, with all its 
faults of arrangement and treatment, a 
valuable aid to our knowledge of Greek 
mythology. Yet there are grounds for 
doubting whether it is from his hand at all, 
whether it is even an extract from his great 
work, On the Gods, in twenty-four books. 

(3) A Greek painter of Athens, about 420 
B.C., the first who graduated light and shade 
in his pictures, whence he received the name 
of Sciagrdphus (shadow-painter). This in- 
vention entitled him to be regarded as the 
founder of a new style, which aimed at 
producing illusion by pictorial means, and 
which was carried on further bv his vounger 
contemporary Zeuxis. [Pliny. H.N'., 35. 60]. 

(4) A Greek architect of Damascus, who 
lived for a time at Rome, where amongst 
other things he built Trajan's Forum and 
Trajan's Column. He was first banished 
and then put to death under Hadrian, a.d. 
129, having incurred that emperor's anger 
by the freedom of his rebukes. We have 
a work by him on Engines of War, ad- 
dressed to Hadrian. 

Apollonius, (1) the Rhodian. A Greek 
scholar and epic poet of the Alexandrian 
age, born at Alexandria about 260 B.C., a 
pupil of Calllmachus, wrote a long epic, 
The Argonaittica. in four books, in which, 
departing from his master's taste for the 
learned and artificial, he aimed at all the 
simplicity of Homer. The party of Calli- 
machus rejected the poem, and Apollonius 
retired in disgust to Rhodes, where his 
labours as a rhetorician, and his newly re- 
vised poem, won him hearty recognition and 
even admission to the citizenship. Hence 
his surname. Afterwards, returning to 
Alexandria, he recited his poem once more, 
and this time with universal applause, so 
that Ptolemy Epiphanes, in B.C. 196, ap- 
pointed him to succeed Eratosthenes as 
librarian. He probably died during the 
tenure of this office. His epic poem, which 
has survived, has a certain simplicity, though 
falling far short of the naturalness and 
beauty of Homer : its uniform mediocrity 
often makes it positively tedious, though it 
is constructed with great care, especiallv in 
its versificat ion . Bv the Romans it was much 



i .in.! man than onoe imitated, 

oi A'.i\ tod 7alei ius Flaw d \ 
valuable oolleotion of scholia upon il 
lifs the esteem io which ii vu held by the 
i. .u ned ol old. 

I/.., //,,,,/ u« o/ />.(//. s. \ ( fresh aoulp- 
tor "i i In 1 Bohool of Ethodi int author 

with bis countryman TaunsouB of the oele 

i group of Dirofi (g-v.). \ 
o< her art ista of the name, i he worthi 
mention in Apollonius of Athi ns, of the Let 
oentury b.o. From Ins hand is the Hercules, 
now only a torso, preserved in iho Bolvo- 
dere at Rome. 

Ipottonius of l'< rga in Pamphylia. A 
Qreek mathematician named •■ 1 1n • ili'miu'- 
ter," who lived at Perg&musand Alexandria 
in tin- 1st oentury b.o., and wrote a work on 

Sections in eight books, of which we 
have only the tirst four in the original, the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh in an Arabia trans- 
lation, and the eighth in extracts. The 
method he followed is that still in use. 

(4) Apollonius <>/' Tydna in Cappadooia, 
the most celebrated of the Noo-Pythago- 
reans, lived about the middle of the 1st cen- 
tury a.d. ; by a severely ascetic life on the 
supposed principles of Pythagoras, and by 
pretended miracles, he obtained such a hold 
on the multitude that he was worshipped as 
a god, and set up as a rival to Christ. The 
account of his life by the elder Philostr&tns 
(q.v.) is more romance than history, and 
oners little to build upon. Having received 
his philosophical education, and lived in the 
temple of Asclepius at .Egae till his twen- 
tieth year, he divided his patrimony among 
the poor, and roamed all over the world; 
he was even said to have reached India and 
the sources of the Nile. Twice he lived at 
Rome ; first under Nero till the expulsion of 
the philosophers, and again in Domitian's 
reign, when he had to answer a charge of 
conspiring against the emperor. Smuggled 
out of Rome during his trial, he continued 
his life as a wandering preacher of morals 
and worker of marvels for some years longer, 
and is said to have died at a great age, 
master of a school at Ephesus. Of his 
alleged writings, eight-five letters have 
alone survived. 

(5) Apollonius, surnamed Dyscolus( = the 
surly). A Greek scholar, of Alexandria, 
where he had received his education, and 
where he ended his days a member of the 
Museum, after having laboured as a teacher 
at Rome under Antoninus Pius, about 140 
a.d. He is the father of Scientific Gram- 
mar, having been the first to reduce it to 

t i. II 

as on Pronouns, Advei bs, < Sonjunc- 

Hi i i he I 
in lour books. II- ally 

l.\ the I -'tin grammi i . above 'II by 

ii 1 1 1 on Herod 
more I ha n he did. 

8 ApoUonius the 8ophist,oi Alexandria. 
His precise date a.d. ia unknown. Be wan 
author of ! n of I [omeric 

Glosses, ba k d on Apioo i 
w i o ings 

IpoUonitUy king of Tyn , the hi 

a i (reek romance (now I a] 1 in 

Asia Minor, in the 3rd century a.d., on the 
,i ii. Ephesian History of Xen6phcn 
(q.v. -'. We have a free Latin version 
made by a Christian, about the 6th i entury, 
probably in Italy, which was much read in 
the Middle Ages, and translated into Anglo- 
Saxon, English, French, Italian, Middle 
Greek and German, in prose and verse. Its 
materials are used in the paeudo-Shak- 
spearian drama of Pericles Prince of Tyre. 

Aporraxis. See Ball, Games of. 

Apotheosis (Lat. ConsecratiO). The act 
of placing a human being among the gods, 
of which the Greeks have an instance as 
early as Homer, but only in the single case 
of Leucothea. The oldest notion was that 
of a bodily removal ; then arose the idea of 
the mortal element being purged away by 
fire, as in the case of Heracles. There was 
a kind of deification which consisted in the 
decreeing of heroic honours to distinguished 
men after death, which was done from the 
time of the Peloponnesian "War onwards, 
even in the case of living men {see Heroes). 
The successors of Alexander the Great, both 
the Seleucldse and still more the Ptolemies, 
caused themselves to be worshipped as gods. 
Of the Romans, whose legend told of the 
translation of ^Eneas and Romulus into 
heaven, Csesar was the first who claimed 
divine honours, if not by building temples 
to himself, yet by setting his statue among 
the gods in every sanctuary at Rome and in 
the empire, and by having a special flamen 
assigned to him. The belief in his divinity 
was confirmed by the comet that shone 
several months after his death, as long as 
his funeral games lasted; and under the 
triumvirate he was formally installed among 
the deities of Rome, as Ditus Julius, by a 
decree of the senate and people. His adop- 
ted son and successor Octavian persistently 
declined any offer of public worship, but he 
accepted the title of Augustus (the conse- 
crated), and allowed his person to be adored 



in the provinces. On his death the senate 
decreed divine honours to him under the 
title of Divus Augustus, the erection of a 
temple, the founding of special games, and 
the establishment of a peculiar priesthood. 
After this, admission to the number of the 
Divi, as the deified emperors were called, 
becomes a prerogative of the imperial 
dignity. It is, however, left dependent on 
a resolution of the senate moved in honour 
of the deceased emperor by his successor. 
Hence it is not every emperor who obtains 
it, nor does consecration itself always lead 
to a permanent worship. Empresses too 
were often consecrated, first Augustus' 
wife Livia as Diva Augusta, and even 
other members of the imperial house. 

The ceremonj' of Apotheosis used from the 
time of Augustus was the following. After 
the passing of the senate's decree a waxen 
image of the dead, whose body lay hidden 
below, was exhibited for seven days on an 
ivory bed of state in the palace, covered with 
gold-embroidered coverlets; then the bier 
was borne by knights and senators amidst a 
brilliant retinue down the Via Sacra to the 
ancient Forum, where the funeral oration 
was delivered, and thence to the Campus 
Martins, where it was deposited in the 
second of the four stories of a richly 
decorated funeral pile of pyramid shape. 
When the magistrates sacred and secular, 
the knights, lifeguard, and others concerned, 
had performed the last honours by proces- 
sions and libations, the pile was set on fire, 
and as it burned up, an eagle soared from 
the topmost storey into the sky, a symbol 
of the ascending soul. 

Apparitor. The general name in Latin 
for all public servants of the magistrates. 
They all had to be Roman citizens, and 
were paid a fixed salary out of the public 
treasury. Though nominated by the re- 
spective officers for a year at a time, they 
were usually re-appointed, so that practic- 
ally their situations were secured for life, 
and thej' could even sell their places. The 
most important classes of these attendants 
were those of scriba?, lictores, viatores and 
prcecones {q.v.). These were divided into 
decuritB of varying strength, which enjoyed 
corporate rights, and chose foremen from 
their own body. (Comp. Accexsi.) 

Appellatio. The Latin term for an appeal 
to a magistrate to put his veto on the 
decision of an equal or inferior magistrate. 
Thus a consul could be appealed to against 
his colleague and all other magistrates 
except the tribunes, but a tribune both 

against his colleagues and all magistrates 
whatsoever. Another thing altogether was 
the ProvOcatio (q.v.) under the Republic, an 
appeal from a magistrate's sentence to the 
People as supreme judge. During the im- 
perial period the two processes run into one, 
for the emperor held united in his person 
both the supreme judicial function and the 
plenary power of all magistrates, particu- 
larly the tribunician veto, so that an appeal 
to him was at once an appellatio and a 
provocatio. This appeal, in our sense of 
the word, was only permitted in important 
cases ; it had to be made within a short 
time after sentence was passed, and always 
addressed to the authority next in order, 
so that it only reached the emperor if no 
intermediate authority was competent. If 
the result was that the disputed verdict was 
neither quashed nor awarded, but confirmed, 
the appellant had to pay a fine. As the 
power of life and death rested with the 
emperor and senate alone, governors of pro- 
vinces were bound to send up to Rome any 
citizen appealing on a capital charge. 

Appianus. A Greek historian, of Alex- 
andria, who lived about the middle of the 
2nd century a.d. At first he pursued the 
calling of an advocate at Rome ; in later 
life, on the recommendation of his friend 
the rhetorician Fronto, he obtained from 
Antoninus Pius the post of an imperial pro- 
curator in Egypt. He wrote an extensive 
work on the development of the Roman 
Empire from the earliest times down to 
Trajan, consisting of a number of special 
histories of the several periods and the 
several lands and peoples till the time when 
they fell under the Roman dominion. Of 
the twenty-four books of which it originally 
consisted, only eleven are preserved complete 
beside the Preface : Spain (book 6), Hannibal 
i7», Carthage (8), Syria (11), Mithridates 
(12), the Roman Civil Wars (13-17) and 
Illyria (23), the rest being lost altogether, 
or only surviving in fragments. Appian's 
style is plain and bald, even to dryness, and 
his historical point of view is purely Roman. 
The book is a mere compilation, and dis- 
figured by many oversights and blunders, es- 
pecially in chronology: nevertheless the use 
made by the writer of lost authorities lends 
it considerable worth, and for the history 
of the Civil Wars it is positively invaluable. 

Apsines. A Greek rhetorician, of Gadara, 
who taught at Athens in the first half of 
the 3rd century a.d., and wrote a valuable 
treatise on Rhetoric. 

Apuleius (Lucius). Born about 130 a.d. 

\(»l 1.1. HUM \i; VII 


it M.i I i'ii ,, in Niiiui'li:i, "f ;i weal I by and 
honourable family; the moal original Latin 

writer of his ti Educated at Carthage, 

In' went i" Athene t<> study philosophy, 
ially i Inn ni' Plato ; then be travelled 
ad n ide, everywhere obtaining initi 
into tin' mysteries. For some time be lived 
in Rome ; i m an advocate. After returning 
to Mm. i. lir married ■ lady considerably 
ul. In- than himself, tin' mother "f a Eriend, 
.Kmilia Pudentilla, whereupon ber kinsmen 
oharged bim with having won the rioh 

widow's hand by magio, and of bav 

gontrived the death o? her son: a charge 
to whioh In' replied with much wit in his 
oration D< Mdgid (earlier than a.i>. L61). 
II.' afterwards settled down at Carthage, 
anil thenoe made excursions through Africa, 
delivering orationB or leotures. Of tin 
of his life ami tin- year of his death nothing 
is known. Beside the Apologia above- 
mentioned, and a few rhetorical ami philo- 
sophic writings, another work, his chief one, 
also survives, which was composed at a ripe 
age, with hints borrowed from, a book of 
Lucian's. This is a satirical and fantastic 
moral romance, MetamorphOsSOn libri XI(de 
As&no AurSo), the adventures of one Lucius, 
who is transformed into an ass, and under 
that disguise lias the amplest opportunities 
of observing, undetected, the preposterous 
doings of mankind. Then, enlightened by 
this experience, and with the enchantment 
taken off him by admission into the mys- 
teries of Osiris, he becomes quite a new man. 
Of the many episodes interwoven into the 
Story, the most interesting is the beautiful 
allegorical fairy tale of Cupid and Psyche, 
so much used by later poets and artists. 
Throughout the book Apuleius paints the 
moral and religious conditions of his time 
with much humour and in lifelike colours, 
though bis language, while clever, is often 
affected, bombastic, and disfigured by obso- 
lete and provincial phrases. 

Aqusellcium. The Roman name for a 
ceremony for bringing on rain. (See 

Aqueducts were not unfrequently con- 
structed by the Greeks, who collected the 
spring-water of neighbouring hills, by chan- 
nels cut through the rock, or by under- 
ground conduits of brick and stone work, 
into reservoirs, and thence distributed it by 
a network of rills. An admirable work of 
this kind is the tunnel, more than a mile 
in length, which was bored through the 
mountain now called Kastri, by the archi- 
tect Enpalinus of Megara, probably under 

I'.'Im i.ii. in tin- 6th n mm v ii. i'. The 

Hum. in .u| Inns mi- among the 

ificenl struol I • [uil 3ome 

of iln i ni ted under- 

ground : others, lat tei Ij aim.. ■ all 
veyed die water, often t"i i 
in covered channels "i briok 
lofty arcades stretching straight through 
hill and valley. Theyetarted from a well- 
bead i iijnit iiijitm a in i and ended in a n 

Voir (ras/illinii \ OUl of which the water ran 

iii Homo mi" i lirce chambers, lying one al 
another, tin' lowest chamber sending it 
through leaden or 'lay pipes into tin-, pnb- 
lic fountains and basins, the middli 
into the great bathing establishments, the 
uppermost into private houses. Private 
citizens paid a tax for the water they ob- 
I from these public sources. Under 
the Republic the construction ami repair of 
aqueducts devolved upon the censors, their 
management on the sediles, but from tin 
time of Augustus on a special cUr&tor aqua- 
rum assisted by a large staff of pipe-mas- 
ters, fountain-masters, inspectors, and others, 
taken partly from the number of the public 
slaves. The amount of water brought into 
Rome by its numerous aqueducts, the first 
of which, the aqua Appia, was projected B.C. 
312, may be estimated from the fact that the 
four still in use — aqua virijo (now Acqua 
Vergine, built by Agrippa B.C. 20), aqua 
M'in-ia (now Acqua Pia, B.C. 144), aqua 
Claudia (now Acqua Felice, finished by 
Claudius a.d. 52), aqua Traiana (now Acqua 
Paola, constructed by Trajan a.d. Ill) — are 
sufficient to supply all the houses and innu- 
merable fountains of the present city in 
superfluity. Among the provincial aque- 
ducts, one is specially well preserved, that 
known as Pont du Card, near Nimes, in the 
south of France (see cut on p. 48). 

Arachne ( = spider). Daughter of the Ly- 
dian purple-dyer Idmon, challenged Athena, 
of whom she had learnt weaving, to a weav- 
ing match. When the offended goddess 
tore up Arachne's web, which represented 
the loves of the gods, Arachne hung herself, 
but Athena changed her into a spider. 

Aratus. A Greek poet, of Soli in Cilicia, 
about 270 B.C., contemporary of Calllmachus 
and Theocritus. At the request of the 
Macedonian king Antigonus Gonatas, at 
whose court he lived as physician, he wrote. 
without much knowledge of the subject, 
but guided by the works of Eudoxus and 
Theophrastus, an astronomical poem, Fhce- 
nomena and PrognOsttca (aspects of the sky 
and signs of weather). Without genuine 



plration, Aratui manages his in- 

bla mates ia) with rn ble tact, 

.iii.i dignified simplicity. Th< 

while nol aly from stiffness, in 

choice, and the versification correct. The 

I m enjoyed a high repute with the general 

publio, as well as with ] ts and specialists : 

i tins ' ! momer Hipparchns wrote 

ii ni four I" oks, The 

Romans also took pleasure in reading and 

translating it,< ..•/. ( Iioero, < kesar t lermanYcus, 

and Aviiiius. 

Arbiter. An umpire; especially a judge 

who derides according to equity, while a 
iildc.c decides according to law. 

Arcadius (Gr. ArkddfOs. A Greek gram- 
marian of Antioch, who probably flourished 
in the 2nd century a.d. He was the author 
of a iWtrine of Accents in '20 hooks, an 
abstract of a work by the famous Hera 

Areas (Gr. Arkda). Son of Zeus by the 
nymph Callisto, and ancestor of the Ar- 
cadians, who was translated to the sky by 
Zeus as Arrtiints = Watcher of the Bear. 

Si ■ I '.U.LISTO.) 

Archfiniorus (= leader in fate, i.< . the first 
to die). A surname given to Opheltes, the 

infant son of LycuTgus king of Nem8a, who 

was killed by a snake during the march of 
the Seven against Thebes (q.v.). It was 
given him by the seer Amphiaraus, who 

foresaw the destruction awaiting himself 
and his confederates ; and by it the child 
was invoked at the Nemean Games origin- 
ally founded in memory of him. 

Archestratus, of Gela, in Sicily, flourished 
about 318 B.C., and composed the humorous 
didactic poem HedypStheia ( = good cheer), 
supposed to describe a gastronomic tour 
round the then known world, with playful 
echoes of Homer and the dogmatic philoso- 
phers. The numerous fragments display 
much talent and wit. 

Archilochus. A Greek lyric poet, especi- 
ally eminent as a writer of lampoons. Born 
at Paros, he was the son of Telesicles by a 
slave-woman, but was driven by poverty to 
go with a colony to Thasos B.C. 720 or 708. 
From Thasos he was soon driven by want 
and by the enmities which his unrestrained 
passion for invective had drawn upon him. 
He seems to have roamed restlessly from 
place to place, until, on his return to Pares, 
he was slain in fight by the Naxian Calondas. 
Long afterwards, when this man visited the 
Delphian temple, the god is said to have driven 
him from his threshold as the slayer of a ser- 
vant of the Muses, and refused to admit him 
till he had propitiated the soul of the poet 

D. C. A. 

ut his toml i v whii li e\|, 

high I 

who placed him on a level with ll 

r and SophOcliS. Poi A 

had an 

enabled him to invenl a huge anm 

new metres, sod to manipulate them 

master. He bi mbic 

in pai I icnlar, to artistic pei P i tion. 
The many misfortnnefl of his stormy life 
bred in bis irritable nature a deeply- 
settled indignation, which, in poems pi 
in form and alive with force sad fury, 
vented itself in bitter mockery even 01 
his friends, and in merciless, unpardonable 
abuse of his foes. Such was the ''tt 
his lampoons, that Lycambes, who had iirst 
ised and then refused him his daughter 
NeobfllS, hanged himself and his family in 
the despair engendered by the poet's furious 
ks. Of his poems, which were written 
in the Old-Ionic dialect, and taken by 
Horace for his model in his Epodes, only a 
number of short fragments are preser\ 

Archimedes. One of the greatest mathe- 
maticians and natural philosophers of anti- 
quity, born B.C. 287 at Syracuse. He lived 
at the court of his kinsman, king Hiero, 
and was killed (B.C. 212) by a Roman soldier 
at the taking of the city which he had 
largely aided in defending with his engines. 
Of his inventions and discoveries we need 
only say, that he ascertained the ratio of the 
radius to the circumference, and that of the 
cylinder to the sphere, and the hydrostatic 
law that a body dipped in water loses as 
much weight as that of the water displaced 
by it ; that he invented the pulley, the end- 
less screw, and the kind of pump called the 
"screw of Archimedes'': and that he con- 
structed the so-called "sphere," a sort of 
orrery 7 showing the motions of the heavenly 
bodies. Of his works, written in the Doric 
dialect, the following are preserved: On the 
sphere and cylinder, On the measurement 
of the circle. On conoids and spheroids, On 
spiral lines, The psammltes (or sand-reck- 
oner, for the calculation of the earth's size 
in grains of sand), On the equilibrium of 
planes and their centres of gravity, and 
On floating bodies. . 

Architecture : (1) of the Greeks. Of the 
earliest efforts of the Greeks in architecture, 
we have evidence in the so-called Cyclopean 
Walls surrounding the castles of kings in 
the Heroic Age at Tiryns, Argos, Mycenae 
(fig. 1), and elsewhere. They are of enormous 
thickness, some being constructed of rude 
colossal blocks, whose gaps are filled up 




with smaller stones ; while others are built 
of stones more or less carefully hewn, their 

interstices exactly fitting into each other. 
Gradually they begin to show an approxi- 


mation to buildings with rectangular blocks. 
The gates let into these walls are closed at 
the top either by the courses of 

stone jutting over from each side 

till they touch, or by a long straight 
block laid over the two leaning side- 
posts. Of the latter kind is the 
famous Lion-gate at Mijeenw, so- 
called from the group of two lions f 
standing with their forefeet on the 
broad pedestal of a pillar that tapers i .. 
rapidly downwards, and remarkable 
as the oldest specimen of Greek 
sculpture. The sculpture is carved 
on a large triangular slab that fills 
an opening left in the wall to lighten 
the weight on the lintel (fig. 2). 

Among the most striking relics of 
this primitive age are the so-called 
Thesauroi, or treasuries (now re- 
garded as tombs) of ancient dynasties 
the most considerable being the Trea- 

sure-house of Atreus at Mycenae. The 
usual form of these buildings is that of a 
circular chamber vaulted over by the hori- 
zontal courses approaching from all sides 
till they meet. Thus the vault is not a 
true ' arch (fig. 3). The interior seems 
originally to have been covered with metal 
plates, thus agreeing with Homer's descrip- 
tions of metal as a favourite ornament of 
princely houses. An open-air building pre- 
served from that age is the supposed Temple 
of Hera on Mount Ocha (now Hagios Elias) 
in Euboea, a rectangle built of regular square 
blocks, with walls more than a yard thick, 
two small windows, and a door with leaning 
posts and a huge lintel in the southern side- 
wall. The sloping roof is of hewn flagstones 
resting on the thickness of the wall and 
overlapping each other ; but the centre is 
left open as in the hypsethral temples of a 
later time. 

From the simple shape of a rectangular 
house shut in by blank walls we gradu- 
ally advance to finer and richer forms, 
formed especially by the introduction of 
columns detached from the wall and serv- 
ing to support the roof and ceiling. Even 
iu Homer we find columns in the palaces to 
support the halls that surround the court- 
yard, and the ceiling of the banqueting-room. 
The construction of columns (see Architec- 
ture, Orders of) received its artistic de- 
velopment first from the Dorians after their 
migration into the Peloponnesus about 
1000 B.C., next from the lonians, and from 
each in a form suitable to their several 
characters. If the simple serious character 
of the Dorians speaks in the Doric Order, 
no less does the lighter, nimbler, and more 

3 ■ 


A wall of entrance-passage (drSmiJs), 30 ft. long. B entrance, l&i 
ft. high. C large chamber, 50 ft. high. D entrance (9 ft. high) tc 
small chamber. 



slniw y genius of the Ionian raoe i i M 

iu tin' Order i in 1 1 1< •< i after them. By about? 

650 II. 1'. tin' [OniO style was llmiiisliih 

ide u 1th tl"' I tone 

As it was in the r, .11st 1 net 10 11 of '/'< 111/ilrs 

fa.w.) thai architecture had developed her 
favourite (onus, all other public buildings 
owed their artistic character from the 
triu|.li>. Tho structure ami furniture of 
private bouses {see Souse), were, during 

the lierst days "I' litiviv, kept ilnwn to the 

simplest forms. About t ;« k t b.o., in the 
Greefe islands and on the coast of Asia 
Minor, we come across the first architects 
known to us by name It was then that 
Rhaecu8 and TheodOrus of Samos, cole- 

period. In addii ion I i ained temples 

in Sicily especiall] a< Sellnus and Agri- 
gentum). hould be mentioned the Temple 
of Poseidon at Prastum (PoaeidOnia) in South 

1 1 dy, "i f t he b< rved and 

.nil relics of antiquity i figs, I. ."> 
Thi patriotic fervour of the Persian '• 
created a general expansion of Greek life, 

in which Architecture and tho sister an of 
Sculpture were not slow to take a part. In 
these departments), as in the whole onward 
movement, a central position was taken by 
Athens, whose leading statesmen, Clmon and 
Pericles, lavished the great resources of the 
State at once in strengthening and beauti- 
fying the city. During this period arose a 


brated likewise as inventors of casting in 
bronze, built the great temple of Hera in 
that island, while ChersiphrOn of Cnosus 
in Crete, with his son Met a genes, began 
the temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, 
one of the seven wonders of the world, 
which was not finished till 120 years 
after. In Greece Proper a vast temple to 
Zeus was begun at Athens in the 6th cen- 
tury B.C. (see Olympieum), and two more 
at Delphi and Olympia, one by the Cor- 
inthian Spintharus, the other by the Elean 
Libon. Here, and in the Western colonies 
the Doric style still predominated every- 
where. Among the chief remains of this 

group of masterpieces that still astonish us 
in their ruins, some in the forms of a softened 
Doric, others in the Ionic style, which had 
now found its way into Attica, and was here 
fostered into nobler shapes. The Doric 
order is represented by the Temple of 
Theseus (fig. 6), the Propylsea built by 
Mncsicles, the Parthenon, a joint produc- 
tion of Ictinus and Callicrdtes ; while the 
Erechtheum is the most brilliant creation of 
the Ionic order in Attica. Of the influence of 
Attic Architecture on the rest of Greece we 
have proof, especially in the Temple of Apollo 
at Bassse in South- Western Arcadia,built from 
the design of the above-mentioned Ictinus. 



The progress of the Drama to its per- 
fection in this period led to a correspond- 
ing improvement in the building of T/n- 
atrcs (q.v.). A stone theatre was begun 
at Athens even before the Persian Wars : 
and the Odeum of Pericles served similar 
purposes. How soon the highest results 
were achieved in this department, when 
once the fundamental forms had thus been 
laid down in outline at Athens, is shown 
by the theatre at Epidaurus, a work of 
Polyclltus, unsurpassed, as the ancients 
testif}-, by any later theatres in harmony 
and beauty. Another was built at Syracuse, 
before B.C. 420. Nor is it only in the 
erection of single buildings that the great 

increasingly fashionable. In the first half 
of the 4th century arose what the ancients 
considered the largest and grandest temple 
in the Peloponnesus, that of Athena at 
Tegea. a work of the sculptor and archi- 
tect Scopas. During the middle of the 
century, another of the "seven wonders," 

I the splendid tomb of Mausolus at Halicar- 
nassus was constructed (see MAUSOLEUM . 
Many magnificent temples arose in that 
time. In Asia Minor, the temple at 

1 Ephesus, burnt down by Herostratus, was 
rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect 
Deinocrcites. In the islands the ruins of 
the temple of Athena at Priene, of Apollo 

I at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others, 


advance then made by architecture shows 
itself. In laying out new towns, or parts 
of towns, men began to proceed on artistic 
principles, an innovation due to the sophist 
Hippoddmus of Miletus. 

In the 4th century B.C., owing to the 
change wrought in the Greek mind by the 
Peloponnesian War, in place of the pure and 
even tone of the preceding period, a desire 
for effect became more and more general, 
both in architecture and sculpture. The 
sober Doric style fell into abeyance and 
gave way to the Ionic, by the side of which 
a new Order, the Corinthian, said to have 
been invented by the sculptor CaHimSchus, 
with its more gorgeous decorations, became 

even to this day offer a brilliant testi- 
mony to their former magnificence. Among 
Athenian buildings of that age the Monu- 
ment of Lysicrates (q.v.) is conspicuous 
for its graceful elegance and elaborate de- 
velopment of the Corinthian style. In the 
succeeding age Greek architecture shows 
its finest achievements in the building of 
theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns, 
in the gorgeous palaces of newly-built royal 
capitals, and in general in the luxurious 
completeness of private buildings. As an 
important specimen of the last age of Attic 
architecture may also be mentioned the 
Tower of the Winds (q.v.) at Athens. 

(2) Architecture of the Etruscans and 


Roman*. La architecture, aa well as sculp- 

under the 
influi be Etruscans, who, tl 

united wonderful aoth 
with b pa 
■ overing their build 

with rich ornamental 
earring. None of their tern- 
plea have survived, for they 
built all the upper parte of 

. lui! mani 
their activity in buildii 
main, surviving from \ 

in the shape of Tombs 
and Walls. The latter dearly 
show how they progl 
from piling up polygonal 
blocks in Cyclopean style to 
regular courses of Bquared 
stone. Hero and there a building still 
shows that the Etruscans originally made 
vaultings by letting horizontal cours 

. as in the ancient Greek thgsauroi above 
mentioned; on the other hand, some very 
old gateways, as at Volterra (fig. 1) and 
Perugia, exhibit the true Arch ot' wedge- 
shaped stones, the invention of which is 
probably due to Etruscan ingenuity, and 
from the introduction of which a new 
and magnificent development of archi- 
ore takes its rise. The most impos- 
ing monument of ancient Italian arch- 
building is to be seen in the sewers of 
Rome laid down in the 6th century B.C. 
S Cloaca Maxima.1 
When all other traces of Etruscan 
influence were being swept away at 
Rome by the intrusion of Greek forms 
ot' art, especially after the Conquest of 
Greece in the middle of the 2nd cen- 
tury B.C.. the Roman architects kept 
alive in full vigour the Etruscan 
method of building the arch, which 
they developed and completed by the 
inventions of the Cross-Arch (or groined 
vault) and the Dome. With the Arch, 
which admitsof a bolder and more varied 
management of spaces, the Romans : 
combined, as a decorative element, the * 
columns of the Greek Orders. Among >' 
these their growing love of pomp gave i- 
the preference more and more to the 
Corinthian, adding to it afterwards a still 
more gorgeous embellishment in what is 
called the Foman or Composite capital (see 
Architecture. Orders of). Another ser- 
vice rendered by the Romans was the intro- 
duction of building in brick (see Pottery). 

a in- srehi- 

'ui ile opening ■■! th 

military roads and [n thi 

mu" (J(j ft. x 1U."> ft.) ; see p. 51. 

half of the 2nd century they built, on Greek 
models, the first Basilica, which, besides its 

practical utility served to embellish the 
Eorum. Soon after the middle of the cen- 



f After Canina.) 

tury, appeared the first of their more am- 
bitious temples in the Greek style. There 
is simple grandeur in the ruins of the 
Tabuldrium, or Record-Office, built B.C. 78 



on the slope of the Capitol next the Forum. 
These are among the few remains of Roman 
republican architecture ; but in the last de- 
cades of the Republic simplicity gradually 
disappeared, and men were eager to display 

aided by his son-in-law Agrippa, a man who 
understood building, not only completed his 
uncle's plans, but added many magnificent 
structures — the Forum Augusti with its 
Temple to Mars Ultor, the Theatre of Mar- 

(8) * exterior of Colosseum ; see p. 55. 
(Cooke. Views of the Coliseum, pi. 13.) 

a princely pomp in public and private, build- 
ings ; witness the first stone theatre erected 
by Pompey as early as 55 B.C. Then all 
that went before was eclipsed by the vast 
works undertaken by Censor, the Theatre, 

cellus with its Portico of Octavia, the Mau- 
soleum, and others. Augustus could fairly 
boast that " having found Rome a city of bri ck, 
he left it a city of marble.*' The grandest 
monument of that age, and one of the loftiest 

(t> * INTERIOR OF COLOSSEUM : see p. 55. 
Cooke, Fieics of the Coliseum, pi. 4.) 

Amphitheatre, Circus, Basilica Iulia, Forum 
C<rsaris with its Temple to Venus Genetrix. 
These were finished by Augustus, under 
whom Roman architecture seems to have 
reached its culminating point. Augustus, 

creations of Roman art in general, is the 
Pantheon (q.v.) built by Agrippa, adjacent to, 
but not connected with, his Thermo 1 , the first 
of the man}- works of that kind in Rome. 
A still more splendid aspect was imparted 


to die city l>v ili" rebuilding <>f the * > I ■ I 
Town bnrnl down in Mero'i Bre, and bj : i" 
"Golden Boom" of Nero, a gorgeous pile, 

The progri made under the Flavian em- 
is evidenced bj I mphi- 

theatre j.t>.) known aa the Coloistwn 

(After Fontann arid Hirt.) 

the like of which was never seen before, but 
which was destroyed on the violent death of 
its creator. Of the luxurious grandeur of 

(11) * ARCH OF TITUS. 

private buildings we have ocular proof in 
the dwelling-houses of Pompeii, a paltry 
country-town in comparison with Rome. 

8, 9, 10), the mightiest Roman ruin in the 
world, by the ruined Tlicrmcr, or Baths, of 
Titus, and by his Triumphal Arch (q.v.\ the 
oldest specimen extant in Rome of this class 
of monument, itself a creation of the Roman 
mind (fig. 11). But all previous buildings 
were surpassed in size and splendour when 
Trajan's architect Apollodorus of Damas- 
cus raised the Forum TrOianum with its 
huge Basilica Ulpia (fig. 12) and the still 
surviving Column of Trajan. No less 
extensive were the works of Hadrian, who. 
besides adorning Athens with many mag- 
nificent buildings, bequeathed to Rome a 
Temple of Venus and Roma, the most 
colossal of all Roman temples (fig. 13), 
and his own Mausoleum (q.v.), the core of 
which is preserved in the Castle of St. 
Angelo. While the works of the Antonines 
already show a gradual decline in archi- 
tectural feeling, the Triumphal Arch of 
Severus ushers in the period of decay that 
set in with the 3rd century. In this clos- 
ing period of Roman rule the buildings 
grow more and more gigantic, witness the 
Baths of Caracalla (fig. 14), those of Dio- 
cletian, with his palace at Salona three 
miles from Spalatro) in Dalmatia, and the 
Basilica of Constantine breathing the last 
feeble gasp of ancient life. But outside of 
Rome and Italy, in every part of the enor- 
mous empire to its utmost barbarian borders, 



numberls i remains oi roads I 

aqueducts and viaducts, ramparts and 
i : i villus, market places 

and 1 1 hulls, baths, ill ophi 

theatre i and templi i tlity, 

i y. and solidil y oi Roman archil eol ore, 
mosl "i whose oi ea I ions only I be rudi 

ahooks have hitherto been ah] leatroy. 

Architecture, Orders of. Jn Greek 
architecture there were three orders of 
columns: the Dorio, [onio, and Corin- 

a. Mutules. tl. Annnlete. 

b. Triglyphs. e. Flutings. 

q. Metopes. 

(1) Fvom the Temple of 
Poseidon, Psestuni. 

(2) From the Parthenon, 


thian. (I) Doric : Figures 1 and 2 give 
instances of the Doric style from the temple 
at Paastum and the Parthenon at Athens. 
The Doric column consists (a) of the shaft, 
which increases in diameter almost invisibly 
up to about one-quarter of its height, and 
diminishes slightly after that point. It has 
no base, but rests immediately on the sty- 
lobate. It is surrounded with semi-circular 
flutings, meeting each other at a sharp 
angle. These were chiselled with a cedar- 
wood tool after the separate drums had been 
put together, (b) The capital (Lat. capl- 
tulum). This consists of three parts, (a) the 
hypotrdcliUlidn, or neck of the column, a 
continuation of the shaft, but separated by 
an indentation from the other drums. It 
is wider at the top than at the bottom, 
and is generally ornamented with several 
parallel and horizontal rings. (b) The 
Schlnus, a circular moulding or cushion, 
which widens greatly towards the top. (c) 
The abax or abacus, a square slab sup- 
porting the architrave or epistylion. The 

hi haft is o 

" i bel n een 1 1 • I ' tim 

d tar "f ' b nun The 

architrave is a quad 

reaohing from pillar to pillai . Onthi 

ailed from the 

top ■ I led with i ulpl ares 

in reliel The e mi 

between the triglyphs: the triglyphs are 

surfaces oul into three oi 

whole grooves in the centre, and two half 

grooves al the Bides, One Lb placed over 

cadi pillar, and one ln-t u mi . .n-h |, ; 
pillars. Tim entablature is completed by a 

projecting nice, a slab crowned with a 

simple heading-course, the lower surface of 

(3) From the Temple on 
the Ilissus, Athens. 


(4) From the Monument 
of Lysicrates, Athens. 


which is ornamented with sloping corbels 
(Gk. stdgones, Lat. mutuli). 

(II) Ionic Columns. An instance is given 
in fig. 3 from the temple on the Ilissus at 
Athens. Theseareloftierthan theDoric, their 
height being 8|-9| times the diameter of the 
lower part. The enlargement of the lower 




part is also less than in the Doric columns, 
the distance between each column greater 
(two diameters), the flutings (generally '24 
in number) deeper, 
and separated by 
small flat surfaces. 
The Ionic column 
has a base, consist- 
ing of a square slab 
( pi i nthos), and 
several cushion- 
like supports sepa- 
rated by grooves. 
The capital, again, 
is more artistically 
developed. The 
neck, instead of 
flutings, has five 
leaves worked in 
relief. The echinus $ 
is very small and 
ornamented with | 
an egg pattern. « 
Over it, instead of j 
the abacus, is a 
cushion ending be- 
fore and behind in 
spiral volutes, sup- 
porting a narrow 
square, slab, which 
is also adorned with 
an egg pattern. 
The architrave is 

divided into three a. Cyma recta, g. Volutes, 
i -i >.- b. Corona. li. Astragal. 

bands, projecting c . Moauiions. i. Toms, 
one above the d - ° vol °- . *■ Trochiius. 

. , • , e. Cymation. 1. Quadra. 

Other, and upon it f. Abacus. m. Plinth. 

rises, in an unin- (5) From the Pantheon, Rome. 

terrupted surface, corinthian order. 
the frieze, adorned 

with reliefs continuously along its whole 
length. Finally, the cornice is composed of 
different parts. 

(DII) The Corinthian column (fig. 4, from 
the monument of Lysicrates, at Athens). 
The base and shaft are identical with the 
Ionic, but the capital takes the form of 
an open cdlix formed of acanthus leaves. 
Above this is another set of leaves, from 
between which grow stalks with small 
leaves, rounded into the form of volutes. 
On this rests a small abacus widening to- 
wards the top, and on this again the entab- 
lature, which is borrowed from the Ionic 
order. On the human figures employed 
instead of columns to support the entabla- 
ture, see Atlas, Canephori, Caryatides. 

The Romans adopted the Greek styles of 

column, but not always in their pure form. 
They were fondest of the Corinthian, which 
they laboured to enrich with new and often 
excessive ornamentation. For instance, they 
crowned the Corinthian capital with the 
Ionic, thus forming what is called the Roman 
or composite capital. 

The style known as Tuscan is a degenerate 
form of the Doric. The Tuscan column has 
a smooth shaft, in height = 7 diameters of 
the low T er part, and tapering up to three- 
quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base 
consists of two parts, a circular plinth, and 
a cushion of equal height. The capital is 
formed of three parts of equal height. 

In other styles, too, the Romans sometimes 
adopted the smooth instead of the fluted 
shaft, as for instance in the Pantheon (fig. 5). 

Single columns were sometimes erected 
by the Greeks, and in imitation of them by 
the Romans, as memorials to distinguished 


(With its surroundings as restored by Canina, Arch. Rom. 
tav. 20i.) 

persons. A good example is the Colunma 
Ro&trCita, or column with its shaft adorned 
with the beaks- of ships, in the Roman 


Forum. This wu Ml op in oommemora 
tii'ii of ' In- n;iv :i 1 viotory of DulUus over 
the Carthaginians 261 b.c Amwng the 
columns whioh survive, the most magnifi- 
oenl is thai of Trajan, erected in the Porum 
1. 1 Trajan I Lfi a.i>. It rises on a qo 
gnlar pedimeni to the height of li'l feet . 
its diameter below is about 10 feet, and a 
little less in tin- upper part. An interior 
spiral staircase "i 186 steps leads to the 
sum mi t. The shaft, formed "t twenty-three 
drums of marble, is adorned with a series 
of reliefs, .'s foot .'> inches high au<l 2im> feel 
Iodl;, in a Beriee of twenty-two spirals. 
They represent scenes in Trajan's 1 1 
campaigns, and contain 2,600 human figures, 
with animals, engines, etc. Ona cylindrical 
ital at the suniinit there once stood a 
gilded stat ni> of the emperor, which, since 
the year 1~>S7. has made way lor a bronze 
figure of St. Peter. A similar column is 
thai of Marcus Aurelius, 122 feet high, on I 
the Piazza Colonna. Since 1589 the statue 
of St. Paul has been substituted for that of 
the emperor. The reliefs, in twenty spirals, 
represent events in the emperor's war with 
the Marcomanni. 

Architheorla. One of the public services 
called liturgicr at Athens ; it was the obli- 
gation to furnish forth the sacred embassies 
{thSOrice) to the four great national festivals, 
also to Delphi and other holy places. (See . 

Archon (=ruler), the Athenian name for 
the supreme authority established on the 
abolition of royalty. On the death of the 
last king, Codrus, B.C. 1068, the headship of 
the state for life was bestowed on his son 
Medon and his descendants under the title , 
of Archon. In 752 B.C. their term of office 
was cut down to ten years, in 714 their 
exclusive privilege was abolished, and the 
right to hold the office thrown open to all 
the nobility, while its duration was dimin- 
ished to one year; finally in B.C. 683 the 
power was divided among nine archons. By 
Solon's legislation, his wealthiest class, the 
pentaedsio-medimni, became eligible to the 
office ; and by Aristides' arrangement after I 
the Persian Wars it was thrown open to all 
the citizens, Cleisthenes having previously, : 
in the interests of the democracy, substituted 
the drawing of lots for election by vote. 
[See Note on p. 706.] The political power 
of the office, having steadily decreased with 
time, sank to nothing when democracy was 
established ; its holders had no longer even 
the right to deliberate and originate motions, 
their action being limited to certain priestly 

and judicial functions, relics of their once 
powei . 

Tin' titles I dutii "f tin- several Ar- 
chons are as follows: l Their president, 
named emphatically Archon, or Archon 
EpOnbmds, because t he oh il 

I after him. lb- had charge "I the 
Dionptia, the ThargSlia, the • 
sies to festivals (tin ■<>ri<r , the nomination of 
chdrSgi ; also the position of guardian in 
ohief, and tin- power to appoint guard 
the presidency in all suits about family rights 
(such as questions of divorce or inl 
ance), and in disputes among the choregi. 

(2) The Archon BdsUeua (king), called 

so because on him devolved certain s 
rites inseparably connected with the name 
of king. He had the care of the Eleusinian 
Mysteries (and was obliged therefore to be 
an initiated person), of the Lt'nwa and 
AnthestSria, of gymnastic contests, to which 
he appointed a superintendent, and of a 
number of antiquated sacrifices, some of 
which fell to the share of his wife, the 
Baxilissa (queen); and lastly, the position 
of president in all suits touching religious 
law, including those trials for murder that 
came within the jurisdiction of the BphSta 

(q.v.y (3) The Archon PolCmarchOs 

(leader in war) was originally entrusted 
with the war-department, and, as late as the 
battle of Marathon, had the right of voting 
with the ten generals, and the old royal 
privilege of commanding the right wing. 
Afterwards he only had charge of the state 
sacrifices offered to the gods of war and to 
the shade of Harmodius, the public funerals 
of those who fell in war and the annual 
feasts in honour of them ; finally, the juris- 
diction in all questions concerning the 
personal and family rights of resident aliens 
(metoeci)a.rid strangers. All this rested on the 
old assumption that foreigner meant enemy. 
Each of these three superior Archons had two 
assessors chosen by himself, but responsible. 
(4) The Six ThesmothStce (literally law- 
givers) administered justice in all cases not 
pertaining to the senior Archons or some 
other authority, revised the laws once a 
year, and superintended the apportioning 
of public offices by lot. The several Ar- 
chons exercised their jurisdiction at different 
spots in the city; that of the Polemarch 
alone lay outside the walls. Duties common 
to all nine were : the yearly appointment 
by lot of the Heliastw (q.v.), the choice of 
umpires in the PanathenEea, the holding of 
elections of the generals and other military 
officers, jurisdiction in the case of officials 



suspended or deposed by the people, and 
latterly even in suits which had previously 
been subject to the nautddicce. (See Xau- 
todice.) If they had discharged their 
office without blame, they entered the 
Areopagus as members for life. The office 
of Archon lasted even under the Roman rule. 

Archytas of Tarentum. Distinguished 
as a general, statesman and mathematician, 
a leading representative of the Pythagorean 
philosophy, who flourished about. 400-365 
b.c. (See Pythagoras.) 

Arctlnus (Gr. Arkttnos). A Greek epic 
poet. See Epos. 

Areithous. King of Arne in Bceotia, 
called the " club-swinger " because he 
fought with an iron mace. Irresistible in 
the open field, he was waylaid by king 
Lycurgus of Arcadia in a narrow pass 
where he could not swing his club, and 
killed. His son Menesthius fell by the 
hand of Paris, before Troy. 

Areopagus (Gr. Areios pdgos). An ancient 
criminal court at Athens, so named because 
it sat on Ares' Hill beside the AcropSlis, where 
the god of war was said to have been tried 
for the murder of Halirrothius the son of 
Poseidon. (See Ares.) Solon's legislation 
raised the Areopagus into one of the most 
powerful bodies by transferring to it the 
greater part of the jurisdiction of the Ephetse 
(q.v.), as well as the supervision of the entire 
public administration, the conduct of ma- 
gistrates, the transactions of the popular 
assembly, religion, laws, morals and disci- 
pline, and giving it power to call even private 
people to account for offensive behaviour. 
The "Court of Areopagus," as its full name 
ran, consisted of life-members (Areopagites), 
who supplemented their number by the 
addition of such archons as had discharged 
their duties without reproach. Not only 
their age, but their sacred character 
tended to increase the influence of the 
Areopagites. They were regarded as in 
a measure ministers of the Erinyes or 
Eumenides (Furies), who under the name 
of SemncB (venerable) had their cave im- 
mediately beneath the Areopagus, and 
whose worship came under their care. The 
Areopagus proving too conservative for the 
headlong pace of the Athenian democracy, 
its general right of supervising the admi- 
nistration was taken from it by the law 
of Ephialtes, in 462 B.C., and transferred to 
a new authority, the XOmophyldkes (guar- 
dians of the laws); but it recovered this 
right on the fall of the Thirty. Its political 
powers seem never to have been clearly 

defined ; it often acted in the name of, and 
with full powers from, the people, which 
also accepted its decisions on all possible 
subjects. Under the Roman rule it was 
still regarded as the supreme authority. 
Then, as formerly, it exercised a most 
minute vigilance over foreigners. 

Ares (Lat. Mars). The Greek name for 
the god of war, son of Zeus by Hera, whose 
quarrelsome temper Homer supposes to have 
passed over to her son so effectively that 
he delighted in nothing but battle and blood- 
shed. His insatiable thirst for blood makes 
him hateful to his father and all the gods, 
especially Athena. His favourite haunt is 
the land of the wild and warlike Thracians. 
In form and equipment the ideal of warlike 
heroes, who are therefore called "Ares-like" 
and " darlings of Ares," he advances, ac- 
cording to Homer, now on foot, now in a 
chariot drawn by magnificent steeds, at- 
tended by his equally bloodthirsty sister 
Ei-is (strife), his sons Deimos and Fhobos 
(fear and fright), and Enyo, the goddess of 
battle and waster of cities (he himself being 
called Enydlios), rushing in blind rage 
through indiscriminate slaughter. Though 
fighting on the Trojan side, the bloodshed 
only is dear to his heart. But his unbridled 
strength and blind valour turn to his dis- 
advantage, and always bring about his 
defeat in the presence of Athena, the god- 
dess of ordered battalions ; he is also beaten 
by heroes fighting under her leadership, as 
by Heracles in the. contest with Cycnus, and 
by Diomedes before Troy. And this view 
of Ares as the bloodthirsty god of battles 
is in the main that of later times also. As 
early as Homer he is the friend and lover 
of Aphrodite, who has borne him Eros 
and Anteros, Deimos and Phobos, as well 
as Harmonia, wife of Cadmus the founder 
of Thebes, where both goddesses were wor- 
shipped as ancestral deities. He is not 
named so often as the gods of peace, but, 
as Ares or Enyalios, he was doubtless 
worshipped everywhere, notably in Sparta, 
in Arcadia and (as father of (Enomaiis) in 
Elis. At Sparta young dogs were sacrified 
to him under the title of Therltas. At 
Athens the ancient site of a high court of 
justice, the Areopagus, was consecrated to 
him. There, in former days, the 013-mpian 
gods had sat in judgment on him and 
absolved him when he had slain Halir- 
rhothius for offering violence to Alcippe, 
his daughter by Agraulus. His symbols 
were the spear and the burning torch. 
Before the introduction of trumpets, two 

Mil.l li -ARGONA! 


priests of Ana, marching in Eroni of the 
armies, hurled the torch s>i the foe ■■ 
■ignaj "t bati '<•• 


(Rome, Villa Ludovis .) 

In works of art he was represented as a 
young and handsome man of strong sinewy 
frame, his hair in short curls, and a some- 
what sombre look in his countenance ; in 
the early style he is bearded and in ar- 
mour, in the later beardless and with only 
the helmet on. He is often represented in 
company with Aphrodite and their boy 
Eros, who plays with his father"s arms. 
One of the most famous statues extant is 
that in the Villa Ludovisi, which displays 
him in an easy resting attitude, with his 
arms laid aside, and Eros at his feet. (See 
cut.) On his identification with the Italian 
Mars, see Mars. 

Aretaeus. A Greek physician, born in 
Cappadocia, towards the end of the 2nd cen- 
tury a.d. He was the author of two valu- 
able works i^each in four books), written in 
the Ionic dialect, on the causes and symp- 
toms of acute and chronic pains, and on 
their cure. 

Arete. Wife of Alcmoiis king of the 
Phaeacians (see both), and protectress of 
Odysseus (q.v.). 

Arethusa. (1) In Greece a frequent name 

of springe, i specially of one in Elis, 

ii the [aland of Ortygia in the po 

Syracuse, which wt 

subterranean communication with the 

Alpheus in Klis. The two foonl 

ited by the following legend. A 
nymph of cilia, tired with the i I 

ng in tIii- Alph ; fell 

ly iii love with her : she il> d 
iiini to Ortygia, where Artemis hid hei in 
her gush out of ii in the 
form of a fountain: but Alpheus flowi 
under the sea to Ortygia, and so dj 
himself with bis beloved one. The story is 
explained by the likeness of name in the 
fountains, by the circumstance that Artemis 
was worshipped both in Elis and Ortygia 
as Alphecea, and by the fact that in 
1 places the Alpheus actually docs run un- 

(2 One of the HespSrldSa •/.«.). 

Argei. The name of certain chapels at 
Some, probably twenty-four in number, 
each of the four tribes of the citj- having 
six. To these chapels a procession was 
made on March 16 and IT. at which the 
wife of the Flamen Dialis walked with 
unkempt hair as a sign of mourning. On 
May 15 the Pontiffs. Vestal Virgins, Prae- 
tors, and all citizens who had a right to 
assist at sacrifices, marched to the wooden 
bridge over the Tiber (Pons SubVtcius . 
and after sacrificing, threw into the river 
twenty-four men of straw, likewise named 
Argei, which had probably been hung up 
in the chapels at the first procession, and 
were fetched away at the second. The 
sacrifice was regarded as expiatory, and the 
puppets as substitutes for former human 
victims. The meaning of the name was 
unknown to the ancients, and so was the 
deity to whom the sacrifice was offered. 

Argentarii. See Money-changers. 

Argenteus. A Roman silver coin current 
from the end of the 3rd century a.d. and 
onwards. See Coinage. 

Argo. The ship of the Argonauts (q.v.), 
named after her builder Argos. 

Argonauts. Those who sailed in the 
Argo with Jason, son of JEson and grandson 
of Cretheus (see JSolus, 1), a generation 
before the Trojan war, to jEa, which in 
later times was understood to be Colchis, 
lying at the farthest end of the Black Sea. 
The object of the expedition was to fetch 
back the golden fleece of the ram on which 
Phrixus the son of Athamas (q.v.) had 
fled, from his father and his stepmother 
Ino, to the magician iEetes, king of JEa. 



Hospitably received by him, and married 
to his daughter Chalciope, he had sacrificed 
the ram, and hung its fleece up in the grove 
of Ares, where it was guarded b}' a sleep- 
less dragon. The task of fetching it back 
was laid upon Jason by his uncle Pelias, 
son of Poseidon and Tyro, who had deprived 
his half-brother iEson of the sovereignty 
of Iolcos in Thessaly. ^Eson, to protect 
his son from the plots of Pelias, had con- 
veyed him secretly to the centaur Chiron 
on Mount Pelion, who brought him up till 
he was twenty years of age. Then Jason 
came home, and without a shoe on his left 
foot, having lost it in wading through a 
mountain torrent, presented himself before 
Pelias, demanding his father's restoration 
to his sovereignty. The crafty Pelias, 
whom an oracle had warned against a one- 
shoed man. promised on his oath to do 
what he asked, if Jason would go instead 
of himself to fetch the golden fleece. This 
task the oracle had imposed upon himself, 
but he was too old to perform it. Another 
version of the story is, that Jason, after 
completing his education with Chiron, pre- 
ferred to live in the country ; that he 
came, with one shoe on, to a sacrifice that 
Pelias was offering to Poseidon on the sea- 
shore ; that Pelias asked him what he 
would do if he were king and had been 
forewarned of his death at the hand of a 
subject ; and that, upon Jason answering 
that he would make him fetch the golden 
fleece, Pelias gave him the commission. 
Hera had put that answer in Jason's 
mouth, because she regarded him with 
favour, and wished to punish Pelias for 
having slain Sidero in her temple. (See 

The vessel for the voyage, the fifty-oared 
Argo, is said to have been named after its 
builder Argos, a son of Phrixus, after his 
return to Orchomenus, the home of his 
fathers. The ship was built of the pines of 
Pelion under the direction of Athena, like 
Hera, a protectress of Jason, who inserted 
in the prow a piece of the speaking oak of 
Dodona. The heroes who at Jason's call 
took part in the expedition, fifty all told 
according to the number of the oars, were 
originally, in the version to which the 
Minyan family gave currency, Minyans of 
Iolcos, Orchomenus, Pylos, and other places. 
Among them were Acastus the son of Pelias. 
a close friend of Jason, Admetus, Erginus, 
Euphemus, Periclymenus, and Tiphys. But, 
as the story spread, all the Greek heroes that 
could have been living at the time were in- 

cluded among the number of the Argonauts, 
e.g. Heracles, Castor and Polydeuces, Idas 
and Lynceus, Calais and Zetes the sons of 
Boreas, Peleus, Tydeus, Meleager, Amphia- 
raiis, Orpheus, Mopsus and Idmon the pro- 
phets of the expedition, and even the hunt- 
ress Atalante. Jason takes the command, 
and Tiphys manages the helm. Setting sail 
from Pagasse the port of Iolcos, the Argo- 
nauts make the Island of Lemnos, where 
only women dwell, and after some con- 
siderable stay there (see Hypsipyle) go past 
Samothrace and through the Hellespont to 
the island of Cyzicus, where they are hos- 
pitably received by Cyzicus, the king of 
the Doliones, but attempting to proceed, 
are beaten back by a storm at night, and 
being taken by their late friends for pirates, 
are attacked, and have the ill-fortune to kill 
their young king. On the coast of Mysia 
they leave Heracles behind to look for Hylas 
(q.v.) who has been carried off by nymphs. 
On the Bithynian shore Polydeuces van- 
quishes the Bebrycian king Aniycus (q.v.) 
in a boxing match. At Salmydessus in 
Thrace the blind seerPhineus, whom Calais 
and Zetes had rid of the Harpies, his tor- 
mentors, instructs them with regard to the 
rest of their journey, and especially how to 
sail through the Symplegades, two floating 
rocks that clash together at the entrance to 
the Black Sea. By his advice Jason sends 
a dove before him, and as she has only her 
tail-feathers cut off by the colliding rocks, 
they venture on the feat of rowing the Argo 
through. By Hera's help, or, according to 
another account, that of Athena, they do 
what no man has done before ; they pass 
through, the ship only losing her rudder. 
Skirting the southern shore of the Pontus, 
they meet with a friendly reception from 
Lycus, king of the Maryandini, though here 
the seer Idmon is killed by a wild boar in 
hunting, and the helmsman Tiphys dies of a 
disease, whereupon Ancseus takes his place. 
Past the land of Amazons they come to the 
Island of Aretias, whence they scare away 
the Stymphalian birds (see Heracles), and 
take on board the sons of Phrixus, who had 
been shipwrecked there on their way to 
Greece. At length they reach the mouth of 
the Phasis in the land of the Colchians. 
Upon Jason's demand, iEetes promises to 
give up the golden fleece, on condition that 
Jason catches two brazen-hoofed, fire-breath- 
ing bulls, yokes them to a brazen plough, 
and ploughs with them the field of Ares, 
sows the furrows with dragons' teeth, and 
overcomes the mail-clad men that are to 


ip] lug (.in of thorn, The hero baa given up 

all hope hi' auooaaa, whan a pi lit! kindles 

in the breast of (ha king's daughter M • • i ■ i 

an irresistible i(i\-i< for the Htrangor, Medea 

gives liiin an • ■ i 1 1 1 im ■ 1 1 1 to protect 1 1 i 1 1 > !r 

the lirrv breath of tin' bulla, as well aa the 
•ili to baxnaaa them, and adviaea him 

to throw a atona in among il arth-born 

giants, who will then kill each other, Hut 
whan all (his done, /Kotos iloos unl give up 
the fleeoe, Then Jason with t ho holp ot' 
Medea, whom he promises to tako home 
with him as his wile, throws the dragon 
thai guards i1 into a sleep, takes it down, 

and escapes with .Mr. I, 'a and his comrades. 
.Koics scuds his son Absvrlus in pursuit, 

whom Jason hills by stratagem, Another 

story is, that Medea takes her little brother 
Ahsyrtus with her, outs him to pieces, and 
throws the limbs one by one into the sea, 
that her lather, while pursuing her, might 
lie delayed in picking them up and laying 
them out. 

As to the Return of the Argonauts the 
legends differ considerably. One of the 
oldest makes them sail up the Phasis into 
the river Oceanus, and over that to Libya, 
where they drag the ship twelve clays' 
journey overland to Lake Tritonis, and get 
home across the Mediterranean. Other ac- 
counts agree with this in substance, while 
others again mix up the older tradition with 
the adventures of Odysseus : the heroes sail 
up the Danube into the Adriatic, and are 
within hail of Corcyra (Corfu), when a storm 
breaks out, and the piece of oak from Dodona 
foretells their ruin unless they have the 
murder of Absyrtus expiated by Circe. 
Then they sail up the Eridanus into the 
Rhone, and so into the Tyrrhenian sea to the 
island of Circe, who purines them. They go 
past the island of the Sirens, against whose 
magic the songs of Orpheus protect them, 
All but Butes (q.v.) pass in safety between 
Scylla and Charybdis with the help of the 
gods, and reach the isle of the Phfeacians, 
where Jason marries Medea to evade the 
sentence of their host Alcinoiis, who, in his 
capacity as umpire, has given judgment 
that the maid Medea be delivered up to her 
Colchian pursuers. Already within sight of 
the Peloponnesus, a storm drives them into 
the Libyan Syrtes, whence they carry their 
ship, saved by divine assistance, to Lake 
Tritonis. Thence, guided by Triton (see 
Euphemus) into the Mediterranean, they 
return by way of Crete to Iolcos. 

During their absence Pelias has put to 
death jEson and his son Promachus, and 

■ I mother has taken Imr own life 

Medea seta to work to avenge them, Before 

t he c\ c, ,,f Pelias 1 daughti r be oul ■• up 
an old he-goal , and bj boiling il in n m 
cauldron, re torea it to life and youth. 
Promising in like manner to renew the 
vont h of t he aged Pi dui l bi n 

to kill their father, and then leavi them in 
the lurch. Driven away by Aoostus, the 
son of the murdered king, Jason and .Medea 
take refuge with CrfiOn king of Corinth. 
But, after ten years of happy wedlock, Jason 
resolves to marry Croon's daughter CriJusa 
or (ilauce. On this Medea kills the bride 
and her father by sending the unsuspecting 
maiden a poisoned robe and diadem as a 
bridal gift, murders her own two sons Mer- 
nierus and Pheresinher faithless husband's 
sight, and escaping in a car drawn by ser- 
pents, sent by her grandfather Helids, 
makes her way to /Egeus king of Athens. 
(See MEDEA.) Jason is said to have come 
by his death through the Argo, which he 
had set up and consecrated on the Isth- 
mus. One day, when he was lying down 
to rest under the ship, the stern fell off and 
killed him. 

The legend of the Argonauts is ex- 
tremely ancient; even Homer speaks of 
it as universal ly known. We first rind it 
treated in detail in Pindar ; then the Alex- 
andrian poet Apollonius of Rhodes tried to 
harmonise the various versions, and was fol- 
lowed by the Latin poet Valerius Flaccus 
and the late Greek Pseudo-Orpheus. 

Argus. (1) Son of Inachus, Agenor or 
Arestor; or, according to another account, 
an earthborn giant, who had eyes all over 
his body, whence he was called Panoptes, 
or all-seeing. Hera set him to watch 16 
(q.v.) when transformed into a cow; but 
Hermes, at Zeus' bidding, sent all his eyes 
to sleep by the magic of his wand and flute, 
and cut his head off with a sickle-shaped 
sword, whence his title Argeiphontcs was 
explained to mean " slayer of Argus." Hera 
set the eyes of her dead watchman in the 
tail of her sacred bird the peacock. 

(2) Son of Phrixus and Chalciope, the 
daughter of jEetes. He is said to have come 
to Orchomenus, the home of his father, and to 
have built the Argo, which was named after 
him. According to another account he was 
shipwrecked with his brothers at the Island 
of Aretias on their way to Greece, and 
thence carried to Colchis hy the Argonauts. 

Argyraspides (silver-shielded). In the 
later army of Alexander the Great, the 
remnant of the Macedonian heavy-armed 



infantry, who had crossed the Hellespont 
with the king, were formed into a corps of 
Guards in the heavy infantry of the line, 
and named frcia their shields being over- 
laid with Indian silver. After Alexander's 
death the corps was disbanded by Antigonus 
on account of its overweening pretensions. 

Ariadne. The daughter of Minos and 
Pasiphae, who fell in love with Theseus 
when he came to Crete to kill the Minotaur, 
and gave him a clue of yarn, to help him 
to find his way back to the light of day 
after slaying the monster in the Labyrinth. 
She then fled away with him. Homer 
represents Ariadne as slain by Artemis in 
the Island of Dia, close to Crete, at the 
request of Dionysus. But the later legend 
shifts the scene to the Isle of Naxos, where 
the slumbering Ariadne is deserted by 
Theseus. Waking up, she is on the brink 
of despair, when Dionysus comes and raises 
her to the dignity of a god's wife. Zeus 
grants her immortality, and sets her bridal 
gift, a crown, among the stars. She re- 
ceived divine honours : at Naxos her festivals 
were held, now with dismal rites recalling 
her abandonment, now with bacchanalian 
revelry becoming the happy bride of Dio- 
nysus. At Athens in the autumn they 
held a joyous festival to her and Dionysus, 
which Theseus was supposed to have 
founded on his return from Crete. In 
Italy, where they identified Dionysus with 
their wine-god Liber, they also took Ari- 
adne for the wine-goddess Libera. 

Aries (Gr. krlos). The Battering-ram, 
one of the most effective engines used by 
the ancients to make a breach in the walls 
of a besieged town. Originally it con- 
sisted of a strong pole, with iron-mounted 
head, brought up to the wall in earlier 
times by hand, in later times on wheels. 
In its final form it was constructed in the 
following manner. A stout beam, sometimes 
composed of several pieces, and measuring 
from 65 to 100 feet long or more, was hung 
by ropes on a strongly mounted horizontal 
beam, and swung backwards and forwards, 
so as to loosen the stones of the wall, and 
make it fall. As the engine stood close to 



the wall, the men working it were sheltered 
by a roofed shell of boards, called the ram- 

tortoiseshell (testudo arietlna), and resting 
on a framework that ran upon wheels. To 
protect the roof and sides of the shell 
against fire thrown from the walls, they 
were coated with raw or well soaked hides. 
or other similar contrivances. The loos- 
ened stones were picked out of the wall 
with a strong iron hook at the end of a pole, 
the wall-sickle (falx murdlis) as it was called. 
Single holes we-e punched in the wall with 
the wall-borer (terebra), a ram with a sharp 
point, which was pushed forward on rollers. 

The besieged tried to knock the ram's 
head off by dropping heavy stones on it, or 
to catch it in a noose and turn the blow 
aside or upwards, or to deaden the force of 
its blows with sandbags and mats. If the 
town wished to secure indulgent treatment, 
it had to surrender before the ram touched 
the walls. (See Sieges.) 

Arion. A Greek poet and musician, of 
Methymna in Lesbos, who flourished about 
625 B.C. In the course of a roving life he 
spent a considerable time at the court of 
Periander, tyrant of Corinth. Here he first 
gave the dithyramb (q.v.) an artistic form, 
and was therefore regarded as the inventor 
of that style in general. He is best known 
by the story of his rescue on the back of a 
dolphin. Returning from an artistic journey 
through Lower Italy and Sicily to his patron, 
he trusted himself to a crew of Corinthian 
sailors, who resolved to kill him on the open 
sea for the sake of his treasures. As a last 
favour he extorted the permission to sing 
his songs once more to the lyre, and then 
to throw himself into the sea. His strains 
drew a number of dolphins around him, one 
of which took him on its back, and carried 
him safe to land at the foot of the foreland 
of Tsenarum. Thence he hastened to Cor- 
inth, and convicted the sailors, who were 
telling Periander they had left the minstrel 
safe at Tarentum. A bronze statue of a 
man on a dolphin, which stood on the top 
of Tsenaron, was supposed to be his thank- 
offering to Poseidon. [Herodotus, i 24.] 
A Thanksgiving Hymn to the god of the 
sea, preserved under his name, belongs to a 
later time. 

Aristaenfitus. A Greek grammarian and 
rhetorician, of Nicsea in Bithynia, friend of 
Libanius, who praises him in the highest 
terms ; he was killed in an earthquake at 
Nicomedia, A.d. 358. His name is erroneously 
attached to a collection, probably composed 
in the 5th or 6th century, of Erotic Epistles, 
feeble imitations of Alciphron, loose in tone 
and declamatory in style. 


\i;i in 


Avist ii'us. A beneficent deit] worshipped 
in various pu I • oi Qi eei •■. •■ ipecially in 
BoBotia, ill" African colon 
ne, ;iml the [elands of < leos, I loroj ra, 
Sioily and Sardinia. Be gives his bl< 
to nerds, bunting, bee-keeping, vine, ou 
and every kind of husbandry. In particular 
be defends nun, animals and plants from 
the destructive beat of the dog-days, Ac- 
cording i" the Btory most in vogue, he 
in the won of Apollo by the Thessalian 
nymph Cyrenfi, whom the god carried off 
to the oountry named after her. She is 
the daughter of Hypseus, and granddaugh- 
ter (another story Bays daughter) of the 
river-god Peneus. After his liirth Hermes 
took AlisttBUS to tho Hours and (!;ea,the god- 
dess of the earth, who brought him up ml 
made him an immortal god. Sometimes 
ho is called the son of Uranus (Heaven) 
and QtBB (Earth). InthoTheban legend he 
and AutonOe the daughter of Cadmus are 
represented as the parents of ActseOn. He 
brought destruction upon the nymph Eury- 
dlce, the beloved of Orpheus ; for in fleeing 
from his persecutions she was killed by a 
snake. [Vergil, Qeorg. iv 315-558.) 

Aristarchus. (1) A tragic poet of Teg§a, 
a contemporary of Euripides ; he is said to 
have lived more than a hundred years. Of 
his 70 dramas only two titles remain. 

(2) A mathematician and astronomer of 
Samos, who lived and studied at Alexandria 
about 270 B.C., and with his pupil Hip- 
parchus greatly advanced the science of 
astronomy. He was the first who main- 
tained the earth's motion round the sun 
and on its own axis. We still possess a 
fragment of a treatise by him on the size 
of the sun and moon, and their distances 
from the earth. 

(3) A scholar, born in Samotbrace, and a 
pupil of Aristophanes of Byzantium. He 
lived at Alexandria in the first half of the 
2nd century B.C. as tutor to the royal 
princes, and keeper of the library. In the 
tyrannical reign of his pupil Ptolemy VII 
(Physcon) he fled to Cyprus, and there died 
of dropsy about B.C. 153, aged 72. He is 
the most famous of the Alexandrian Critics, 
and devoted his attention mainly to the 
Greek poets, especially Homer, to whom he 
rendered essential service by his critical 
edition of the text, which remains in sub- 
stance the groundwork of our present recen- 
sion. This edition had notes on the margin, 
indicating the verses which Aristarchus 
thought spurious or doubtful, and anything 
else worthy of remark. The meaning of 

D. C. A. 

the note • and i be i"i appending 

them, were explained in eparab i 

lee, founded on a mar- 
vellously minute acquaintance with the 
language and con of the Hi 

i the whole ol I trees litei 
Ho the head of the school of Artstar- 
<ii, mis, who continued working on ola 

in his spirit till after the beginning 
of the Empire. Of his numerous gram- 
matical an«l ezegetical works only fragments 

n. An idea of his Homeri' 
and of their character, can best be gathered 
from the Venetian si-Ik ilia to the Iliad, which 
are largely founded on extracts from the 
Aristarcheans Dldymus and Aristonlcus. 

Avistias. S,, l'KATIN'AS. 

Aristides, (1) of Thebes. A celebrated 
Greek painter, the pupil of his father or 
In-other Nicdmachus. He flourished about 
350 B.C., and was distinguished for his 
mast cry in the expression of the feelings. 
His most celebrated picture was that of a 
conquered city. Its central group repre- 
sented a mother dying of a wound, and 
holding back her infant, who is creeping 
to her bosom, that it may not drink blood 
instead of milk. Notwithstanding the 
hardness of their colouring, his works com- 
manded very high prices. Thus for one 
representing a scene in the Persian wars, 
containing 1U0 figures, he received 1,000 
minae (about £3,333). [Pliny, N. H. xxxv 

(2) Aristides of Miletus, of the 1st or 
2nd century B.C., was the author of a series 
of love-stories, called Jlilesldca, from Mi- 
letus, the scene of the events. These, so 
far as we know, are the first examples of 
the prose romance. They were widely read 
in antiquity, especially among the Romans, 
for whose benefit they were translated into 
Latin b}- the historian Sisenna. Only a 
few fragments of them have survived. 

(3) Publius Julius Aristides, surnamed 
TJitodoms, was a Greek rhetorician, born at 
Hadriani in Bithvnia a.d. 117 or 129. He 
was educated by the most celebrated rheto- 
ricians of the time, Polemon of Pergamus, 
and Herodes Atticus of Athens, and made 
long journeys through Asia, Egypt, Greece 
and Italy. On his return he was seized 
with an illness that lasted thirteen years, 
but which be never allowed to interrupt 
bis studies. His rhetoric, in which be 
took Demosthenes and Plato for bis models, 
was immensely admired by bis contempor- 
aries ; he also stood in high favour with 
the emperors, especially Marcus Aurelius, 





who at his appeal caused Smyrna to be re- 
built after an earthquake in 178 a.d. The 
chief scenes of his activity were Athens 
and Smyrna, where he died about a.d. 190. 
Beside two treatises of rhetorical and tech- 
nical import, we still possess fifty-five of 
his orations, which he took great pains 
to elaborate. They are characterized by 
depth and fulness of thought, and are 
written in powerful, concise, often difficult 
and obscure language. Some are eulogies 
on deities and cities (Rome, for instance, 
and Smyrna), others are declamations after 
ancient models, as the Panathend'irus after 
Isocrates, and the speech against Leptlues 
after Demosthenes. Others treat of his- 
torical subjects taken from the times of 
Greek independence. A peculiar interest 
attaches to the six Sacred Orations, so 
named because they treat of hints given 
by Asclepius on the cure of his illness, 
which he received in a state of somnam- 
bulism, and imparted aloud to his friends. 

(4) Aristides Qnintiliunus. A Greek 
musician, who lived probably in the 2nd 
century a.d., and composed an encyclopaedia 
of music (De Mitsicd) in three books. The 
first gave a concise account of harmony, 
rhythm, and metre, the second dealt with 
the educating influence of music on the 
soul, and the third described, on Pythago- i 
rean principles, the doctrine of arithmetic 
intervals, and the harmony of the universe 
as resting on the same relations. Notwith- | 
standing many defects, the work has the 
merit of being the completest of its kind 
which has come down to us from anti- 

Aristippus. A Greek philosopher, a na- 
tive of Cyrene, and a pupil of Socrates, 
after whose death in B.C. 399 he travelled 
about the Greek cities, imparting instruc- 
tion for money. He was the founder of the 
Cyrenaic school, or the system of Hedonism 
(from heddnB— pleasure). His doctrine 
was, that as a basis for human knowledge the 
only things real and true are our sensations, 
not the external objects that produce them ; 
that the aim of life is what all living things 
strive after, pleasure; and that virtue is 
only so far a good thing as it tends to 
the production of pleasure. The wise man 
shows his wisdom in governing his de- 
sires ; mental training, indeed, being the 
only thing which can qualify us for real 
enjoyment. In pleasure there is no differ- 
ence of kind, only of degree and duration. 
Aristippus' writings seem to have disap- 
peared early ; five letters in the Doric 

dialect, which have come down under his 
name, are undoubtedly spurious. 

Aristobulus. A Greek historian, who in 
his youth accompanied Alexander the Great 
on his campaigns. In his eighty-fifth year, 
when living at Cassandrea in Thrace, he 
wrote a work upon Alexander, in which 
he recorded his careful observations on geo- 
graphy, ethnography, and natural science. 
The book is highly praised for its trust- 
worthiness, but only fragments of it have 
reached us. He and Ptolemy were the 
chief authorities for Arrian'a An&b&sis. 

Aristocles. (li A Greek artist, and like 
his brother Canachus, a sculptor in bronze at 
Slcyon. He flourished about 480 B.C. ; and 
founded a school at Sicyon that lasted for a 
long time. (2) There was an Athenian 
sculptor of the same name and of the same 
period, author of a relief known as The 
Athenian Hoplite, one of our oldest monu- 
ments of Attic art. (See cut under Hoplitks . 

Ariston. The second breakfast of the 
Greeks. (See Meals.) 

Aristophanes. (I) The comedian, who 
lived at Athens, B.C. 444-388. His father 
Philippus is said to have been not a native 
Athenian, but a settler from Rhodes or 
Egypt, who afterwards acquired the citi- 
zenship. However this may be, the de- 
magogue Cleon, whose displeasure Aristo- 
phanes had incurred, tried to call in ques- 
tion his right to the citizenship. His first 
comedy came out in B.C. 427, but was not 
performed under his own name because of his 
youth : and several more of his plays were 
brought on the stage by Callistratus and 
Philonides, till in 424 he brought out the 
Knights in his own person. Forty-four 
of his plays were known in antiquity, though 
four of them were considered doubtful. 
Of these we possess eleven, the only com- 
plete Greek comedies which have survived, 
besides the titles, and numerous fragments, 
of twenty-six others. The eleven are : (1) 
The Arharnians, which gained him the 
victory over Cratinus and Eupolis B.C. 425, 
written during the great Peloponnesiau war 
to induce the Athenians to make peace. (2) 
The Knights mentioned above, B.C. 424, also 
crowned with the first prize, and aimed 
directly against Cleon. (3) The Clouds, 
B.C. 423, his most famous and, in his own 
opinion, his most successful piece, though 
when played it only won the third prize. 
We have it only in a second, and apparently 
unfinished, edition. It is directed against 
the pernicious influence of the Sophists, 
as the representative of whom Socrates Ls 



ked i /'/). Wasps t I ght out in 

ii. ( 122 and, lil>e the two following, re- 
warded w n Ii i be leoond prise ; it is a 

■ upon 1 1 1 « - Al benian |>:is-.i..ii for law 

■ I The Peaa , of the 3 ear b.o. 121 . 

mmending 1 be ilusion "i peace. 1 6) 

The Hints, aoted in B.C. ill. and exposing 
the romantic bopes built on the expedition 
to s 1 1 ■ i l \- . This is unquestionably the hap- 
piest production ol 1 1> ■ • poet's genius, and 
is marked by b careful reserve in the em 
ployment oi dramatic resource. (7) The 
Lysistrdtt . B.C. 411, a Women's Conspiracy 
to bring about peace; 1 In • last of the strictly 
political plays. Si ThesmophdriOeUso}, 
probably to be dated HO B.C. It is written 
against Euripides' dislike of women, for 
which the women who are celebrating the 
ThesmophSrla drag him to justice. (9) 
The Frogs, which was aoted in 405, and 
won the first prize. It is a piece sparkling 
with genius, on tin- l>een\ of Tragic Art. 

the blame of which is laid on Euripides, 
then recently deceased. (10) EcclisioVsUsoe, 
or The National Assembly of Women, B.C. 
392. It is levelled against the vain at- 
tempts to restore the Athenian state by cut- 
and-dried constitutions. (11) Platus,oT the 
God of Wealth. The blind god is restored 
to sight, and better times are brought 
about. This play was acted first in 408, 
then in 388 iu a revised form suitable to 
the time, and dispensing with chorus and 
pardbdsis. This play marks the transi- 
tion to the Middle Comedy. 

In the opinion of the ancients Aristophanes 
holds a middle place between Cratinus and 
Eupolis, being neither so rough as tha 
former nor so sweet as the latter, but com- 
bining the severity of the one with the grace 
of the other. What was thought of him 
in his own time is evident from Plato's Sym- 
jiCis'tiim, where he is numbered among the 
noblest of men; and an epigram attributed 
to that philosopher says that the Graces, 
looking for au enduring shrine, found it in 
the soul of Aristophanes. He unites under- 
standing, feeling, and fancy in a degree pos- 
sessed by few poets of antiquity. His 
keen glance penetrates the man}' evils of 
his time and their most hidden causes ; his 
scorn for all that is base, and his patriotic 
spirit, burning to bring back the brave 
days of Marathon, urge him on, without 
respect of persons or regard for self, to 
drag the faults he sees into daylight, and 
lash them with stinging sarcasm ; while his 
inexhaustible fancy invents ever new and 
original materials, which he manipulates 

unli perfect m 

nioal skill. Ii hi 

and act oally indec< at i be fact must i 

puied to the charat tei of t be Old < tomedy 

and t lie licenl ion ae i of thi I lioi 

tival. during which the plays Wi 

\o literal ore h:is anything to i ompare 

with these come lit . u it 

sing their great importance, bestowed 
infinite pains in commenting on them, and 
■, i Luable relics of their wi i 
in the existing collections of Scholia, 

■_' Aristophanes the Grammarian or 
Scholar) oi Byzantium, born about 260 B.t ., 
weni in his early youth to Alexandria 
was there n pupil of ZenSddtus and Call] 
m&chus. On the death of Apollonian of 
Rhodes, Aristophanes, when past his sixtieth 
year, was appointed to be chief librarian, 

and died at the age of 77. His lame was 
eclipsed by that of his pupil Aristarchus, 

but he still passed for one of the ablest 
grammarians and critics of antiquity, dis- 
tinguished by industry, learning and sound 
judgment. In addition to the Homeric 
poems, which formed his favourite study, 
and of which he was the first to attempt a 
really critical text, he devoted his labours 
to Hesiod, the lyric poets, especially Alcseus 
and Pindar, and the tragic and comic poets, 
Aristophanes and Menander in particular. 
The received Introductions to the plays of 
the Tragedians and Aristophanes are in 
their best parts derived from him. He was 
also the author of a large and much quoted 
work of a lexicographical character, con- 
siderable fragments of which still survive. 

Aristotle (Greek Aristotcles), One of the 
two greatest philosophers of antiquity, born 
B.C. 384 at Stageira, a Greek colony in 
Thrace. He was the son of Nicomachus, 
who died while acting as physician in 
ordinary to Amyntas II at Pella in Mace- 
donia. In B.C. 367, after the death of his 
parents and the completion of his seventeenth 
year, Aristotle betook himself to Athens, 
became a pupil of Plato, and remained twenty 
years, latterly working as a teacher of 
rhetoric. About his relations with Plato 
unfavourable rumours were current, which 
may have had their origin in his subsequent 
opposition to the Platonic doctrine of ideas. 
That he arrived pretty early at opposite 
opinions, and gave emphatic expression to 
them, is quite credible. This may have been 
the occasion of Plato's comparing him (so it 
is said) to a colt that kicks his mother ; 
yet Plato is also said to have called him 
" the intellect " of his school, and " the 


reader," on account of his habit of incessant 
study. Comparing him with Xenocrates, 
he remarked, that the one wanted a spur, 
the other a bridle. On the other hand, 
Aristotle, in one of his writings, combating 
his former master's theory of ideas, lays 
down the maxim that friendship, especially 
among philosophers, must not be allowed to 
violate the sanctity of truth ; and in a frag- 
ment of an elegy he calls Plato the first man 
who showed in word and deed how a man 
is to become good and happy. 

After Plato had handed over his school to 
his sister's son Speusippus, Aristotle quitted 


(Rome, Spada Palace.) 

Athens, B.C. 347, and repaired to his friend 
Hermeias, despot of Atarneus in Mysia. 
When that prince had fallen a prey to Persian 
intrigues he withdrew, B.C. 345, with his wife 
Pythias, his friend's sister, to Mltylene in 
Lesbos ; and two years later accepted an in- 
vitation to Macedonia to be tutor to Alex- 
ander, then thirteen years old. He lived at 
the court eight years, though his tenure of 
office seems to have lasted barely half that 
time. Both Philip and his son esteemed 
him highly, and most liberally seconded his 
studies in natural science, for which he in- 
herited his father's predilection. Alexander 

continued till his death to respect and love 
him, though the affair of Callisthgnes (q.v.) 
occasioned some coolness between them. 
When the king undertook his expedition 
in Asia, Aristotle betook himself once 
more to Athens, and taught for thirteen 
years in the Gymnasium called the Lyceum. 
In the mornings he conversed with his 
maturer pupils on the higher problems of 
philosophy, walking up and down the 
shady avenues, from which practice the 
school received the name of Peripatetics. 
In the evenings he delivered courses of 
lectures on philosophy and rhetoric to 
a larger audience. After Alexander's 
death, when all adherents of the Mace- 
donian supremacy were persecuted at 
Athens, a certain Demophllus brought 
against him a charge of impiety, where- 
upon Aristotle, " to save the Athenians 
from sinning a second time against philo- 
sophy " — so he is reported to have said, 
alluding to the fate of Socrates — retired 
to Chalcis in Euboea. There he died 
late in the summer of the next year, 
B.C. 322. 

Of the very numerous writings of 
Aristotle, some were composed in a 
popular, others in a scientific form. A 
considerable number of the latter kind 
have come down to us, but of the former, 
which were written in the form of 
dialogues, only a few fragments. The 
strictly scientific works may be classed 
according to their contents, as they treat 
of Logic, Metaphysics, Natural Science 
or Ethics. (1) Those on Logic were 
comprehended by the later Aristotelians 
under the name of Organon (" instru- 
ment "), because they treat of Method, 
the instrument of research. They in- 
clude the Categories, on the fundamental 
forms of ideas: the De Interpretabidne, 
on the doctrine of the judgment and on 
the proposition, important as an authority 
on philosophical terminology: the Analf/tica 
Priora and Posteriora, each in two books, 
the former on the syllogism, the latter on 
demonstration, definition, and distribution ; 
the Topica in eight books, on dialectic in- 
ferences (those of probability); on Sophisms, 
the fallacies of sophists, and their solu- 
tion. — (2) The Metaphysics as they were 
called by late writers, in fourteen books, 
consist of one connected treatise and several 
shorter essays on what Aristotle himself 
calls " first philosophy,"' the doctrine of 
Being in itself and the ultimate grounds of 
Being ; a work left unfinished by Aristotle 

VRIST01 l.i. 

applet ted by foreign ingredii >■ 

B The • \in i,-\i. SiaatNi 

Physio in eight l I<s, t r.. :l i 

: i be moel genei al b I relat i"ns 

of nature u ■* whole. This is followed np 

or books on the Heavens or Universe, 
two "ii Beginning to be and Perishing, and 
the MltiOrOldglca in lour books, on the phe- 
nomena "f the nir. A short treatise On Wke 
< hsiiius is apnrions : that on the Directions 
and Names of Winds is ■ fragment of a 
larger work on the signs of storms ; and the 
ProbU ins (physical) is a collection gradually 
Conned out of Aristotelian extracts. Of 
mathematical import are the Mechanical 
Problems (ov the levei and balance) and the 
book about Indivisible Lines. Natural his- 
tory is handled in the ten books of Animal 
History, and in tour books on the Parts, 

'i the Generation, and one on the mode 
of Progression of Animals. The work on 
Tin Mution of Animals is probably spurious, 
certainly so the one on limits in two books. 
Aristotle's treatise on this subject is lost. 
Turning to Psychology, we have the three 
books On tin Sniil aud a number of smaller 
treatises (on the Senses and the Objects of 
l\ rception : on Memory and Recollection ; 
• ii Sl,,/i and Waking; on Dreams; on 
I>i dilation by Sleep ; on the Length and 
Shortness of Life ; on Youth and Age, Life 
and Death ; on Breathing ; on Sound and 
Voice, etc.; that on Physiognomy is proba- 
bly spurious). — (4) Of the three general 
works on Ethics, the Xicomachcan Ethics 
in ten books, the Eudemian Ethics in seven, 
and the so-called Magna Morfdia in two, 
the first alone, addressed to his son Xico- 
mSchus, and of marked excellence in matter 
and manner, is by Aristotle himself. The 
second is by his pupil Eudemus of Rhodes, 
and the third a mere abstract of the other 
two. especially of the second. The essay on 
Virtues and Vices is spurious. Closely con- 
nected with the Ethics is the Politics in 
eight books, a masterly work in spite of 
its incompleteness, treating of the aim and 
elements of a State, the various forms of 
Government, the idea! of a State and of Edu- 
cation. A valuable work on the Constitu- 
tion of 158 states is lost, all but a few 
fragments. 1 Of the two books on (Econo- 
mics the first is spurious. Corresponding 
partly with the Logic, and partly with the 
Ethics, is the Rhetoric in three books, 2 and 
the Poetics, a work of inestimable worth, 

1 The Constitution of Athens has, however, been 
r. r. vered (ed. prineeps, 1891). 

- Th- Rhetorica ad Alexandrian is probably by 
Anaximnnes, q.v. 2. 

notwithstanding the ruinous condition in 
which its [The 

/,'//. toric is ■ masterlj tree 

rn instrument for working 

a] the \ ai ions pa i od foelini 

humanity.] Sundry other prose writings 
are presei rod under Axistol le s aami 
that on ('"/inns; tli" so-called MirA 
Ansenltiit mm s. :i collection of memoranda 
on all sorts of strange phenomena and occur- 
rences, mostly bearing on natural science ; 
"ii Melissus, ZenO, and Qorgids: six Letters, 
which however are not regarded as genuiii", 
any more than the 63 epigrams out of a 
supposed mythological miscellany entitled 
I'r/ili'is. But we may safely assign to him 
the beautiful 8c6ll6n, or impromptu song, 
on his friend Bermeias, which takes the 
form of a Hymn to Virtue. 

A story dating from antiquity informs us 
that Aristotle bequeathed his own writings 
and his very considerable library to his 
pupil and successor in the office of teacher, 
Theophrastus, who again made them over 
to his pupil Neleus, of Scepsis in the Troad. 
After his death his relations are said to 
have buried them in a cellar, to guard them 
against the mania for collecting books which 
characterized the Pergamene princes. At 
last they were unearthed by Apellicon of 
Teos,a rich bibliophile, who brought them to 
Athens about 100 B.C., and tried to restore 
them from the wretched state into which 
they had fallen through the neglect of 130 
years. Soon after, at the taking of Athens 
by the Romans, they fell into Sulla's hands, 
who brought them to Rome. Here the 
grammarian Tyrannlon took copies of them, 
and on this basis the Peripatetic An- 
dronicus of Rhodes prepared an edition 
of Aristotle's works. This would indeed 
partly account for the wretched condition in 
which some of them are preserved. At the 
same time it can be proved that the prin- 
cipal works were known during the 3rd 
and 2nd centuries B.C., so that the story 
affects only the author's original MSS., 
among which a number of works till then un- 
published may have come to light. Though 
the writings preserved form rather less than 
half of the number which he actually wrote, 
there is quite enough to show the univer- 
sality of Aristotle's intellect, which sought 
with equal ardour and acumen to explore 
and subdue the entire domain of research. 
He was the originator of many lines of study 
unknown before him. — Logic, Grammar, 
Rhetoric in its scientific aspect, Literary 
Criticism, Natural History, Physiology, 




Ps}xhology : he was the first to attempt a 
History of Philosophy and of the forms of 
government then existing. His method, of 
which he must be considered the creator, is 
critical and empirical at once. In all cases 
he starts from facts, which he collects, sifts 
and groups as completely as he can, so as 
to get some general leading points of view, 
and with the help of these to arrive at a 
systematic arrangement of the subject, and 
a knowledge of its inmost being, its cause. 
For to him the Cause is the essential part of 
knowledge, and the philosophy that searches 
into ultimate causes for the mere sake of 
knowing is the best and freest science. 

The form of Aristotle's works is by no 
means equal to their contents. Of the 
beautiful harmony between style and sub- 
ject, that so charms us in Plato, there is 
not a trace in Aristotle : his manner of 
expression, though scientifically exact, lacks 
flavour, art, and elegance. But of exact 
scientific terminology he is the true founder. 
"When the ancients celebrate the " golden 
stream " of his writing, the opinion can 
only refer to his lost popular works. 

Aristotle's personality is one of those 
which have affected the history of the 
world. His writings, like those of Plato, 
were to the Christian centuries of antiquity 
a most stimulating incentive to scientific 
inquiry ; in the Middle Ages they were 
for the Christian nations of the West and 
the Arabs the chief guide to philosophical 
method ; and in the province of logic his 
authority remains unshaken to this day. 

Aristoxenus. A Greek philosopher and 
musician, a native of Tarentum, and a 
pupil of Aristotle, lived about 330 B.C., and 
was a prolific writer on various subjects, 
but most particularly on Music. In con- 
trast with the Pythagoreans, who referred 
everything to the relations of numbers, he 
regarded music as founded on the differ- 
ence of tones as perceived by the ear. Of 
his Elements of Harmony, three books are 
preserved, but they are neither complete, 
nor in their original shape. Only a part 
of his Elements of Rhythm has survived. 

Arms. See "Weapons. 

Army. (1) Greek. See Warfare. 

(2) Roman. See Legion, Dilectus. 
Sacramentum, Stipexdium, Castra. 

Arneis. The festival of lambs. See Lrxos. 

Arnoblus. An African, who won a high 
reputation as a master of rhetoric at Sicca 
in Xumidia, in the reign of Diocletian. He 
was at first a heathen and an assailant of 
Christianity; but on becoming a Christian, 

to prove the sincerity of his conversion, 
he wrote i about "2H5 a.D.) the extant work 
Adversus Ocntes. This is a superficial and 
rhetorical defence of Christianity and s 
on Polytheism, but it. is full of instruction 
with regard to the contemporary heathenism 
and its various worships. 

Arrhephoria or Errluphoria. The Athe- 
nian term for a mystic festival in honour of 
Athena as goddess of the fertilizing night- 
dew, held in the month of Scirophdrion 
(June-July), in connection with the Sciro- 
phoria. It was named after the //• rs- 
ph5roi= dew-bearers, four maidens between 
seven and eleven 3*ears of age, who were 
chosen yearly from the houses of noble 
citizens, and had to spend several months 
at the temple of Athena in the Acropolis, 
and take part in its services. Two of 
them had the task of commencing the 
cloak or shawl which the women of Athens 
wove and presented to the goddess at the 
Panathensea. The other two, on the night 
of the festival, received from the TprU 
of Athena certain coffers, with unknown 
contents, which the}' carried in procession 
on their heads to a natural grotto beside 
the temple of " Aphrodite in the gardens," 
and delivering them there, received some- 
thing equally mysterious in exchange, which 
they carried to the temple on the Acropolis. 
With this ceremom* their office expired. 

Arrianus {Flavins ). A Greek author, who 
wrote chiefly on philosophy and histon - , 
born at Xicomedea in Bithynia towards the 
end of the 1st century a.d., and a pupil of 
the Stoic philosopher Epictetus. He lived 
under the emperors Hadrian, Antoninus 
Pius and Marcus Aurelius. enjoying a high 
reputation for culture and ability, which 
procured him the citizenship of Rome and 
Athens, and high offices of state, such as the 
governorship of Cappadocia under Hadrian, 
a.d. 136, and the consulship under An- 
toninus. His last years were spent in his 
native town, where he filled the office of 
priest to Demeter, and died at an advanced 
age. From the likeness of his character to 
that of the famous Athenian, he was nick- 
named " Xenophon Junior." Of his philo- 
sophical works we have still the first half 
(four books) of the Discourses of Epictetus, 
a leading authority for the tenets of that 
philosopher and the Stoical ethics : and the 
hand-book called the EncJtciridion of Epic- 
t< tus. a short manual of morality, which on 
account of its pithy and practical precepts 
became a great favourite with Pagans and 
Christians, had a commentary written on 



ii \>\ Simplioiui in t )i<< 6th century, and 
after I be revival ol learning whs long used 

;is ii Bohooll k. Of 1 1 i m numerous his- 

i writ ings w e po tsess i be chief one, 
the Intlb&sit of Alexander in seven l "■> >ks. 
This ia a complete history oi thai conqueror 
from his accession t" his death, drawn from 
ill. best sources, especially Ptolemy and 
\i i imImiIus. mill modelled on Senophon, 
of whom we are reminded by the very title 
and the number of books, though it has 

ii.. i I Xenophon's charm. It is the besl 

work on Alexander that has survived from 
antiquity. To this we should add the 
Indlca, a short work on India, written in 
the Ionic dialect, and especially valuable 
tor its nhstract of Nearchus' report of his 
voyage from thr month of the Indus to the 
Persian Gulf; also the description of another 
coast i ug voyage, the I'ertplils Poiiti Eii.rtni, 
and a trifling treatise on hunting, the 
CynSgStlcus. A work on tactics wrongly 
ascribed to him is probably from the hand 
of /Elian the Tactician. Of his other His- 
tories, e.g. of the Successors of Alexander, 
of Trajan's battles with the Parthians, of 
his own native country till its absorption in 
the Empire, and the campaign against the 
Alani during his command in Cappadocia, 
we have only abstracts or fragments. 

Arrdgatlo, one of the kinds of adoption 
known to the Romans. (For further infor- 
mation see Adoption.) 

Arrows. See Bows. 

Arsinoe. See Alphesibcea. 

Art. See Architecture, Architecture 
(Orders of), Painting, and Sculpture ; 
and cornp. Coinage and Gems. 

Artemldorus, (1) The Geographer, of 
Ephesus, who travelled about 100 B.C. 
through the countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean and part of the Atlantic 
coast, and wrote a long work on his re- 
searches, the Geographumena in eleven 
books, as well as an abstract of the same. Of 
both works, which were much consulted by 
later geographers, we have only fragments. 

(2) Artemidorus the Dream-Interpreter, 
born at Ephesus at the beginning of the 
2nd century A.D., surnamed " the Daldian " 
from his mother's birthplace, Daldis in 
Lydia, wrote a work on the Interpretation 
of Dreams, the Onehver'ttiea, in four books. 
He had gathered his materials from the 
works of earlier authors, and by oral in- 
quiries during his travels in Asia, Italy and 
Greece. The book is an acute exposition of 
the theory of interpreting dreams, and its 
practical application to examples svstema- 

t icallj i thi 

of human life, An .. ppi adi 
as a fifth boo! • 

thai have o e ' i in I', i ■ ' ■ light thi 

mi the ml condil ion oi ant iquity, i pe- 

i i 1 1 1 ■ in i he 2nd centra v aft 

for many items of in m on reli 

riles mi. I myths relating to dreams, these 

Writings are of value. 

Artemis (Lat. Diana). The virgin dat 

ten .f Zens and LstSi Lat&na I, by tie- common 
ar... him born a t win-sister of Ap I 
just before him, at Dfilds. The Orl 
Asterxa) name. I in another tradition as her 

birthplace, was interpreted to mean Delos, 
though several other places where the wor- 
ship of Artemis had long prevailed put 
forward pretensions to that name and its 
m} r thological renown, especially the well- 
known island of Ortygia off Syracuse. She, 
as w ell as her mother, was worshipped jointly 
with her brother at Delos, Delphi and all 
the most venerable spots where Apollo was 
honoured. She is armed, as he is, with 
bow and arrow, which, like him, and often 
together with him, she wields against mon- 
sters and giants; hence the pann was chanted 
to her as well as to him. Like those of 
Apollo, the shafts of Artemis were regarded 
as the cause of sudden death, especially to 
maidens and wives. But she was also a 
beneficent and helpful deity. As Apollo is 
the luminous god of day, she with her torch 
is a goddess of light by night, and in course 
of time becomes identified with all possible 
goddesses of moon and night, (See Selene, 
Hecate, Bendis, Britomartis.) Her pro- 
pep domain is that of Nature, with its hills 
and valleys, woods, meadows, rivers and 
fountains ; there amid her nymphs, her- 
self the fairest and tallest, she is a mighty 
huntress, sometimes chasing wild animals, 
sometimes dancing, playing, or bathing with 
her companions. Her favourite haunt was 
thought to be the mountains and forests of 
Arcadia, where, in many spots, she had 
sanctuaries, consecrated hunting-grounds, 
and sacred animals. To her, as goddess of 
the forest and the chase, all beasts of the 
woods and fields, in fact all game, were 
dear and sacred ; but her favourite animal 
was held all over Greece to be the hind. 
From this sacred animal and the hunt- 
ing of it, the month which the other 
Greeks called Artemisi&n or Artemisios 
(March- April) was named by the Athenians 
Elaphe-bollon (deer-shooting), and her 
festival as goddess of game and hunting, 
at which deer or cakes in the shape of 



deer were offered up, Elaphebolia. As 
goddess of the chase, she had also some 
influence in war, and the Spartans before 
battle sought her favour by the gift of a 
she-goat. Miltiades too, before the battle 
of Marathon, had vowed to her as many 
goats as there should be enemies faUen on 
the field ; but the number proving so great 
that the vow could not be kept, 500 goats 
were sacrificed at each anniversary of the 
victory in the month of Boedromion. Again, 
she was much worshipped as a goddess of 
the Moon. At Ainarynthus in Euboea, the 
whole island kept holiday to her with pro- 
cessions and prize-fights. At Munychia in 
Attica, at full moon in the month of Muny- 
chton (April-May), large round loaves or 
cakes, decked all round with lights as a 
symbol of her own luminary, were borne 
in procession and presented to her ; and at 
the same time was solemnized the festival 
of the victory of Salamis in Cyprus, be- 
cause on that occasion the goddess had 
shone in her full glory on the Greeks. An 
ancient shrine of the Moon-goddess at 
Brauron in Attica was held in such vene- 
ration, that the Braiironia, originally a 
merely local festival, was afterwards made 
a public ceremony, to which Athens itself 
sent deputies every five years, and a precinct 
was dedicated to " Artemis of Brauron" on 
the Acropolis itself. {See plan of Acro- 
polis.) At this feast the girls between 
five and ten years of age, clad in saffron- 
coloured garments, were conducted by their 
mothers in procession to the goddess, and 
commended to her care. For Artemis is 
also a protectress of youth, especially those 
of her own sex. As such she patronized 
a Nurses' festival at Sparta in a temple 
outside the town, to which little boys were 
brought by their nurses : while the Ionians 
at their Apatiiria presented her with the 
hair of boys. Almost everywhere young 
girls revered the virgin goddess as the 
guardian of their maiden years, and before 
marriage they offered up to her a lock of 
their hair, their girdle, and their maiden 
garment. She was also worshipped in 
many parts as the goddess of Good Repute, 
especially in youths and maidens, and was 
regarded as an enemy of all disorderly 
doings. With her attributes as the god- 
dess of the moon, and as the promoter of 
healthy development, especially in the female 
frame, is connected the notion of her assist- 
ing in childbirth (see Eileithtia). In 
early times human sacrifices had been 
offered to Artemis. A relic of this was 

the yearly custom observed at Sparta, of 
flogging the boys till they bled, at the 
altar of a deity not unknown elsewhere, 
and named Artemis Orthia (the upright) 
probably from her stiff posture in the 
antiquated wooden image. At Sparta, as 
in other places, the ancient image was 
looked upon as the same which Iphigenia 
and Orestes brought away from Tauris 
(the Crimea), viz., that of the Tauric Ar- 
temis, a Scythian deity who was identified 
with Artemis because of the human sacri- 
fices common in her worship. The Artemis 
of Ephesus, too, so greatly honoured by 
all the Ionians of Asia [Acts xix 28] is 
no Greek divinity, but Asiatic. This is 
sufficiently shown by the fact that eunuchs 
were employed in her worship ; a practice 
quite foreign to Greek ideas. The Greek 
colonists identified her with their own Ar- 
temis, because she was goddess of the moon 
and a power of nature, present in moun- 
tains, woods and marshy places, nourish- 
ing life in plants, animals and men. But. 
unlike Artemis, she was not regarded as a 


(Paris, Louvre.) 

virgin, but as a mother and foster-mother, 
as is clearly shown by the multitude of 
breasts in the rude effigy. Her worship, 
frantic and fanatical after the manner of 



u m 1 1 i baas i" i be An.. 

A muni" ir oi other deil ies oa1 ivi to \ < 
m b bipped by the Greeks ondei 

the name oi Artemis. 

\ i ., mi . appears in works oi art a I be 
ma [den beauty, tall oi ta 
tore, with bow and quiver on ber shoalder, 
or torch in her hand, and generally leading 
or oarrying a hind, or riding in a chariot 
drawn by Binds. Her commonest oharaoter 
is thai oi a huntress. In earlier times the 
figure is fuller and Btronger, and the cloth- 
ing more complete; in later works she is 
represented as more slender and lighter oi 
loot, the hair loose, the dress girt up high, 

the feel protected l>y the Cretan shoe The 

most oelebrated oi her existing statues is 
the Diana of Versailles (.iff eut\ On tlio 
identification oi Artemis with the Italian 
Diana, see Diana. 

Artillery. The machines used for send- 
ing largo missiles to a great distance were 


supposed to have heen invented 
in the East, and appear in Greece 
since 400 B.C. or thereabouts. 
They attained their highest 
perfection in the age of the 
Diadochi, and were adopted by 
the Romans after the Punic 
wars. There were two chief 
varieties, both imitations of the 
crossbow ; but the elasticity of 
the bow is exchanged for elasti- 
city in the twist of the cord. 
Consequently all pieces of heavy 
artillery were called by the 
Romans tormenta. The ma- 
chine consisted of three parts : 
the stand, the groove for the 
shot, and the apparatus repre- 
senting the bow. This con- 
sisted of a frame in three 
divisions, through the midmost 
of which passed the groove for 
the shot (fig. 1). In each of the lateral 
divisions was stretched, in a vertical direc- 

■el oi sti cords, mat 

the sinews oi animal . oi the long hair 
oi women. These were 
stretohed tight, and between each oi them 
6 ced a straight unelaat ic arm of 

The arms were 

pulled baok by a winch applii 
the end oi thi On lettn 

go, the arms, and with them the string 

and the object in front o| it, were d I 

forward by the twisting of the vertical 

cords. The effectiveness of the engine 
tlms depended on the power ami twist ol 
the cords, which may be said roughly to 
express its calibre. The engines were 
divided into two kinds. (1) Catapultce, or 
scorpions (fig. 2). In these the groove for 
the shot was horizontal: and theyprojei 
missiles of length and thickness varying 
according to the calibre. (2) Battista fig. 3), 
which shot stones, beams, or balls up to 
L62 lbs. weight, at an angle of 50 degrees. 
The calibre of the ballista was at least 
three times as great as that of the catapult. 
The average range of the catapult was 
about 3S.-5 yards, that of the ballista from 
about 295 to 5n:; yards. 

After Constantine we hear no more of 
catapults, but only of ballista and the 
dndger. The ballista now shot arrow-, 
and is described either as a huge cross-bow 
with an elastic bow of iron, or as virtually 
identical with the old catapult. The onager, 
also called scorpio (fig. 4) was a sling for 


stones. It consisted of a frame, in which 
was fastened a wooden arm with a sliDg at 




the end, standing upright -when at rest, and 
furnished with two horizontal cords to pull 
it up and down. This was drawn hack by a 
winch into a nearly horizontal position, and 

(3) BAT.T.ISTA. 

then released. It started up, and meeting 
with a check-board fixed behind the engine, 
hurled the stones out of the sling. As a 


rule, the heavy artillery was only employed 
in sieges ; but artillery accompanied armies 
in the field for purposes of conquest or 
defence. The legions and the cohorts of 
the Praetorian Guard had their own artil- 
lery. And at the end of the 4th century 
every centuria in the legion had a ballhta 
of the later kind drawn on wheels by mules 
(carrobaUista), and served by eleven men. 
Every cohort had an onager, carried on a 
cart drawn by two oxen. 

Arasianus Messius. A Latin grammarian 
who lived about 395 A.D., and made an 

alphabetical collection, for school use, of 
words that admit of various constructions, 
with examples from Vergil, Sallust, Terence 
and Cicero, under the title Excnqila Elo- 
cution inn. 

Arval Brothers (Fratrcs Arva~les = of the 
fields). The Latin name for a college of 
priests consisting of twelve life-members, 
who performed the worship of Dt'a Dla, a 
goddess not otherwise mentioned, but prob- 
ably identical with the old Roman goddess 
of cornfields, Acca Larentia iq.v.), who also 
is said to have founded this fraternity. Our 
more accurate knowledge of it we owe to 
its annual reports inscribed on the marble 
tablets, ninety-six in number, which have 
been dug up (1570-1809) on the site of its 
meeting-place, a grove at the fifth mile- 
stone from Rome, and which extend from 
a.d. 14-241. About its condition uDder 
the Republic we have no information ; but 
under the Empire its members were persons 
of the highest rank. The emperors them- 
selves belonged to it, either as ordinary 
members, or, if the numbers were filled up, 
as extraordinary. The election was by 
co-optation on the motion of the president 
(magister), who himself, together with a 
flamen, was elected for one year : their 
badge was a white fillet and a wreath of 
ears of corn. The Arvales held their chief 
festival on three days in May, on the 1st 
and 3rd in Rome, on the 2nd in the grove, 
with a highly complicated ceremonial, in- 
cluding a dance in the temple of the god- 
dess, to which they sang the written text 
of a hymn so antiquated that its meaning 
could scarcely be understood. This Arval 
Hymn, in which the Lares and Mars are 
invoked, is one of the oldest monuments 
we possess of the Latin tongue. Amongst 
other duties of this priesthood should es- 
pecially be mentioned the expiatory sacri- 
fices in the grove. These had to be offered 
if any damage had been done to it through 
the breaking of a bough, the stroke of light- 
ning, or other such causes ; or again if any 
labour had been performed in it, though 
ever so necessary, especially if iron tools 
had been used. The Arval brothers had 
also to offer solemn vows on behalf of the 
Imperial House, both statedly on January 
3rd, and on extraordinary occasions, and 
were bound to fulfil them. 

As. In Latin, signifies any unit, which 
determines the value of fractional quantities 
in coins, weights and measures, or interest, 
inheritance and the like. The as was 
divided duodecimallv into nnciee. The 

\ i \\li H ASCI i.rn 3. 


11. i -i "f Ltt p. nis are: deunx \\, dea 

inns J, dbtfroni ;, bei |, M/'iimi 
nuns \, quincunx fc.triens \, quadrant ;. 

si.ihius j , si si-iniriti |, iiiii ill ,',. In 

tioneoi ii b ole beii « as enl itled 

/i.i. v ,,i (MM, :ui lioir to half thi' estate, 

//. yi v 1. 1- si nii'sti-, and bo on, As a coin, 
the copper at weighed a Roman pound 
(nominally L2, bul praol ioally only l" uncice , 
and was worth, previously to B.0. 289, n 

I n the year -17 ii « as reduced to I 
urn in, and in later times to j and [ uncia. 
In Cioero's time the at was rather Less 
than a halfpenny. Comp. Coinage. 

Ascanlus. The son of ASneas and Crfiusa. 
According to the ordinary account, b 
oompanied liis father to halv, and, thirty 
years after the building of Lavlnium, 
founded Alba Longa, where, after his 
death, liis stepbrother Silvius reigned. To 
him, by his name of loins, the gent IUlia 

trace. 1 its origin. A Greek poet, a native of 
Samoa, and a younger contemporary of 

Theocritus. He was the author of thirty- 
nine Epigrams, mostly erotic, in the Greek 
Anthology. The well-known Asclepiadean 
Metre was perhaps named after him. 

AsclepI6ddtus. A Greek writer, pupil of 
the Stoic Pdsidonius of Rhodes (who died 
B.C. 51). On the basis of his lectures 
Asclepiodotus seems to have written the 
military treatise preserved under his name 
on the Macedonian military system. 

Ascleoius i Lat. d&culapius). The Greek 
trod of Medicine, according to the common 
account a son of the healing god Apollo 
by Coronis, daughter of a Thessalian prince 
Phlegyas. Coronis was killed by Artemis 
for unfaithfulness, and her body was about 
to be burnt on the pyre, when Apollo 
snatched the boy out of the flames, and 
handed him over to the wise centaur 
Chiron, who instructed him in the cure 
of all diseases. According to the local 
legend of Epidaurus, Coronis, having ac- 
companied her father on a campaign to 
the Peloponnesus, is secretly delivered of 
the child, and exposes it on a mountain 
near that town, where it is nourished by 
a herd of goats. Such was the skill of 
Asclepius that he brought even dead men 
to life ; so that Zeus, either for fear of 
his setting men altogether free from death, 
or at the complaint of Hades, killed him 
with his thunderbolt. Apollo in revenge 
slew all the Cyclopes who forged the 
thunderbolts, as a punishment for which 
he had to serve Admetus for a time. In 

Homer and Pindar, Asclepius in still bul 
a hero, a ounnins leech, and father of two 
fighting before 1 ; I 

Pdd&ieinus, Bul be 

v.! ally n u hipped 1 i I be god oi bi aling, 
in groves, beside medicinal spris 

I | 
also as plaoes n here pal ient 

i bans offerings and vol ive table! 

ing their i iplainl and I be manni i 

cure, often the cure « ed by the 


(Paris, Louvre.] 

dreams of the patients, who were required 
to sleep in the sacred building, in which 
there sometimes stood, as might be ex- 
pected, a statue of Sleep or Dreaming. 
His worship extended all over Greece with 
its islands and colonies; his temples were 
especially numerous in the Peloponnesus, 
the most famous being that of Epidaurus. 
where a great festival with processions and 
combats was held in his honour every rive 
vears. Next in estimation stood the temple 



at Pergamus, a colony from Epidaurus ; 
that of Tricca in Tliessaly enjoj'ed a re- 
putation of long standing, and in the 
islands that of Cos, the birthplace of the 
physician Hippocrates. 

At Rome, the worship of the deity there 
called JEsculapius was introducad by order 
of the Sibylline books, on occasion of the 
plague of 293 B.C., and the god was brought 
from Epidaurus in the shape of a snake. 
For in the form of a snake, the symbol of 
rejuvenescence and of prophecy, he was 
wont to reveal himself, and snakes were 
accordingly kept in his temples. He had 
a sanctuary and a much frequented sana- 
torium on the island in the Tiber. With 
him were worshipped his wife Epione ( = 
soother), his two sons mentioned above, 
and several daughters, especially Hygieia, 
(q.v.): also Telesphords ( = fulness-bringer) 
the deity of Recovery, who was pictured 
as a boy. In later times Asclepius was 
often confounded with the Egyptian Serapis. 
He is among the most favourite subjects 
of ancient art ; at several places where he 
was worshipped he had statues of gold 
and ivory. He is commonly represented 
with a beard, and resembling Zeus, but 
with a milder aspect, sometimes with Teles- 
phoros, in a thick veil, or little Hygieia, 
at his side ; his usual attribute is a staff 
with a serpent coiled round it. The cock 
was sacrificed to him. 

Asconius Pedianns (Quintets), a Roman 
grammarian and historian, probably born at 
Patavium about the year 3 a.d. He lived 
latterly at Rome, where he enjoyed the 
favour of men in high place. During the 
reigns of Claudius and Nero, having care- 
fully studied the literature of the Ciceronian 
age, and availing himself of state-papers then 
existing, he composed for the use of his own 
sons his valuable historical Commentaries 
on Cicero's Orations, of which only those 
on five orations (In Plsonem, Pro Scauro, 
Pro Mllone, Pro Cornelio, In toga candidci) 
are preserved, unfortunately in a very frag- 
mentary condition. The commentaries on 
the Verrine Orations, which bear his name, 
belong probably to the 4th century A.D. 
They treat chiefly of grammatical points. 
No other works by Asconius have survived. 
He died, after twelve years' blindness, about 
88 A.D. 

Aselllo (C. Sempronius). A Roman anna- 
list. See Annalists. 

Asinius Pollio (Gaius). A celebrated 
Roman poet, orator, and historian. He was 
born B.C. 75, and made his first public ap- 

pearance bj' bringing an impeachment in 
B.C. 54 ; in the Civil Wars he fought on 
Caesar's side at Pharsalus and in Africa 
and Spain. After the murder of Caesar he 
at first inclined to the Republicans, but in 
B.C. 43 joined Antony, and on the break-up 
of the Triumvirate obtained Gallia Trans- 
padana for his proviuce. In the redis- 
tribution of lands there he saved the 
poet Vergil's paternal estate for him. 
After negotiating the Peace of Brundisium 
between Antony and Octavian, B.C. 41, he 
became consul in 40, conquered the Parthini 
in Dalmatia in 39, and celebrated a triumph. 
He then retired from political life, and 
devoted himself to the advancement of 
learning. He served the cause of literature 
not only by his own writings, but by setting 
up the first public library at Rome, and by 
introducing the custom of reading new works 
aloud to a circle of experts, before publica- 
tion. (See Recitatio.) He was himself 
a stern critic of others, as we see by his 
strictures on Cicero, Sallust and Livy, 
though it was remarked that he was not 
always so severe upon himself. He was 
especially celebrated as an orator ; yet his 
speeches, in spite of careful preparation, 
were devoid of elegance, and, as Quintilian 
remarks, might be supposed to have been 
written a century earlier than Cicero's. He 
wrote tragedies also, in which the same 
stiffness and dryness are complained of. 
And he composed a history of the Civil 
Wars in seventeen books, from the first 
Triumvirate to the battle of Philippi, which 
seems not to have been published in a 
complete form till after his death. Not 
one of his works has survived. [The his- 
tory of Caesar's African campaign, Bell urn 
Africum, has recently been attributed to 
him, but on insufficient grounds.] He died 
80 years old, A.D. 4. 

Ascolia. The second day of the rural 
Dionysia (q.v.). 

Aspis. The Greek name for a long shield. 
(For further information, see Shield.) 

Assaracus, son of Tros, and founder of 
the collateral line to which Anchlses and 
jEneas belong in the royal house of Troy. 
(Comp. Dardands.) 

Assignatio. The Latin term for the 
assignment of public lands to single citizens 
or to colonies. See Colonies and Ager 

Asteria, daughter of the Titan Coeus and 
the Titanid Phoebe : sister of Leto, and 
mother of Hecate by Perses, son of the Titan 
Crius. She is said to have turned into an 

\ i i; |.\ —ASTRO] i 

orli/.i i n- 1 plunged into the 

the 1"'. t of /■ "'. A i ter her the 
i i ni I toloa u iis named AsU ria, and 
then Ortflgia, nil i l its ordinary 

Astram sun- in.'ii'li'h , vu daughti 
Astroua and Eob, or, according to anothei 
account, of Zena and Themis, and us each 
lentifled « ith Dike, Set llm rs, i She 
lived among men in the golden agi 
in the brasen age was the last of the goda 
to withdraw into the sky, where she shines 
us tin- oonatellation oi the Virgin with her 
scales and Btarrj orov a. 

Astrams i star-man), son of the Titan 
Crius ainl l''.nrvlu:i. father by ESOa of the 
winds Argestis, Zephyrus, Boreas and 
. us well us of BeosphOrus and the 
other stars. In the later legend he is also 
represented as father of Astreea. 

Astrology ami Astronomy were at first 
sv in hi vmous expressions among the ancients, 
both signifying "the science of the stars." 
But afterwards Astrology came to mean that 
pari of the science which deals with the 
supposed influence of the stars on the 
destinies of men. Among the Greeks, 
Astronomy, the origin of which they them- 
selves ascribed to the Assyrians, Baby- 
lonians and Egyptians, was for centuries 
the subject of philosophical speculation 
without a sufficient groundwork in obser- 
vation, because mathematics and mechanics 
had not reached the requisite degree of 
perfection. The list of observing astro- 
nomers opens with Eudoxus of Cnidus in 
the tirst half of the 4th century, B.C., who 
assumed that the earth was spherical, and 
tried to explain the phenomena of the 
heavens by a complicated theory of con- 
centric spheres. Aristotle too maintained 
and proved the spherical form of the earth, 
which he took to be the immovable centre 
of the universe. Astronomy was first 
raised into a real science after B.C. 300 at 
Rhodes and Alexandria, in the Museum of 
which town the first observatory was built, 
and AristyUus and Tlmuchdres determined 
the places of the fixed stars w T ith compara- 
tive accuracy, though as yet with very rude 
apparatus. A great step in advance was 
taken by Aristarchus of Samos, who ob- 
served the summer solstice at Alexandria 
in b.c 279, maintained the earth's rotation 
on her axis and revolution round the sun, 
and made an attempt, by no means con- 
temptible, to ascertain the size and dis- 
tance of the sun and moon. His succes- 
sor Eratosthenes also rendered essential 

..■■i vice to the proj 

thim he came vw \ the 

obliquil \ "i I be ■ i ■ 

founder of aoientifio Astronomy, and the 

al independent 
u.i Hipparchv 

overed the pre< I the 

ei | ii muxes, ii in I ill ti i n 1 1 ne. I the I' agth of the 
sulur year mi 865 days 5 hours 55 12 

i in i ime ni i be moon' irevoluti n, and 
the magnitude and distances of the bee 

9, Tho lust important astronomer of 
antiquity, and the greatest after Bippai 
is < 'laudius Ptdli ma us in the '-'ml century 
A.D.). In his chief work. Commonly known 
by its Arabic name of Almagest, he 

the discoveries ofhispred ire, especially 

Eipparchus, and his own. into a t 
system, which , current all through 

ling to it the earth 
is a sphere resting motionless in the middle 
of the equally spherical universe, while the 
sun, moon, planets and fixed stars roll at 
various distances around her. 

The Romans regarded Astronomy as an 
idle speculation, and gave little attention 
to it. When Osssar reformed the Roman 
Calendar, he had to bring an astronomer 
from Alexandria, SdsigSnSs, to help him. 

Astrology in the narrower sense of the 
word, meaning prediction on the faith of 
signs given by the stars, was an invention 
of the Chaldaeans. All but unknown to 
the Greeks in their best days, it did not 
come into vogue until after the time of 
Alexander the Great. In Rome the pro- 
fessional astrologers were called ( fialda i or 
MtWicmaticl, the latter name referring to 
the astronomical calculations which they 
made. In the republican period thev- were 
known, but held in utter contempt. In 
139 B.C. their unpopularity was so great 
that they were expelled from Rome and 
Italy. But in the turbulent times of the 
civil wars their reputation rose considerably, 
and still more under the Empire, when the 
most extensive demands were made upon 
their science. They were, indeed, re- 
peatedly driven out of Italy and involved 
in trials for treason (maiestds); but this 
only enhanced the consideration in which 
they were held, the more so as they were 
frequently taken into counsel by the emperors 
and the members of the imperial family. In 
later times, all that the Chaldaeans were for- 
bidden to do was to consult the stars on 
questions referring to the emperor's life. 
This was a criminal offence. The Christian 
emperors (but none before them) is 




repeated prohibitions against all consulta- 
tion of astrologers whatever. 

In the practice of their art they used 
calendars written on tablets, in which were 
set down, for every day, the motion and 
relative distances of the stars, whether 
luck} - or unlucky. With the help of 
another set of tablets they proceeded to 
make their calculations for every hour in 
detail. They would, for instance, note the 
hour of a person's birth, ascertaining the 
relative position of the constellation domi- 
nant at the time. According to this they 
determined the fortunes of the individual 
who was born at the hour in question. In 
the same way they ascertained the time 
favourable to any given undertaking. 
Among the lucky stars we may mention 
Venus, Jupiter, and Luna ; Saturn and Mars 
were unlucky ; Mercury was lucky or 
unlucky according to the other circum- 
stances of the case. 

Astyanax. Son of Hector and Andro- 
mache. After the fall of Troy he was 
thrown down from the wall by the Greeks, 
because the prophet Calchas had pointed 
him out as destined to become the avenger 
of Troy. 

Astydamas. A Greek tragedian, son of 
Morsimus. (See Philocles.) His first ap- 
pearance was in 399 B.C., and he won the 
prize fifteen times. He wrote 240 pieces, 
but a few titles are all that remains of them. 
His sons Astydamas and Philocles were 
also tragic poets. 

Astydameia. Wife of Acastus of Iolcos. 
Peleus had rejected her advances, and Asty- 
dameia accordingly slandered him to Acas- 
tus, who made an attempt on the life of 
Peleus, to her own destruction and that of 
her husband. (See Acastos and Peleus.) 

Astynomi (Gr. astunomoi). The title 
of ten functionaries at Athens, drawn an- 
nually by lot from the ten tribes, five for 
the city and five for Piraeus. They were 
a kind of city police, responsible for keeping 
the streets clean, for decency and quiet 
among the public, and probably for the pro- 
tection of buildings. They had such powers 
of jurisdiction as were necessary to enforce 
their authority. Flute-girls and female per- 
f or mere on the harp orcithara were subject to 
their control. [Arist., Const, of Athens, c.50.] 

Asylum. A Greek word meaning an 
inviolable refuge for persons fleeing from 
pursuit. Among the Greeks all holy shrines 
were Asylums, and any pursuer who should 
remove a suppliant by force was regarded as 
a transgressor against the gods. The term 

asylum was especially applied to such 
shrines as secured to the suppliants abso- 
lute security within their limits, which were 
often considerable. The priests and the 
community in each case watched jealously 
over this right. The sanctuary of Zeus 
Lycseus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the 
island of Calauria, and of Apollo in Delos, 
are excellent examples of such asylums. 
These sanctuaries were exceptionally numer- 
ous in Asia. In Rome there was an asylum 
of great antiquity, said to have been founded 
by Romulus, in a grove of oaks on the 
Capitoline Hill. (See Veiovis.) The erection 
of buildings in its neighbourhood gradually 
rendered it inaccessible. During the Roman 
period the right of asylum attaching to 
Greek sanctuaries was, at first, maintained 
and even confirmed by Roman commanders. 
But its abuse led to a considerable reduc- 
tion of the number of asylmns under 
Tiberius. The right of asylum was now 
confined to such shrines as could found their 
claims upon ancient tradition. During the 
imperial period, however, the custom arose 
of making the statues of the emperors re- 
fuges against momentary acts of violence. 
Armies in the field used the eagles of the 
legions for the same purpose. 

Atalante. A Greek heroine of the type 
of Artemis. There were two slightly differ- 
ent versions of her story, one current in 
Arcadia and the other in Bceotia. 

(1) The Arcadian version. Atalante, 
daughter of Zeus and Clymene, was ex- 
posed by her father, who had desired male 
offspring only. She was suckled by a bear, 
until she was found and brought up by a 
party of hunters. Under their care she 
grew up to be a huntress, keen, swift and 
beautiful. She took part in the Calvdonian 
boar-hunt, was the first who struck the boar, 
and received from Meleager the head and 
skin of the beast as the prize of victory. (See 
Meleager.) She is also associated with 
the voyage of the Argonauts. She turned a 
deaf ear to the entreaties of her numerous 
suitors ; but at last she propitiated the 
wrath of Aphrodite by returning the faith- 
ful love of the beautiful Milanlon, who had 
followed her persistently, and suffered and 
struggled for her. Their son was Partheno- 
pseus, one of the Seven against Thebes. (See 
Seven against Thebes.) 

(2) The Boeotian version. Atalante was 
the daughter of Schceneus, son of Athamas, 
and distinguished for beauty and swiftness 
of foot. An oracle warns her against mar- 
riage, and she accordingly lives a lonely 



life in ill' i ' She i ta the addi i 

of her laitoi bj ohailonging them to 
with her, overtaking them in theraoeand 
spearing them in theback. She is at length 
beaten by Bipp6menAs, who during 1 1 » • ■» 

i iund three \ 
apples given him by Aphrodite. Atalante 
BtoopB down to pick up the apples, and thus 
i he i aoe. Bippomenes forgets to i en* 
der thanks to Aphrodite, and the goddess 
in anger oanses i ln> pair to wander into a 
aanotuarj of C^bSl6, where they are changed 
into li<ms. 

Atargatis. See Dea Syria. 

Ate A<i' r. I iuu: to Bomer, the daughter 
..i Zeus; according to Besiod, of Erie or 
Strife. She personifies infatuation; the 
infatuation being generally held to imply 
guill as its cause ami evil as itsconseqii' 
At first she dwelt on Olympus; but after 
she had entrapped Zeus himself' into his 
rash oath on the occasion of the birth of 
Ber&cles (set Beraclbs), he hurled her 
down to earth. Here she pursues her mis- 
sion of evil, walking lightly over men's 
heads, bul never touching t lie ground. Be- 
hind her go the Litai ("Prayers"), the 
lame, wrinkled, squinting daughters of 
Zeus. The Litai. if called upon, heal the 
hurts inflicted by Ate ; but they bring fresh 
evil upon the stubborn. In later times Ate 
is transformed into an avenger of unright- 
eousness, like Ijil;<~, Erinys and NgmSsis. 

Ateius Capito (Gains). A Roman jurist 
of the age of Augustus and Tiberius, who 
was born about 30 B.C., and died about 22 
a.d. Unlike his contemporary Antistius 
L&bSo (q.v.\ he recommended himself to 
the ruling powers by his submissive atti- 
tude. He was rewarded by many tokens 
of distinction ; among others, by the con- 
sulship, to which he was elected in 5 A.D., 
before attaining the legal age. As a jurist 
(again unlike Antistius) he represented the 
conservative tendency, and so became the 
founder of a special school called the Sabi- 
nidnl, after his pupil Masurius Sabinus. 

Atellana (i.e. AtcUana fCtbula). [A farce 
or comedy, which the ancients supposed was 
originally acted or invented at the Oscan 
town of Atella in Campania. Modern 
scholars incline to the opinion that it was a 
species of Latin drama representing scenes 
at Atella, or scenes of country-town life. 
Its characteristics w-ere (1) that it was per- 
formed by free-born youths, not by pro- 
fessional actors ; (2) that certain conventional 
characters, as BvrcO (" Fatchaps"), Dossen- 
nus ("The Glutton''), Pappus ("The old 

father "), Mao ut "The fool ") alwaj 

'■hi !• 'l in it; (8 contained pussies 

plain, either in 1 1 • » - plot oi 

lines. | The Ati liana ■ une into 
Borne as aftei pi il t } ■ • - end 

of the Brd century b i . di rpl icing the 
stitiiia. (Set Satubj '. Till the beginning 
of tlio last century of the Republic the 
Ah liana was probably an impn 

but, in the hands of I' poniusol Bon6nia 

and Novius, it was raised to tli" position 

of a regular i ledy OD I he I •' • 

From about the middle of the 1st century 
B.C., the Atellana went out of fashion in 
favour of the mfntu.*, but was revived, pro- 
bably in the reign of Tiheriun, by a certain 
Miuiiinius. Ii lived on tor some time under 
the Empire, till at last it became undis- 
tinguishable from the iiiinius. 

Athamas. Son of JSdlus, king of Thessalj-, 
and Enarete ; brother of Cretheus, Sisyphus, 
and Salmoneus ; king of the Mlnyse in the 
Boeotian OrchOmenus. He was the husband 
of the cloud-goddess Nephele, mother of 
Phrixus and Helle, who left him on his 
union with a mortal, Iiio the daughter of 
Cadmus. Nephele in anger visited the 
land with a drought, upon w r hich Ino en- 
deavoured, by means of a pretended oracle, 
to have her stepson Phrixus sacrificed on 
the altar of Zeus Laphystius. But Nephele 
conveyed the children away through the 
air on a golden-fleeced ram. During the 
passage Helle fell into the sea, which was 
afterwards, from her name, called theHelles- 
pontus. But her brother arrived safely at 
the palace of iEetes, king of j£a, who gave 
him his daughter Chalciope in marriage. 
Afterwards Athamas was himself about to 
be sacrificed by his people to Zeus Laphy- 
stius ; but he was saved by the appearance 
of Phrixus' son Cytissorus, who brought 
the news that Phrixus was still alive. His 
escape, however, only brought down the 
wrath of the god upon his descendants. 
The first-born of his race was ever afterwards 
liable to be sacrificed to Zeus Laphystius, 
if he entered the council-chamber and did 
not get out of the way in time. Later 
on Athamas was visited with madness by 
Hera, because Ino brought up her nephew 
Dionysus, the son of her sister Semele. In 
his frenzy he killed his son Learchus, and 
persecuted Ino, who with her other son 
Melicertes leaped into the sea. Here she 
became the sea-goddess Leucothea, and her 
son the sea-god Palsemon. On recovering 
from his madness, Athamas was commanded 
by an oracle to settle in a place where he 



should be hospitably treated by wild beasts. 
In the part of Thessaly which was named, 
after him, the Athamanian plain, he came 
upon some wolves, who fled from him, and 
left him the sheep-bones on which the}' 
were feeding. He settled here, and wedded 
Themisto. (See Themisto.) The story is no 
doubt founded upon the old custom which 
the Minyae had of offering the first-born of 
the race of Athamas to Zeus Laplrystius, in 
case he failed to make good his escape as 
Phrixus did. 

Athenaeus. (1) The engineer, a con- 
temporary of Archimedes, who flourished 
about 210 B.C. He was the author of a 
work, still preserved, on engines of war. 

(2) The Greek scholar, a native of Nau- 
cratis in Egypt. He was educated at Alex- 
andria, where he lived about 170-230 a.d. 
After this he lived at Rome, and there 
wrote his Deipnosophistce (or " Doctors at 
Dinner "), in fifteen books. Of these the 
first, second, and part of the third, are 
only preserved in a selection made in the 
11th century ; the rest survive in a 
tolerably complete state. The work shows 
astonishing learning, and contains a num- 
ber of notices of ancient life which would 
otherwise have been lost. The author gives 
us collections and extracts from more than 
1,500 works (now mostly lost), by more than 
700 writers. His book is thrown into the 
form of a conversation held in the year 228 
A.D. at a dinner given by Larensius, a rich 
and accomplished Roman, and a descendant 
of the great antiquarian Varro. Among 
the guests are the most learned men of the 
time, including Galen the physician and 
Ulpian the jurist. The conversation ranges 
over numberless subjects connected with 
domestic and social life, manners and cus- 
toms, trade, art, and science. Among the 
most valuable things in the book are the 
numerous passages from prose-writers and 
poets, especially from the masters of the 
Middle Comedy. 

Athenaeum. The name of the first public 
educational institution at Rome, built by 
Hadrian about 135 a.d. The building was 
in the form of a theatre, and brilliantly 
fitted up. There rhetoricians and poets 
held their recitations, and salaried pro- 
fessors gave their lectures in the various 
branches of general liberal education, philo- 
sophy and rhetoric, as well as grammar 
and jurisprudence. This continued until 
late in the imperial age. 

Athene or Pallas Athene. A Greek god- 
dess, identified with the Roman Minerva. 

According to the story most generally cur- 
rent, she was the daughter of Zeus, who 
had swallowed his first wife Metis (" Coun- 
sel"), the daughter of Oceanus, in fear that 
she would bring forth a son stronger than 
himself. Hephaestus (or, according to an- 
other version, Prometheus) clave open the 
head of Zeus with an axe, on which Athene 
sprang forth in full armour, the goddess 
of eternal virginity. But her ancient epi- 
thet Trltugcneia ("born of Triton," or 
the roaring flood) points to water (that 
is, to Oceanus), as the source of her being. 
Oceanus was, according to Homer, the 
origin of all things and of all deities. The 
worship of Athene, and the story of her 
birth, were accordingly connected with 
many brooks and lakes in various regions, 
especially in Bceotia, Thessalia, and Libya, 
to which the name Triton was attached. 

Prom the first, Athene takes a very pro- 
minent place in the Greek popular religion. 
The Homeric hymns represent her as the 
favourite of her father, who refuses her 
nothing. "When solemn oaths were to be 
taken, they joined her name with those of 
Zeus and Apollo, in a way which shows 
that the three deities represent the em- 
bodiment of all divine authority, With 
the exception of the two gods just men- 
tioned, there is no other deity whose 
original character as a power of nature 
underwent so remarkable an ethical de- 
velopment. Both conceptions of Athene, 
the natural and the ethical, were intimately 
connected in the religion of Attica, whose 
capital, Athens, was named after Athene, 
and was the most important seat of her 
worship. Athene w T as originally the maiden 
daughter of the god of heaven ; the clear, 
transparent aether, whose purity is always 
breakingforth in unveiled brilliancy through 
the clouds that surround it. As a deity 
of the sky she, with Zeus, is the mistress 
of thunder and lightning. Like Zeus, she 
carries the aegis with the Gorgon's head, 
the symbol of the tempest and its terrors. 
In many statues, accordingly, she is repre- 
sented as hurling the thunder-bolt. But 
she also sends down, from sky to earth, light 
and warmth and fruitful dew, and with 
them prosperity to fields and plants. A 
whole series of fables and usages, belong- 
ing especially to the Athenian religion, 
represents her as the helper and protector 
of agriculture. The two deities Erech- 
theus and Erichthonius, honoured in Attica 
as powers of the fruitful soil, are her 
foster-children. She was worshipped with 



Ereohtheus in the temple named after him 
(the /.V' i-iiiin urn i, the oldest sanctuary on 
the Athenian AoropouB. The aemes of 
her earliest priestesses, the daughtt 

urns, PandrosuB, end Serefi, 
siguify the bright air, the dew, and the 
ram, and an mere personifications "f their 
qualities, of Buoh value to the Athenian 

The Bowing season was opened in Attica 
l>\ tin <•<• sacred mi\ ices of ploughing. Of 
these, two were in honour of Athene as 
inventress of the plough, while the third 
took (place in honour of Dcnieter. It was 
Athene, also, who had taught men how to 
attach oxen to the yoke; above all, she had 
given them tho olive-tree, the treasure of 
At t tea. This tree she had made to grow out 
of the rock of the citadel, when disputing 
the possession of the land with Poseidon. 
Several festivals, having reference to these 
functions of the goddess, were celebrated 
in Attica ; the Calh/iitCntt and J'li/nti'nn, 
the S&Tdph&ria, the ArrtiiphOrla or 
Hi rs,~i>li<'iria, and the OschdphBria, which 
were common to Athene with Dionysus. 
fjS ' Pioxysia.) Even her chief feast, the 
Panatlu'iuvn, was originally a harvest festi- 
val. It is significant that the presentation 
of the jh'jiIi'is or mantle, the chief offering 
at the celebration, took place in the Bowing 
season. But afterwards more was made 
of the intellectual gifts bestowed by the 

Athene was very generally regarded as 
the goddess of war ; an idea which in 
ancient times was the prevailing one. It 
was connected with the fact that, like her 
father Zeus, she was supposed to be able 
to send storms and bad weather. In this 
capacity she appears in story as the true 
friend of all bold warriors, such as Perseus, 
Bellerophon, Jason, Heracles, Blomedes, 
and Odysseus. But her courage is a wise 
courage, not a blind rashness like that 
of Ares ; and she is always represented, 
accordingly, as getting the better of him. 
In this connection she was honoured in 
Athenian worship mainly as a protector 
and defender ; thus (to take a striking ex- 
ample) she was worshipped on the citadel 
of Athens under the name of PromdchSs 
(" champion," " protector.") But she was 
also a goddess of victory. As the personi- 
fication of victory (Athene Nike) she had 
a second and especial temple on the Athe- 
nian Acropolis. {See Plan of Acropolis.) 
And the great statues in the temples repre- 
sented her, like Zeus, with Xike in her 

D. C. A. 

• 1 hand. '1'h npatioi 

{f"i in.' I i be main iphl 
tax activity. Like all the other di 
who (rare supposed to 

LngB of nature, nlie is i lie pi,,-. 

grou iii^ children ; and as the g 

the clear sky and oi pure air, ihi bestows 

health and keeps off sickness. Further, 

she is (with Zeus) the patroness of the 
Athenian Phrdtrice, or unions of kinsfolk. 

At Athens and Sparta she protects the 

popular and deliberative assemblies; in 

many places, and especially at Athei 

whole state is under her care (AUu ne 
J'nlitis, Follttchiu). Elsewhere she pri 

over the larger unions of kindred pe< 
The festival of Athene Itonia at CorSnea 

i confederate festival of all Bo 
Under the title of FandchSts she was wor- 
shipped as the goddess of the Ach*an 
Speaking broadly, Athene represents 
human wit and cleverness, and presides 
over the whole moral and intellectual side 
of human life. From her are derived all 
the productions of wisdom and understand- 
ing, every art and science, whether of war 
or of peace. A crowd of discoveries, of the 
most various kinds, is ascribed to her. It 
has been already mentioned that she was 
credited with the invention of the plough 
and the voke. She was often associated 
with Poseidon as the inventress of horse- 
taming and ship-building. In the Athenian 
story she teaches Erichthonius to fasten 
his horses to the chariot. In the Corinthian 
story she teaches Bellerophon to subdue 
Pegasus. At Lindus in Rhodes she was 
worshipped as the goddess who helped 
Piinaiis to build the first fifty-oared ship. 
In the fable of the Argonauts it is she who 
instructs the builders of the first ship, the 
Argo. Even in Homer all the productions 
of women's art, as of spinning and weaving, 
are characterized as " works of Athene." 
Many a PaUddlon or statue of Pallas bore 
a spindle and distaff in its left hand. As 
the mistress and protectress of arts and 
handiwork, she was worshipped at the 
Chalkeia (or Peast of Smiths) under the 
title of Ergdne. Under this name she is 
mentioned in several inscriptions found on 
the Acropolis. Her genius covers the field 
of music and dancing. She is inventor of 
the flute and the trumpet, as well as of the 
Pyrrhic war-dance, in which she was said 
to have been the earliest performer, at the 
celebration of the victory of the Gods over 
the Giants. 




It was Phidias who finally fixed the 
typical representation of Athene in works 
of art. Among his numerous statues of her, 
three, the most celebrated, were set up on 
the acropolis of Athens. These were (1) 
The colossal statue of Athene POrthenda, 
wrought in ivory and gold, thirty feet 
in height (with the pedestal), and standing 
in the Parthenon. (See Parthenon.) The 
goddess was represented wearing a long 
robe falling down to the feet, and on her 
breast was the aegis with the Gorgon's 
head. A helmet was on her head; in one 
hand she bore a Victor}', six feet in height, 


(From Velletri : Paris, Louvre.) 

in the other a lance, which leaned against 
a shield adorned with scenes from the battles 
of the Amazons with the Giants. (2) The 
bronze statue of Athene Promachos, erected 
from the proceeds of the spoils taken at 
Marathon, and standing between the Pro- 
pylppa and the Erechtheum. The propor- 
tions of this statue were so gigantic, that 
the gleaming point of the lance and the 
crest of the helmet were visible to seamen, 
on approaching the Piraeus from Sunium. 

(3) The Lemnian Pallas, so named because 
it had been dedicated by the Athenian 
Cleruchi in Lemnos. The attractions of 
this statue won for it the name of " the 
Beautiful." Like the second, it was of 
bronze : as a representation of Athene as 
the goddess of peace, it was without a 

Throughout the numerous and varying 
representations of her, Athene has an im- 
posing stature, suggesting a masculine 
rather than a feminine form : an oval face, 
with a brow of great clearness and purity ; 
thoughtful eyes, compressed lips, firm chin, 
and hair carelessly thrown back. (See cut.) 
Her ordinary attributes are the helmet, the 
aegis covering the breast or serving as a 
shield for the arm, the lance, the round 
shield with the Gorgon's head, the olive 
branch, and the owl. (On her identification 
with Minerva, see Minerva.) 

Athenodoras. A Greek sculptor, of the 
Rhodian school. He was associated with 
Agesander and Polydorus in the production 
of the celebrated group of Laocoon. (See 

Athletae. This was the name given by 
the Greeks to the professional competitors 
for the prizes in gymnastic contests, such as 
boxing and the pancrdtion, a combination 
of boxing with wrestling. The athlettB prac- 
tised gymnastics as a means of livelihood, 
whereas in general Greek society it was 
regarded as a liberal art, useful for the 
harmonious development of the body, and 
as a training for military service. The pro- 
fessional athletes adopted a special regimen, 
which produced an exceptional development 
of bodily strength and muscle, but unfitted 
them for any other kind of life or pursuit. 
The profession of athlete was accordingly 
adopted mainly by men of low birth, and 
was more popular with the multitude than 
with persons of intelligence and educa- 
tion. Greek athletes did not make their 
appearance in Rome before 186 B.C. In 
the republican age they were not regarded 
with great favour ; but under Augustus 
their contests became quite popular. No 
social stigma attached to them, as to actors 
and gladiators, and under the Empire they 
formed themselves into regular societies, 
each with its own president, travelling from 
place to place at the festivals, at which they 
would appear in pairs, arranged by lot, for 
a high remuneration. In 86 a.d. Domitian 
established a contest on the Capitol for 
musicians and athletes, to recur every four 
years ; and erected a special race-course for 




iii, athletes "ii ill" Campu$ Martins, The 

toline '-"iii,' ■! survived during the 
whole "i ;i ii i iquil \ 

Atlilutlii'i.c. I'll- |»'i "us who arranged, 
and aoted as urn pin in, 1 he \ arious public 

of Orei Thej urn' also called 

AgOnSthlta, and al Olympia Helldnddikce. 
i \, , also Paw lthen i \ 

Atilius Fortunatianus. A Latin gram- 
marian who flourished in the fust lull' "f 

hli century \.i>., anil was th" author 
"i .1 Bohoo] manual of prosody. 

Atiinla. This (ireek word does not im- 
ply dishonour in the modern sens", inn de- 
privation of civil rights, whether partial, 

Jete, temporary, or perpetual. Partial 
atimia at Athens might consist, for in- 
stance, in depriving a citizen of the right to 
appear again as prosecutor, in case he hail, 
in this capacity, failed to obtain a tilth part 
of the votes; or of the right to propose a law 
again to the assembly, if he had been three 
i iiiics condemned for making illegal proposi- 
tions. In cases of complete atimia, a per- 
son was excluded from taking part in any 
public proceeding whatever. He was for- 
bidden access to the th/ord and the public 
sanctuaries; he was incapacitated from ap- 

ng in court as a prosecutor. In case 
of very serious offences the atimia might 
be followed by confiscation of property, and 
might even be extended to a man's chil- 
dren. Atimia might also be inflicted on 
debtors to the State, if the debt was not 
paid within the appointed time. It was 
then accompanied with a fine equivalent to 
the amount alread}' owed. The payment of 
the debt brought the atimia to an end. 
But where it was inflicted for other offences, 
it was seldom removed, and then only after 
a vote of at least six thousand citizens. 

In Sparta complete atimia was mostly 
inflicted on persons who had been guilty of 
cowardice in war. The offender was not ! 
only cut off from all civil rights, and from 
the common meals and exercises, but had 
to submit to every kind of insult. At the 
public festivals he had to take a low place. ] 
He was obliged to wear a patchwork cloak, 
to have his hair cut on one side ; to give 
way in the street to every one, even to 
young men ; no one would give him light 
for his fire, marry his daughter, or give him 
his daughter to wife. [Plutarch, Agcs'tlails 
30.] Bachelors were also subject to a kind 
of atimia. They were not allowed to be 
present at certain festivals, and had no claim 
to the marks of respect which the young, in 
other cases, were expected to show. The 

fall | t oivic i "hi i and privileges 

called Sptttmla ,\ 

Atlas 'the " bearer " or " endurer" The 
sun "f th.- Titan [apt tu ■■, and < ' l <■ 1 1 1 . - 1 1 • or, 
aocording to anothei \ i - i. 

"i M"M"t in . Proml ii"" and EpimeM hens. 
In Homer [Od. i. 521 lm is called "the 
thinker of mischief," who knows th" depths 

"I th" wli' and has Under his "un- 

til" pillars which In.]. I heaven and earth 

a sunder. In Hesiod | Tht og. 517] I 

;. i t he western end "f the earth, near where 

the ll"S|."i 1'1,-s dwell, holding the broad 

hca-\ "ii "ii Ins hi ad I itnu cnicd hands. 

To this condition he is forced by Zeus, 
according to a later version as a punishment 
for th" part which he took in the battle 
with the Titans. By the Ocean nymph 
Plelone he is father of the Pleiades, by 


(From the temple of Zeus at 

iEthra of the Hyades. In Homer the nymph 
Calypso is also his daughter, who dwells 
on the island Ogygia. the navel of the sea. 
Later authors make him the father of the 
Hesperides, by Hesperis. It is to him that 
Amphitrite flies when pursued by Poseidon. 
As their knowledge of the West extended, 
the Greeks transferred the abode of Atlas 
to the African mountain of the same name. 
Local stories of a mountain which supported 
the heaven would, no doubt, encourage the 
identification. In later times Atlas was 
represented as a wealthy king, and owner 
of the garden of the Hesperides. Perseus, 
with his head of Medusa, turned him into 
a rocky mountain for his inhospitality. In 
works of art he is represented as carrying 




the heaven : or (after the earth was dis- 
covered to be spherical), the terrestrial globe. 
Among the statues of Atlas the Farnese, in 
the Museum at Naples, is the best known. 
(See also Olympic Games, fig. 3.) 

In Greek architecture, the term Atlantis 
was employed to denote the colossal male 
statues sometimes used in great buildings 
instead of columns to support an entabla- 
ture or a projecting roof. 

Atreus. Son of Pelops and Hippodamia, 
grandson of Tantalus. (See. Pelops.) With 
the help of his brother Thyestes he mur- 
dered his step-brother Chrysippus. To 
escape the wrath of their father, the pair 
of brothers took refuge with their brother- 
in-law Sthenelus, king of Mycense, who 
gave them Media to live in. Eurystheus, 
the brother of their protector, was killed 
in battle with the Heracleidse. Atreus 
kept possession of the kingdom of Mycenae, 
which had been given him in charge by 
Eurystheus, and maintained it in virtue of 
possessing a golden lamb, which had been 
given him by Hermes for the purpose of 
exciting discord in the house of Pelops and 
avenging the death of his son Myrtilus. 
Thyestes debauched his brother's wife 
Aerope, daughter of the king of Crete, and 
with her aid got possession of the golden 
lamb and the kingdom. But, as a sign 
that right and wrong had been con- 
founded, Zeus turned the sun and the 
moon back in their course. Atreus accord- 
ingly recovered the kingdom and expelled 
Thyestes. To revenge himself, Thyestes 
sent Pleisthenes, a son of Atreus whom he 
had brought up as his own, to Mycense to 
murder Atreus. But Atreus slew Pleis- 
thenes, not knowing that he was his son. 
Atreus replied by bringing back Thyestes 
and his family from exile, and serving up to 
Thyestes at table the limbs of his own 
sons. Thyestes fled away ; the land was 
visited with barrenness and famine. In 
obedience to an oracle, Atreus goes forth 
to seek him, but only finds his daughter 
Pelopia, whom he takes to wife. JDgisthus, 
her son by her father Thyestes, who is 
destined to avenge him, Atreus adopts and 
rears as his own child. Thyestes is after- 
wards found by Agamemnon and Menelaus, 
who bring him to Mycenae. He is impris- 
oned, and jEgisthus ordered to murder him. 
By the sword which iEgisthus carries 
Thyestes recognises him as his son, and 
proposes to him to slay Atreus. Meanwhile 
Pelopia, in horror at the discovery of her 
son's incestuous origin, drives the sword 

into her own breast. iEgisthus takes the 
bloody sword to Atreus as a proof that 
he has executed his commission, and after- 
wards falls upon him with Thyestes, while 
he is engaged in making a thank-offering 
on the sea-shore. Thyestes and iEgisthus 
thereupon seize the government of Mycenae, 
and drive Agamemnon and Menelaus out of 
the country. 

The older story knows nothing of these 
horrors. In Homer Pelops receives the 
sceptre from Zeus by the ministration of 
Hermes ; he leaves it to Atreus, and Atreus 
to Thyestes, who hands it down to Aga- 
memnon. Hesiod alludes to the wealth of 
the Pelopidse, but is silent as to the rest. 

Atridse (Gr. Atrcidce, Atreidce). The sons 
of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus. 

Atrium. The original name for a Roman 
house, the interior of which consisted of a 
single chamber open at the front. After- 
wards the term was applied to the large 
hall which extended along the whole 
breadth of the house, and was lighted by 
an opening in the roof. The atrium was 
entered by the floor of the house, and the 
other chambers were attached to it. (See 
House.) Other buildings, sacred or pro- 
fane, possessing halls of this kind with 
dwelling-rooms attached, were known by 
the name of atria, from the resemblance 
of their form to that of an ordinary house. 
The Atrium Vesta;, or abode of the Vestal 
Virgins, is an example of a consecrated 
atrium. The Atrium Libertcitis was secu- 
lar. This was the official residence of the 
censor, and it was here that Asinius Pollio 
established the first public library known 
to have existed at Rome. Auction-rooms 
were also called atria, and halls of this 
description were often attached to temples, 
and used for the meetings and festivals of 

Atropus. One of the three Fates. (Sec 


Atta (T. Quinctius [or Quinticius]). A 
Roman dramatic poet, author of togatai 
(see Comedy), who died B.C. 77, and was a 
contemporary of Afranius. He was cele- 
brated for his power of drawing character, 
especially in conversational scenes in which 
women were introduced. Of his comedies 
only twelve titles remain, with a few insig- 
nificant fragments. 

Atthis. A chronicle of Attic history, in 
which special attention was paid to occur- 
rences of political and religious significance. 
After the last half of the 4th century A.D., 
chronicles of this kind were composed by 

\ I IK I 9 M i.l I; 

;i miiiiiii i of n riters AtthidOgrdphi . among 
u bom AimIioi mil and Philooh&ru q.v. 
deserve special mention. These wri 
were much quoted by 1 1 1 « - grammarians. 

Atticus i I /'. PompOnius. A [toman of 
an .'1.1 and wealthy equestrian family, bora 

L09 B.C. Ho received a good education in 

boyhood and youth, and went in the year 
88 b.i to Athens, where he lived until 65, 
devoting himself entirely to study, and much 
toted bj the citizens for his generosity 
and cultivated refinement. In 66 he returned 
to Rome, to take possession of the inherit- 
ance left him by his uncle and adoptive 
father, Q. I'ii'cilius. He now became Q. 
i 'a il ilius Pomponi&nus. From this time 
onward he lived on terms of intimacy with 
men like Cicero, Hortensius, and Cornelius 

Nopos. who wrote a life of him whieh we 
still possess. He avoided public life and 
the Strife of parties. This fact, in addition 
to his general amiability and good nature. 
enabled him during the civil wars to keep 
on the best of terms with the leaders of the 
conflicting parties, Cicero, Brutus, and 
Antonius. He died after a painful illness, 
of voluntary starvation, in the year 32 B.C. 

Atticus was the author of several works, 
the most considerable of which was a history 
iI'iIhi- annOlis) dedicated to Cicero. This 
gave a short epitome of the bare events 
of Roman history down to B.C. 54, arranged 
according to the series of consuls and other 
magistrates, with contemporaneous notices. 
But his most important contribution to 
Latin literature was his edition of the 
letters which he had received from Cicero. 
He also did great service by setting his 
numerous slaves to work at copying the 
writings of his contemporaries. 

(2 ' HSrodes Atticus. See Herodes. 
Attis (or Atys). A mythical personage 
in the worship of the Phrygian goddess 
Cybele-Agdistis. The son of this goddess, 
so ran the story, had been mutilated by the 
gods in terror at his gigantic strength, and 
from his blood sprang the almond-tree. 
After eating its fruit, Nana, daughter of 
the river Sangarius, brought forth a boy, 
whom she exposed. He was brought up 
first among the wild goats of the forests, 
and afterwards by some shepherds, and 
grew up so beautiful that Agdistis fell 
in love with him. Wishing to wed the 
daughter of the king of Pessinus in 
Phrygia, he was driven to madness by the 
goddess. He then fled to the mountains, 
and destroyed his manhood at the foot of a 
pine-tree, which received his spirit, while 

from hi- i>l I sprang violets to garland the 

tree. \ the 

body of her beloved one might know no 
corruption. Her prayer was heard : a tomb 

to Attis v. .Mount llindvinus 

in the Banctuarv of CyiM-ie, th.- priests of 
n In. h had to undergo ema n for 

Attis' sake. A festival of several days 
w as held in honour of Attis and C 

in the beginning of spring. A pine-tree, 
felled in the forest, was covered with 
violets, and carried to the shrine of Cybele, 
as a symbol of the departed Attis. Then, 
amid tumultuous music, and rites of wildest 
sorrow, they sought and mourned for At t i a 
on the mountains. On the third day he 
was found again, the image of the goddess 
was purified from the contagion of death, 
and a feast of joy was celebrated, as wild 
as had been the days of sorrow. 
Attius. See Accius. 
Atys. See Attis. 

Auge. Daughter of Aleus of Tegea, and 
mother of Telephus by Heracles. 

Augeas or Augias. I Gt. A ugeias in verse, 
Augeas in prose). Son of Helios, or, accord- 
ing to another account, of Phorbas, and 
HermiOne. He was king of the Epeians 
in Elis, and one of the Argonauts. Besides 
his other possessions, for which Agamemnon 
and Trophonius built him a treasure-house, 
he was the owner of an enormous flock of 
sheep and oxen, among which were twelve 
white bulls, consecrated to the Sun. When 
Heracles, at the command of Eurystheus, 
came to cleanse his farmyard, Augeas pro- 
mised him the tenth part of his flock. But, 
the task completed, he refused the reward, 
on the ground that the work had been done 
in the service of Eurystheus. Heracles 
replied by sending an army against him, 
which was defeated in the passes of Elis by 
Eurytus and Cteatus, sons of Molione. But 
Heracles appeared on the scene, and slew 
the Molionidse, and with them their uncle 
Augeas and his sons. (See Molionidse.) 

Augures [not probably, from avis, a bird, 
but from a lost word, aug-o, to tell ; so 
| " declarers " or " tellers "]. A priestly 
! collegium at Rome, the establishment of 
which was traditionally ascribed to Ro- 
mulus. Its members were in possession 
j of the knowledge necessary to make the 
i arrangements for taking the auspices, and 
for their interpretation when taken. Their 
assistance was called in on all those oc- 
casions on which the State had to assure 
itself, through auspices, of the approval of 
the gods. The collegium originally con- 



sisted of three Patricians, of whom the king 
was one. During the regal period the 
number was doubled ; in B.C. 300 it was 
raised to nine (four Patricians and five 
Plebeians) ; and in the last century of the 
Republic, under Sulla, to fifteen, and finally 
by Julius Caesar to sixteen, a number which 
continued unaltered under the Empire. It 
can be shown that the college of augurs 
continued to exist until the end of the 4th 
century a.d. The office was, on account 
of its political importance, much sought 
after, and only filled by persons of high 
birth and distinguished merit. It was 
held for life, an augur not being precluded 
from holding other temporal or spiritual 
dignities. Vacancies in the collegium 
were originally filled up by cooptation ; but 
after 104 B.C. the 
office was elective, 
the tribes choosing 
one of the candi- 
dates previously 
nominated. An 
auguriutn had to 
be taken before the 
augur entered upon 
his duties. In all 
probability the 
augurs ranked ac- 
cording to senior- 
ity, and the senior 
augur presided over 
the business of the 

The insignia of 
the office were the 
trdbSa, a state dress 
with a purple border, and the Ittiius, a ; 
staff without knots and curved at the top. 

The science of Roman augury was based 
chiefly on written tradition. This was 
contained partly in the Libri Augiirdles, 
the oldest manual of technical practice, 
partly in the Commentavii Augurales, a 
collection of answers given in certain cases j 
to the enquiries of the senate. In ancient 
times the chief duty of the augurs was to 
observe, when commissioned by a magistrate 
do so, the omens given by birds, and to 
mark out the templum or consecrated space 
within which the observation took place. 
The proceeding was as follows. Imme- 
diately after midnight, or at the dawn of ! 
the day on which the official act was to take 
place, the augur, in the presence of the 
magistrate, selected an elevated spot with 
as wide a view as was obtainable. Taking 
his station here, he drew with his staff 


(Bas-relief in Museum, 


two straight lines cutting one another 
the one from north to south, the other 
from east to west. Then to each of 
these straight lines he drew two parallel 
lines, thus forming a rectangular figure, 
which he consecrated according to a pre- 
scribed form of words. This space, as well 
as the space corresponding to it in the sky, 
was called a templum. At the point of 
intersection in the centre of the rectangle, 
was erected the tabernucfihnn. This was 
a square tent, with its entrance looking 
south. Here the augur sat down, asked 
the gods for a sign according to a pre- 
scribed formula, and waited for the answer. 
Complete quiet, a clear sky, and an absence 
of wind were necessary conditions of the 
observation. The least noise was sufficient 
to disturb it, unless indeed the noise was 
occasioned by omens of terror (dlrce), sup- 
posing the augur to have observed them or 
to intend doing so. As he looked south, 
the augur had the east on his left, the west 
on his right. Accordingly, the Romans 
regarded signs on the left side as of pros- 
perous omen, signs on the right side as 
unluck}- ; the east being deemed the region 
of light, the west that of darkness. The 
reverse was the case in ancient Greece, 
where the observer looked northwards. In 
his observation of birds, the augur did not 
confine himself to noticing their flight. The 
birds were distinguished as alltes and 
osclnes. The aliies included birds bike 
eagles and vultures, which gave signs by 
their manner of flying. The oscints were 
birds which gave signs by their cry as well 
as their flight, such as ravens, owls, and 
crows. There were also birds which were 
held sacred to particular gods, and the mere 
appearance of which was an omen of 
good or evil. The augur's report was 
expressed in the words aves admittvnt, 
" the birds allow it " ; or alio die. " on 
another day," i.e. " the augury is post- 
poned." The magistrate was bound by 
this report. The science of augury in- 
cluded other kinds of auspices besides the 
observation of birds, a cumbrous process 
which had dropped out of use in the 
Ciceronian age. (See Auspicia.) 

The augurs alwa_ys continued in possession 
of important functions. In certain places 
in the city, for instance on the arx, and at 
the meeting place of the conutut, there were 
permanent posts of observation for taking 
the regular auspices. These places were put 
under the care of the augurs. Their boun- 
daries might not be altered, nor the view 



which the] o mended interfered with. 

'riin augura bed authority to prevenl the 
ereotion of buildinga which would 'I" tins. 
The] bed tin i be power of ooneeoi 
prii its, as well ea oi inaugurating a pari of 
the looalitiea intended for religions purposes, 
mi. I the plaoes where public business was 
carried on. They were always preeenl a1 
the comitia, and were authorized, it the signs 
which they saw or which were reported to 

them justified the proceeding, to am < 

the fad and postpone the business. It the 
constitutional character of a public aoi wa ■< 
called in question, the college of augurs had 
the ezolusive power of deciding whether 
there was a flaw (vttium) in it. or not. If 
there were, the act was necessarily annulled 

By the end of the republican period the 
augurs, and the whole business of th<' 
auspices, had ceased to be regarded as 
deserving serious attention. 

Augustales. A religious association at 
Rome, formed tor the maintenance of the 
worship paid to the deified Caesars. (See 
MuNh'lI'lUM and SODALTTAS.) 

Augustinus (AurSlius), The greatest of 
the Latin Christian fathers. He was born 
854 a.d. at Tagaste in Numidia. His 
father was a pagan, his mother, MSnica, a 
zealous Christian. After a wild life as a 
young man, he became professor of rhetoric 
in Tagaste, Carthage, Rome, and Milan, 
where he was converted to Christianity 
through the influence of Ambrose, and 
baptized in 387. He returned to Africa, 
and was ordained presbyter in 391, and 
bishop of Hippo in Numidia in 396. He 
died there in 430, after doing much good in 
the city during its siege by the Vandals. 
His literary activity was extraordinary. 
Four years before his death he reckons up 
the number of his works, exclusive of letters 
and sermons, as 93, making up 233 books. 
Among them are six books De Musica, and 
essays on rhetoric, dialectic, and grammar. 
These productions, which testify to his 
interest in learning, were instalments of an 
encyclopaedic work on the seven liberal arts, 
modelled upon the Discipline/? of Varro. 
Among his other writings two attracted 
especial notice on account of the extra- 
ordinary effect which they produced in after 
times. These are The Confessions, a history 
of his inner life in thirteen books, written 
in the form of a confession to the Almighty ; 
and the De Civitate Dei, a work in twenty- 
two books, demonstrating the providential 
action of God in the development of human 

Augustus | angary"]. 

An honorary title given in the pear 2*7 B.o, 
to < )ota\ ianu .. i be foundei oi I be Roman 
empire, It was nol hereditary, but waa 
taken by I eding em >lie 

instaiier .>t the senate, a formality which 
afterwards dispensed with. Tims it 
gradually became an officia I title Pi 
speaking, it could onlj be a wnmed l>\ the 
actual bolder of the imperial dignity, not 
by his colleague. Marcus Aurolius was the 
Brsl who broke through this rule, in 

lid \.l). he conferred tin- entire imperial 
authority, with the title of Augustus, 
Lucius Vitus, after whose death he elevated 

his son t'ommodus to the same position. 
This arrangement had tho advantage of 
dispensing with the necessity of a further 
recognition of the colleague by the senate 
and people alter the death of the reigning 
emperor. It was frequently adopted, until, 
under Diocletian, it developed into the 
division of the empire into an eastern 
and western portion, each under its own 

The title of Augustus was reserved 
exclusively for the emperor ; but the cor- 
responding feminine style of Augusta was 
assumed, as the highest of all honours, by 
the great ladies of the imperial house. The 
first of those who bore it was Livia, on 
whom her husband Octavianus conferred 
it by will. She was followed by Antonia, 
who received it from her grandson Caligula. 
The first lady who took it as consort of the 
reigning Caesar was Agrippina, the third 
wife of Claudius. After Domitian's time 
it became the rule to confer the title of 
Augusta not only on the consort of the 
reigning emperor, but on others among 
their near relations, especially their 
daughters. This was generally done upon 
some appropriate occasion, and never with- 
out the special consent of the Caesar. In 
later times it was generally the senate who 
took the initiative in the matter. 

Aulasum. .5a' Theatre. 

Aule. See House (Greek). 

Aulos, Auletike, Aulodike. See Music. 

Aurelianus (Ccelms). A Latin writer on 
medicine, a native of Sicca in Numidia, who 
flourished in the 5th century a.d. He was 
the author of two works on Acute and 
Chronic Diseases, the first in three, the 
second in five books. These are translations, 
fairly literal, but abridged, of works by the 
Greek physician Soranus, who lived in the 
last half of the 2nd century a.d. Cselius 
also wrote a compendium of the whole 



science of medicine, in the form of a cate- 
chism (Medidnale~s ResponsiOnes). Of this 
considerable fragments remain. 

Attrelius, Marcus. 8ee Antoninus. 

Aurelius Victor (Sextus). A Roman his- 
torian, born in Africa. He was probably 
governor of Pannonia under Julian in 361 
a.d., and in 389 prefect of Rome. There is 
a history of the Caesars from Julius to Con- 
stantino, written about 360 a.d., which bears 
his name. This appears, however, to be no 
more than an extract from a more compre- 
hensive work. The same is the case with 
an Epitome, continued down to the death 
of Theodosius. There is also a short but 
not altogether worthless book, entitled De 
Yirls Illustribus Urbis Homo?, which is at- 
tributed to Aurelius Victor. It begins with 
the Alban king Procas, and conies down to 
Cleopatra. It is not by Aurelius Victor, 
nor again is a little book which has been 
attributed to him, called Orlgo Gentis 
Romdna'. This is full of forged quotations, 
and belongs to a much later period. 

Aureus. A Roman coin of the imperial 
period, originally weighing ^ of a Roman 
pound, and worth from the time of Julius 
Caesar to Nero, 25 denarii, or 100 sestertii ; 
from 23 to 20 shillings. {See COINAGE.) 

Auriga. See Circensian Games. 

Aurora. See Eos. 

Aurum Coronarium. See Corona. 

An somas (Decimus Magnus). The most 
remarkable Latin poet of the 4lh century 
a.d. ; born about 310 at Burdigala (Bor- 
deaux). He was son of the private phy- 
sician of Valentinian I, and afterwards pre- 
fect of Illyria. Educated thoroughly in 
grammar, rhetoric, and law, he practised as 
an advocate in his native city, where he 
afterwards became professor of grammar 
and rhetoric. He was then invited by 
Valentinian to undertake the education 
of his son Gratian, who, after he had 
ascended the throne, conferred upon him 
the consulship and other distinctions. After 
the assassination of Gratian he retired to 
his estate near Burdigala, where he con- 
tinued to reside, in full literary activity, 
till 390. He became a Christian, probably 
on accepting the office of tutor to the prince. 
Besides composing a turgid address of 
thanks to Gratian, delivered at Treves, 
Ausonius wrote a series of poems, including 
verses in memory of deceased relatives 
[Pa rental ia), verses commemorating his 
colleagues (Commemnratio Professorum 
Rurdigalensium), Epituphia. Ecloga, Epi- 
stOla<, Epigrammdta, and a number of mis- 

cellaneous pieces, one of which (Moulin) 
is the narrative of a tour from Bingen on 
the Rhine to Berncastel (Tabernw) on the 
Moselle and then up the Moselle past Neu- 
magen (Aociumagunt) to Treves. Its sub- 
ject has secured the poem some renown. 

Ausonius is not a real poet ; but he tries 
to make up for lack of genius by dexterity 
in metre and the manipulation of words, 
and by ornaments of learning and rhetoric. 
The consequence is, that his style is gener- 
ally neither simple nor natural. 

Auspicia (" observations of birds "). In 
its proper sense the word means the 
watching of signs given by birds. But it 
was also applied to other signs, the observa- 
tion of which was not intended to obtain 
answers about future events, but only to 
ascertain whether a particular proceeding 
was or was not acceptable to the deity 
concerned. It must be remembered that, 
according to Roman ideas, Jupiter gave 
men signs of his approval or disapproval in 
every undertaking ; signs which qualified 
persons could read and understand. Any 
private individual was free to ask for, and 
to interpret, such signs for his own needs. 
But to ask for signs on behalf of the State 
was only allowed to the representatives of 
the community. The auspicia publico 
popiili Romani, or system of public aus- 
picia, were under the superintendence of 
the college of augurs. (See Augur.) This 
body alone possessed the traditional know- 
ledge of the ceremonial, and held the key 
to the correct interpretation of the signs. 
The signs from heaven might be asked for, 
or they might present themselves unasked. 
Thej T fell into five classes: (1) Signs given 
by birds (signa ex avibus). These, as the 
name auspicia shows, were originally the 
commonest sort, but had become obsolete as 
early as the 1st century B.C. (For the 
ceremonial connected with them, see Augur.) 
(2) Signs in the sky (ex c.ado). The most 
important and decisive were thunder and 
lightning. Lightning was a favourable 
omen if it appeared to the left of the augur, 
and flashed to the right ; unfavourable, if it 
flashed from right to left. (See Augur.) 
In certain cases, as, for example, that of 
the assembling of the comltia, a storm was 
taken as an absolute prohibition of the 
meeting. (3) Signs from the behaviour of 
chickens while eating It was a good omen 
if the chicken rushed eagerly out of its cage 
at its food and dropped a bit out of its beak ; 
an unfavourable omen if it was unwilling, 
or refused altogether, to leave its cage, or 


\\rw away, or declined its f I. Thi 

and simple method oi get) , omen wa • 

i u adopted by armies is I be field, the 
chickens being taken abort in ohargi 

nary (puUdrius). [4 i Signs 
. oj the orie • or mol ion of animals, as 
i epi ilea ami quadrupeds, in their 1 1 
over ii given pieoe oi ground (signa i>ni< stria 
or«B quadrupSdibua). (6) Signs given by 
phenomena of terror I si : /im ex dlrls i These 
might consist in disturbances of the act ot 

* auspicia rni.LARiA (nAS-r.ELiEK, home). 
(From Zoega's Bassirilievi, I tav. xvi.) 

misjiicdtio, such as the falling of an object, 
a noise, a stumble, a slip in the recitation 
of the formula ; or a disturbance occurring 
in the course of public business, such as, for 
instance, an epileptic seizure taking place 
in the public assembly ; an event which 
broke up the meeting. 

The two last-mentioned classes of signs 
were generally not asked for, because the 
former were usually, the latter always, un- 
lucky. If they made their appearance 
unasked, they could not be passed over, if 
the observer saw them or wished to see 
them. Every official was expected to take 
auspices on entering upon his office, and on 
every occasion of performing an official act. 
Thus the words impirium and auspicium 
were often virtually synonymous. The 
auspicia were further divided, according to 
the dignity of the magistrate, into maxima 
("greatest") and minora ("less"). The 
greatest auspicia were those which were 
taken by the king, dictator, consuls, pr<e- 
tors, and censors ; the lesser were taken by 
<ediles and qusestors. If two magistrates, 
though collSgce (colleagues) were of unequal 

dignity Supposing, ! ■ •'. ' DBl B 

sul and prater v. ere in ! bi tme camp the 
higher officer alone bad the right of taking 
the auspices. II the coUegm were equal, 
i be an bioe passed from one to i be other 
at stated times. No public act, whether oi 
peace or « ar I crossing a river, foi 
or fighting a battle), could be undertaken 
without auspices. They were specially 
necessary a1 the election of all officials, the 
entry upon all offices, al all comitia, ai 
i In' depart lire of a general for war. I 
had, further, to be taken on the actual day 
and at the actual place of the given under- 

The whole proceeding was so abused tha' 
in time it sank into a mere form. This 
remark applies even to the auspices taken 
from lightning, the most important sign of 
all. For tin' flash of lightning, which was 
in later times regularly supposed to appear 
when a magistrate entered upon office, was 
always (after the necessary formalities) set 
down as appearing on the left side. More- 
over, the mere assertion of a magistrate who 
had the right of auspicium that he had 
taken observations on a particular da}-, and 
seen a flash of lightning, was constitution- 
ally unassailable ; and was consequently 
often used to put off a meeting of the 
<;i»iiti<t fixed for the day in question. 
Augustus, it is true, tried to rehabilitate 
the auspicia, but their supposed religious 
foundation had been so thoroughly shaken, 
that they had lost all serious significance. 

Antolycus. Son of Hermes and Chione, 
or (according to another account) Philonis, 
father of Anticleia, the mother of Odysseus. 
In Greek mythology he figured as the prince 
of thieves. From his father he inherited 
the gift of making himself and all his stolen 
goods invisible, or changing them so as to 
preclude the possibility of recognition. He 
was an accomplished wrestler, and was said 
to have given Heracles instruction in the art. 

Autonigdon. Son of Diores ; the comrade 
and charioteer of Achilles. 

Auxilia (auxiliary troops). This name 
was given in the Roman army to the foreign 
troops serving with the legions, and to the 
contingents of Italian allies. In some cases, 
especially that of the slingers and archers, 
they were raised by free recruiting, in others 
by a levy in the provinces ; in others they 
were sent as contingents by kings or com- 
munities in alliance with Rome. Under the 
Empire the term auxilia was extended to 
all the corps stationed in the provinces and 
not included in the legions ; as, for example, 



the divisions of veterans called vexilldrii, 
and the cohorts called Italian, formed ori- 
ginally of free Italian volunteers. It was, 
however, employed especially of the corps 
levied in the provinces, which furnished 
the material not only of the whole cavalry 
of the Roman army, but of a number of 
infantry detachments (cohortCs auxilidrice). 
Of these, some were armed and trained in 
Roman fashion, others retained their na- 
tional equipment. Consequently, a striking 
variety of troops might be observed in the 
provincial armies of Rome. (See Ala and 

Auxo. One of the two Chdrites, or 
Graces, worshipped at Athens. (See 

Avianus. A Latin writer of fables. We 
have a collection of forty-two fables in 
elegiac metre, written by him, it may be 
conjectured, in the 4th century a.d. The 
work is dedicated to a certain Theodosius, 
with compliments on his acquaintance with 
Latin literature. He is perhaps to be 
identified with the well-known scholar 

Theodosius Macrobius. The dedication is 
in prose, and states that the author's models 
were Phsedrus and Babrius. The book was 
largely used in schools, and consequently 
was much enlarged, paraphrased, and imi- 
tated in the Middle Ages. The result may 
be seen in the Novus Avianus of Alexander 
Neckam, written in the 13th century. 

Avienus (Rufiits Festus). A Latin poet, 
native of Volsinii in Etruria, pro-consul of 
Africa in 366 and of Achaia in 372 a.d. He 
was the author of a tasteful and scholarly 
translation, in hexameters, of the Phcend- 
mend of Aratus, and of the Geography 
of Dionysius Periegetes (Dcscrijitio Orbis 
Terrdrum) ; as well as of a piece called Orel 
martttma, or a description of the coasts of 
the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas. 
This was based on very ancient authorities, 
and written in iambics. Only a fragment 
of the first book remains, describing the 
Mediterranean coast from the Atlantic as 
far as Marseilles. 

Axamenta. The ancient hymns sung by 
the Salii. (See Salii.) 


Babrius (Greek). The compiler of a 
comprehensive collection of .<Esop*s fables 
in choliambic metre. The book is probably 
to be assigned to the beginning of the 3rd 
century a.d. Until 1844 nothing was known 
of Babrius but fragments and paraphrases, 
bearing the name of ./Esopus (see iEsoprs). 
But in that year a Greek, Minoides Minas, 
discovered 123 of the original fables in a 
monastery on Mount Athos. In 1857 he 
brought out 95 more, the genuineness of 
which is disputed. The style of Babrius 
is simple and pleasing, the tone fresh and 

Bacchanalia, Bacchus. See Dionysus. A Greek lyric poet who 
flourished in the middle of the 5th century 
B.C. He was a native of Iulis in the island 
of Ceos, the nephew and pupil of Simonides, 
and a contemporary of Pindar. For a long 
time he lived with his uncle at the court of 
Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse. He also resided 
for a considerable time at Athens, where 
he won many victories in the dithyrambic 
contests. Later on his home was in the 
Peloponnese. It would appear that he at- 
tempted to rival the many-sided talent of his 
uncle, but fell behind him in sublimity and 
force. Only a few fragments of his poems 
remain. He attempted a great variety of 

styles : hymns, psans, dithyrambs drinking- 
songs, love-songs, and epigrams. 

Bakers and Baking. The original custom 
in Greece and Italy was to grind the corn 
and bake the necessary supplies at home : 
a usage which maintained itself in large 
houses even after grinding and baking (for 
the two went together) had become a sepa- 
rate trade. Bakers first appear in Greece as 
a distinct class in the 5th century B.C. : in 
Rome there is no sign of them till about B.C. 
171. The millers or "pounders" (pistores) 
at Rome were usually either freedmen or 
citizens of a low class ; but the position of 
the trade was improved by the care taken 
b}- the State to provide good and cheap 
bread of full weight. As early as the time 
of Augustus the State was served by a 
collegium or guild of bakers, which was 
subsequently organized by Trajan. In his 
time it consisted of 100 members nomi- 
nated by the emperor, with special privi- 
leges, and subordinate to the prcefect n 8 
annonce (see Annona). In the 3rd cen- 
tury a.d. the monthly distribution of bread 
was succeeded by a daily one. This natu- 
rally led to a considerable increase in the 
number of public bakeries. At the begin- 
ning of the 4th century a.d. there were 
254, distributed through the fourteen rS- 




gUhii i of Borne. Side bj side with 

existed ■ number 01 private bah 
whioh in. iilr it their business to provide 
thi Boer sortaj of breed, *<> numerous in 
suit iquity. 

Pairing u.i^ oarried on sometimes in fur- 
neoea mob as ai a found in Pompeii i, 

in tin' kltbdndt or krXbdnot Latin 
cllbdnus). Tins was ■< clay vessel with a 
li.l en the top and small holes in the aides, 
wider at the bottom than ;it the top. I 

urrounded it with li"t ashes. 
The ancients were unacquainted with rye, 
and made their bread mostly "f wheat, with 
n] varieties depending ou the quality 
of the flour and the mode of prepai 
Tlie loaves were generally round, and 
divided into four parts, to facilitate break- 
Lag them. 

Ball [Qames of). Games of ball were 
among the commonest and most popular 
forms of exercise in antiquity, among the 
young and old alike. Playing went on 
in public places, such as the Campus 
Martins at Rome; and iu gymmtaia and 
thtrma a room (sphceristSriv/m, from the 
Greek sphaira, a ball> was set apart for the 
purpose, in which a professional attended to 
give instruction in the art (sphairistikri 
During the imperial period country-houses 
often had a sphceristerium attached to 
them. The balls ^Lat. p'thr* were made of 
hair, feathers, or fig-seeds, covered with 
leather or many-coloured cloth. The largest 
i as. for instance, the Roman follis) were 
filled with air. At this time there were 
five sorts of ball : the small, the middle- 
sized, the large, the very large, and the 
inflated ball. In throwing the little ball 
the rule was that the arm should not rise 
above the shoulder. There were games for 
one, two, three, or a larger number of 
players. In mam- of these several small 
balls were used at once. Two of the games 
with the little ball may be mentioned, called 
by the Greeks Urania and Aporraaris. In 
the urania (" sky-high "') the player threw 
the ball as high as possible, to be caught 
either by himself or his antagonist. In 
the aporraxis (" bounce-ball ") the ball was 
thrown obliquely to the ground, and its 
several rebounds were scored up until 
another player caught it with the flat of 
his hand and threw it back. In another 
form of the game the point was to keep 
tossing the ball up, as long as possible, with 
the open hand. A very favourite game at 
Rome was the trigon (" three-corner "), 
which required special dexterity with the 

left band. Thi 

peculiar t" Bpai ta, n is pis 

number. It took iti name from the line 

« hioh sepai ated the 
< »n tins line the player too 
throw the ball; another line, behind the 

players, marked the point bej 1 which 

you might not go bach in catching it. I' 
Lied to catch the ball when standing 
within this line, you lost the game. Another 
played by a large numbt r a is the 
harmutum Latin) or phaininda Greek). 
In this the player made as though he were 
going to send the ball to a particular man 
on t ho other side, and then suddenly threw 
it in another direction. The kOrjjkOs was 
mm s.i much a game as a trial of strength. 
Tin- kOrpkda was a large leather bag tilled 
with flour, sand, or fig-seeds. It hung from 
the ceiling so as to reach to about the middle 
of the player's body. His business was to 
keep the bag in increasingly violent motion, 
beating it back with breast and hands. 

Ballista. See Artillery. 

Banks and Banking. Bankers were called 
by the Greeks tnipezitw, because they sat 
at tables in the market-places, the centre of 
all business transactions. They acted as 
money-changers, exchanging for a commis- 
sion heav}- money or gold into smaller coin, 
and the moneys of different systems with 
each other. In commercial cities they would 
do a considerable trade in this way ; the 
difference of standards and the uncertainty 
of the stamping of coins in Greece creating 
a great demand for their assistance. They 
also acted as mone\ T -lenders, both on a small 
and a large scale. Finally, they received 
money on deposit. People placed their 
money with them partly for safe custody, 
partly to facilitate the management of it. 
The depositors, according to their conven- 
ience, either drew out sums of money them- 
selves, or commissioned their banker to 
make payments to a third person. In this 
line the business of the banks was con- 
siderable. If a citizen had a large sum of 
money circulating in business, he probably 
preferred to put it in a bank, and to hand 
over to the banker the business of making 
his payments. Strangers too found that the 
banks offered them such facilities that they 
were glad to make considerable use of them. 
The bankers kept strict accounts of all the 
monies in their charge. If a person were 
making a payment to another who was a 
depositor at the same bank, the banker 
would simply transfer the requisite sum 
from one account to the other. The bankers 




were generally well known from the public 
character of their occupation, and they 
naturally gained great experience in busi- 
ness. Consequently their advice and as- 
sistance were often asked for in the ordinary 
affairs of life. They would be called in 
to attest the conclusion of contiacts, and 
would take charge of sums of money, the 
title to which was disputed, and of im- 
portant documents. Business of this kind 
was generally in the hands of resident 
aliens. We hear, in isolated instances, of 
State-banks. But this business was carried 
on in the vast majority of cases by the 
great sanctuaries, such as those of Delphi, 
Delos, Ephesus, and Samos, which were 
much used as banks for loans and deposits, 
both by individuals and governments. 

The Romans had, in some exceptional 
cases, State-banks under the superintendence 
of public officials. The nummidaril and 
argentarii occupied the same position among 
them as the trapezitw among the Greeks. 
The tabcrnce argentarioe, or banks, were set 
up in the forum, especially about or under 
the three arched buildings called Icinl. 
The nwnmularii had a two- fold function. 
(1 1 They were officers of the mint, charged 
with assaying new coins, holding a bank 
(mensa) for putting new coins into circula- 
tion, taking old or foreign coinage into 
currency, and testing the genuineness of 
money on occasion of payments being made. 
(2) They carried on the business of exchange 
on their own account, at the same time 
acting as argentarii. In other words, they 
received money on deposit, put out capital 
at interest for their clients, got in outstand- 
ing debts, made payments, executed sales, 
especially auctions of property left to be 
disposed of by will, lent money or negotiated 
loans, and executed payments in foreign 
places by reference to bankers there. The 
argentarii and nummularii were alike 
subject to the superintendence of the state 
authorities. In Rome they were responsible 
to the Pr&fectiis Urbi. in the provinces to 
the governors. They were legally bound 
to keep their books with strict accuracv. 
The books were of three kinds: (a) the 
cSd\ x accepti et expensi, or cash book, in 
which receipts and payments were entered, 
with the date, the person's name, and the 
occasion of the transaction; (b) the liber 
rdiionum, in which every client had a j 
special page setting out his debit and credit 
account ; and (c) the adversaria, or diary 
for the entry of business still in hand. In 
cases of dispute these books had to be pro- j 

duced for purposes of legal proof. The 
Roman bankers, like the Greek, usually 
managed payments from one client to 
another by alteration of the respective 

Barbarians. Barbarosvras originally the 
Greek epithet for a people speaking any 
language but Greek. It was not until after 
the Persian wars that the word began to 
carry with it associations of hatred and 
contempt, and to imply vulgarity and want 
of cultivation. The national feeling of the 
Greeks had then risen to such intensity, 
that they deemed themselves above all 
other peoples in gifts and culture, and 
looked down upon them with a sense of 

The Romans were originally, like other 
non-Hellenic peoples, included by the 
Greeks under the name of barbaroi. But 
after the conquest of Greece, and the trans- 
ference of Hellenic art and culture to Rome, 
the Romans took up the same position as 
the Greeks before them, and designated as 
barbarians all the nations who differed in 
language and manners from the Graecc- 
Roman world. 

Basil (Gr. Bdsileios, Latin Basillus), 
surnamed the Great, of Csesarea in Cappa- 
docia. He was born of a noble family in 
329 A.D., was educated in rhetoric at Athens 
by Libanius and Himerius, and subsequently 
took up the profession of advocate. But it 
was not long before he dedicated himself to 
the service of the Church. He distinguished 
himself especially by his resistance to Ari- 
anism, and the measures he adopted for 
regulating the monastic system. He died, 
the bishop of his native city, in A.D. 379. 
Besides his writings on points of doctrine, 
we have an address by him to young men 
on the uses of Greek literature, the study 
of which he earnestly recommended, in 
opposition to the prejudices of many Chris- 
tians. He has also left a collection of four 
hundred letters, which are models in their 
way. Among them are those addressed to 
Libanius, his pagan instructor. 

Basiletis. The Greek word for king. On 
the Archon Basileus see Archoxtes. The 
name was also given to the toast-master in 
a drinking-bout. (See Meals.) 

Basilica (Gr. basilike or "King's 
House "). A state-building, used by the 
Romans as a hall of justice and a public 
meeting-place. The earliest basilica built 
at Rome was called the basilica Porcia, 
after the famous M. Porcius Cato Censorius, 
who built it in B.C. 184, probably on the 

i: \ lll;\\ 


model "I i ha 8Ua BatileiOt oolon 

\iliiii;. It itood 111 the Forum 

i in- t 'iinn. The later be ilii 
boi e i he n una "i i he persona u ho built 
them, Buildings "f the same tv i n< 1 were 

: n 1 1 \ erected in the provinces to serve 

l. ol exchange or courts of justice, 

The form of the basilica was oblong; the 

Interior was a hall, either without any divi- 

or divided by n>\vs of pillars, with a 
main nave, and two or sometimes four Bide- 
iiisli>s. Galleries for apeotators were often 
added oIkwc. li the basilica was used as a 




• • a • e o o 



hall of justice, a space, usually in the form 
ot' a large semicircular niche, and containing 

a tribunal, was set up at the end of the 
nave for the accommodation of the court. 
After the time of Constantino the Great, of 
whose great basilica, with its nave and 
two aisles, magnificent ruins still remain, 
many basilicas were turned into Christian 
churches, and many churches were built 
upon the same plan. (The annexed cut 
gives the plan of the basilica at Pompeii. 
8> i also Architecture, fig. 11.) 

Basterna. See Litters. 

Baths. Warm baths were for a long 
time only used by the Greeks for exceptional 
purposes, to take them too often being re- 
garded as a mark of effeminacy. It was 
only after the introduction of artificial 
bathing-places, public and private (bald win i 
that they came into fashion, especially before 
meals. Such baths were often attached to 
the gymnasia. The Greeks, however, never 
attained, in this matter, to the luxury of the 
Romans under the Empire. To take a hot 
dry air-bath, in order to promote perspira- 
tion, followed by a cold bath, was a peculiar 
fashion of the Lacedaemonians. The ancient 
custom at Rome was to take a bath every 
week in the lavatrlna or wash-house near 
the kitchen. But after the Second Punic War 
bathing establishments on the Greek model 
made their appearance, and the afternoon 
hour between two and three was given up 
to the bath, which, with gymnastics, came 

to be important 

ings of the day. The publii bal 
under the aupei intei i lilea. 

A small fee balm dth um I for their 

i quadrant about halt a farthing 

t ten, and rather more for women. 

Children were admitted free, The b 

\\ a i" ii i '-' p hi. till but 

outside i he oitj precincti I hi 
limes lighted up after nightfall. Under the 
Empire the baths became very Luxui 
The splendour of the arrangi n 
ally in private houses, Bteadily increased, 
as did the number of public baths, 17" 
of these were added by Agripps •' 
his aadileship, and in the Ltfa century A.D, 
the number was reckoned at 962 in the city 
of Rome alone. From the time of Agrippa 
we find tin rum- or hot baths, fitted ii]> in 
the style of those attached to the Greek 
gymnasia, in use in Rome, Italy, and the 
provinces. No provincial town was with- 
out its baths; indeed they were found in 
many villages, as is proved by the remains 
scattered over the whole extent of the 
Roman empire. 

The baths of later times consisted of at 
least three chambers, each with separate 
compartments for the two sexes. (1) The 
tepiddrium, a room heated with warm air, 
intended to promote perspiration after un- 
dressing; (2) the calddrium, where the hot 
bath was taken in a tub [Solium* or basin 
(piscina); (3) the frtgfdarium, where the 
final cold bath was taken. After this the 
skin was scraped with a strigilis, rubbed 
down with a linen cloth, and anointed with 
oil. This took place either in the tepi- 
darium or in special apartments, which 
were often provided in larger establishments, 
as were rooms for dressing and undressing. 
Round the basin ran a passage, with seats 
for the visitors. The Laconian or dry air- 
bath was a luxury sometimes, but not neces- 
sarily, provided. The heating was managed 
by means of a great furnace, placed between 
the men's and the women's baths. Imme- 
diately adjoining it were the caldaria, then 
came the tepidaria and the frigidavium. 
Over the furnace were fixed a cold-water, 
warm-water, and hot-water cistern, from 
which the water was conducted into the 
bath-rooms. The caldaria and tepidaria 
were warmed with hot air. The heat was 
conducted from the furnace into a hollow 
receptacle under the. floor, about two feet 
in height (suspensura, hypoeaustitm . and 
thence by means of flues between the double 



The Romans were so fond 
of the bath that if the em- 
peror or a rich citizen pre- 
sented the people with a free 
bath for a day, a longer 
period, or in perpetuity, he 
won the credit of exceptional 
liberality. It was not un- 
common for a person to 
leave a sum of money in 
his will for defraying the 
costs of bathing. Some 
towns applied their public 
funds for this purpose. 

The accompanying cuts 
give the ground-plan of the 
hot baths at Pompeii, and of 
a private Roman bath found 
at Caerwent (Venta Silu- 
rwm) in South Wales. (For 
a restoration of the Baths 
of Caracalla, see Architec- 
ture, fig. 13.) 

a, a, a. Women's Bath. 

b, b. Men's Bath. 

c, c, c. Colonnade. 

d, d, d, d, d. Single Baths. 

e, e. Entrance to Women's Bath. 

f, Side Entrance. 

g, g. Waiting Room?, 
h, h. b. Shops, 
i. Chief Entrance, 
fc, fc. Heating Apparatus, 
i. Porticns. 


a. Entrance. 

b, b. Pipes. 

e. Warm Bath. 

d. Furnace-room. 

e. Stove. 

/. Cold Bath. 



(O. Morgan, Archa>ologia, xxvi 2, p. 432, pi. 36.) 

Batrachomyomachia. The Battle of the 
Frogs and the Mice. This was the title of 
an epic poem falsely bearing the name of 
Homer. It was a parody of the Iliad, and 
was probably written by Pigres. (See 
Homer 1, end.) 

Baucis. See Philemon 2. 

Beds (Gk. kline, Lat. lectus). The 
Greek and Latin words were applied not 
only to beds in the proper sense of the 

(1) Millingen, Peintures d. Vases grccs, pi. ix. 

(2) Micali, Monumenti Inediti, tav. xxiii. 

(3) Stackelberg, Graber d. Hellenen, Taf. xxvi. 

(4) Lenormant et De Witte. Montim. ciramogr. H 
pi. xxxiii A. 



i.i in. Ihii to any kind "I OOUCh, U, fm ill 

., to tin used hi meal 

Tkici imi u or for i sading and wi 
Tin- Frame rested on fotu feet, and 

times had nosupporl at all, sometj a one 

for the bead, someti t oas at each 

end for head and bet, a timi 

the side. It was made of wood orhronse, 
and was usually richly adorned on the 
parts exposi d to \ iev , I E oi \\ ood, I hi Be 
ornaments would consist of inlaid work 
hi fine metal, ivory, tortoisesheU. amber, 
and rare ooloured w oods : if i 
they would be aoulpturea in relief. Tho 
mattress i lk.kntphall6n t tylt ton, Lat. Writs, 
culclta) was supported on girths stretched 
across the Frame, and was stuffed with 
vegetable fibre, woollen flock, or feathers, 
and covered with linen, wool, or leather. 
Cushions were added to support the head or 
elbow (Gk. proskSphdlaiOn, Lat. pulvznus 
or ii rr/i ill . Coverings for the sleeper 
were spread over the mat trass, which in 
wealthy houses would bo dyed purple, or 
adorned with patterns and embroider}'. If 
the bed was high, it would have a foot- 
stool attached. At Pompeii couches have 
often been found built up in the niches 
of the sleeping apartments. (For various 
forms of Greek bedsteads, see the engrav- 
ings. Cji. Fulcra. 

Bellerophon or Bellerophontes. Son of 
Glaucus of Corinth (or according to another 
account, of Poseidon), and grandson of 
Sisyphus. His proper name is said to have 
been Hipponoes: the name Bellerophon tes 
implies that he was the slayer of some now 
unknown monster. In later times his name 
was wrongly explained as the slayer of a 
certain Corinthian, Belleros, on account of 
which he was supposed to have fled to 
Prtetus at Tiryns, or (as Homer has it) at 
Corinth. The wife of Proetus, Anteia (or 
Sthenebcea), falls in love with the beautiful 
youth: he is deaf to her entreaties: she 
slanders him to her husband, who resolves 
on his destruction. He sends Bellerophon 
to Lycia, to his father-in-law Iobates, with 
a tablet in cypher, begging him to put the 
bearer to death. Iobates first commissions 
Bellerophon to destroy the fire-breathing 
monster Chiinrera, a task which he executes 
with the help of his winged horse Pegasus 
» i Pegasus). Thereupon, after a tierce 
battle, he. conquers the Solfmi and the Ama- 
zons, on his return slays an ambush of the 
boldest among the Lycians, and Iobates now 
recognises his divine origin, keeps him with 
him, and gives him the half of his kingdom, 

and In., daughter to wife, The ohildn 
this mai ii... . ire ] 1 1 1. i . i,n jpp ilocbus, the 

father of Gl I and the 

mother of SarpfidOn bj Z a 

ophon was bated by all the 
... audi i. .I aboul alone, devoui ing bis hi si I 
in sorrow. His son tsander « as kill 
Ares in battle against the Bolymi, while 
' . i a in was sacrificed to the wrath ol 

Artfimi i. This is the] [< ii'' version : but, 

according to Pindar, Bellerophon'e b 



(From a moral painting, Pompeii.) 

tune made him so overweening that he 
wished to mount to heaven on Pegasus ; but 
Zeus drove the horse wild with a gadfly, 
and Bellerophon fell and came to a miser- 
able end. He was honoured as a hero in 
Corinth, an enclosure being consecrated to 
him in the cypress grove of Craneion. 

Bellona. (1) The Roman goddess of 
war. An old Italian divinity, probably of 
Sabine origin. She was supposed to be 
wife or sister of Mars, and was identified 
with the Greek Enyo. Her temple, which 
was situated in the Campus Martins, outside 
the old pomerium, was used for meetings of 
the senate when it was dealing with the 
ambassadors of foreign nations, or Roman 
generals who claimed a triumph on their 
return from war. It must be remembered 




From a Roman sepulchral 

relief (Guigniant, Nouv. Gall. 

Mijth., p. 120, 368 b.) 

that under such circumstances a general 
might not enter the city. The pillar of war 
(( 'alumna Bellica) stood hard by. It was 
from this, as representing the boundary of 
the enemy's territory, that the Fetidlis 
threw his lance on declaring war. 

(2) Quite a different goddessisthe Bellona 
whom the Roman government brought from 
Comana in Cappadocia towards the begin- 
ning of the 1st 
century B.C., dur- 
ing the Mithridatic 
war. This Bellona 
was worshipped in 
a different locality, 
and with a service 
conducted by Cap- 
padocian priests 
and priestesses. 
These Bellondrii 
(such was their 
name) moved 
through the city 
in procession at 
the festivals of the 
goddess in black 
raiment, and shed 
their blood at the 
sacrifice, wounding 
themselves for the 
purpose in the arms and loins with a two- 
edged axe, and prophesying amid a wild 
noise of drums and trumpets. . 

Belus. Son of Lib3'a, granddaughter of 
Io and Poseidon. Father of iEgyptus, 
Danaiis, Cepheus, and Phlneus. 

Bendis. A goddess of the moon among 
the Thracians. She was invested with 
power over heaven and earth, and identified 
by the Greeks with Artemis, Hecate, and 
Persephone. The worship of this goddess 
was introduced into Attica by Thracian 
aliens ; and was so popular that in Plato's 
time it became a state ceremonial at 
Athens. A public festival was instituted 
called the Bendideia, at which there were 
torch-races and a solemn procession of 
Athenians and Thracians at the Piraeus. 

Berosus. A Greek writer, born in 
Bithynia, and a priest of Belus. He lived 
as early as the time of Alexander the Great, 
and about B.C. 280 wrote a work, dedi- 
cated to king Antiochus Soter, on Babylo- 
nian history, in three books (Babylonica 
or Chaldatea). The work must have been 
of great value, as it was founded on ancient 
priestly chronicles preserved in the temple 
of Belus at Babylon. Its importance as an 
authority for the ancient history of Asia 

is fully attested by the fragments that 
remain, in spite of their scanty number 
and disordered arrangement. 

Bestiarii. See Circus. 

Bias. See Adrastus and Melampus. 

Bibliopola. See Book-trade. 

Bidental {Roman). A consecrated spol 
where lightning had passed into the ground. 
(See Puteal.) 

Bidyae (Spartan). See Education. 

Bigse. Sec Circus, Games of. 

Bik6s (Greek.) See Vessels. 

Bion. A Greek bucolic poet, who flour- 
ished in the second half of the 2nd cen- 
tury B.C. He lived mostly in Sicily, where 
he is said to have died by poison. Besides 
a number of minor poems from his hand, we 
have a long descriptive epic called The 
Dirge of Adonis. His stjde is more remark- 
able for grace than for power or simplicity. 

Bdedromia. A festival held at Athens 
in honour of Apollo Bocd rondos, the god 
who gave aid in battle. It was celebrated 
on the 6th da}' of the month Boedromion, 
so named after the god (September-Octo- 
ber). The origin of the festival was traced 
back in antiquity to the victory of Ion over 
Eumolpus, or to that of Theseus over the 
Amazons. After 490 B.C. it was converted 
into a commemoration of the battle of 

Bceotarchi. The highest officials of the 
Bceotian confederacy, two of whom were 
always chosen by Thebes, as the chief town 
in it, and one by each of the other towns. 
They held the post only for a year, but were 
capable of re-election in successive years. 
Their chief duties were to command the 
ti oops of the confederacy in time of war, 
and execute the decrees of its council. 

Boethius (AnTcius Mardius Torqudtus 
Severlnus). Boethius was born in Rome, 
about 475 a.d., and belonged to the dis- 
tinguished family of the Anicii, who had 
for some time been Christians. Having 
been left an orphan in his childhood, he 
was taken in his tenth year to Athens, 
where he remained eighteen years and ac- 
quired a stock of knowledge far beyond 
the average. After his return to Rome, 
he was held in high esteem among his con- 
temporaries for his learning and eloquence. 
He attracted the attention of Theodoric, 
who in 510 a.d. made him consul, and, in 
spite of his patriotic and independent atti- 
tude, gave him a prominent share in the 
government. The trial of the consul Al- 
blnus, however, brought with it the ruin 
of Boethius. Albinus was accused of main- 

BONA hi. \ 



taining ft Moral understanding with the 

atine court) and Boethiui si I an 

boldly in his defence, declaring thai if 
Albums mi guilty, to ni he and the 
whole Mi'iiiuo with him. Thai involved in 
the seme oharge, he was Bentenoed to death 
by the cowardly assembly whose can ■ he 
n ui represented. II" was thrown i 1 1 1 < • 
prison al Pavia, and executed in .">•_'.">. 

The mosl famous work of Boethins, his 

Consolation of Philosophy, was written in 

ii. li was much read in the Middle 

Ages, and translated into every | » >ssiblo 

lingo. Tlio hook is thrown partly into 

the form of a dialogue, in which the inter- 
locutors are the author, and PhUoaBphia, 
who appears to him to console him. As in 
tlir Menippean BdtHra (see Satuba), the 

narrative' is relieved by the occasional in- 
sertion of musical versos in various metres. 
The consolatory arguments are strictly 

Boethins was at great pains to make Greek 
learning accessible to his contemporaries, 
by means of translations of, and commen- 
taries upon, Greek books on philosophy, 
mathematics, rhetoric, and grammar. For 
this the following ages were much indebted 
to him. His writings, which were used as 
manuals throughout the Middle Ages, were 
the main storehouse of secular knowledge 
during that period. This is eminently true 
of bis numerous philosophical works, and 
especially of his translations of Aristotle, 
which exercised immense influence upon 
the scholastic philosophy. 

Bona Dea (" the good goddess "). An 
Italian deity, supposed to preside over the 
earth, and all the blessings which spring 
from it. She was also the patron goddess 
of chastity and fruitfulness in women. The 
names Fauna, Maia, and Ops, were origin- 
ally no more than varying appellations given 
by the priests to the Bona Dea. She is 
represented in works of art with a sceptre 
in her left hand, a wreath of vine leaves on 
her head, and a jar of wine at her side. 
Near her image was a consecrated serpent ; 
indeed a number of tame serpents were kept 
in her temple, which was situated in Rome 
on the slope of the Aventine. All kinds of 
healing plants were preserved in her sanc- 
tuary. She was regarded in Rome as an 
austere virgin goddess, whose temple men 
were forbidden to enter. She belonged, 
accordingly, to the circle of deities who 
were worshipped by the Vestal Virgins. 
The anniversary of the foundation of her 
temple was held on the 1st of May, when 

D. C. A. 

pnyi i ■ d up to her for the 

averting "i earthquakes. B 

ival was held tO I" i "ii li"h ill "I 

the public welfare, is the house of the 

officiating consul or prsstoi of the city, by 

ns and the Vestal Virgins, on the 

night of May B -i. The mi the 

hon e presided. No nun was allowed 

<ii at this celebration, or even to hear 
th" name of tin- goddi r ottering 

ifioe of sucking pigs, the women 
formed a danoe, accompanied by stringed 
and wind instruments. Under the Empire 
the festival degenerated into a rn\ 
I'l tnance of extravagant character. 

Bdnorum emptlo. The technical term in 
Roman jurisprudence for the seizure of 
goods. If a man sentenced to pay a certain 
sum did not perform his obligation within 
thirty days, the creditor obtained permis- 
sion from the prsetor to attach his goods. 
Aft i r a renewed respite of thirty days the 
sale followed by auction to the highest 
bidder, the intending purchaser bidding for 
the whole property, with its assets and 
liabilities. The former proprietor might 
intervene and promise payment at any 
time before the fall of the hammer. The 
property once knocked down to him, the 
buyer became the absolute owner. A per- 
son against whom these proceedings were 
taken incurred infamia. 

Bdnus Eventus. See Eventus. 

Books and Book-trade. The Greeks were 
early familiar with the practice of multiply- 
ing copies of books by transcription, either 
to private order or for pubbc sale. As far 
back as the 5th century B.C. the Athenians 
had a special place in their market-place for 
selling books, and it is clearly established 
that a regular book-fair existed at Athens 
by about 300 B.C. In Rome, towards the 
end of the republican age, the business 
of copying books and the book-trade in 
general developed on a large scale, and it 
became a fashionable thing to possess a 
library. The book-trade, in the proper sense 
of the term, owes its existence to Atticus, 
the well-known friend of Cicero. He kept 
a number of slaves skilled in shorthand and 
calligraphy (librdrli), whom he set to copy 
a number of Cicero's writings, which he then 
disposed of at a considerable profit in Italy 
and Greece. His example was soon fol- 
lowed, especially as the interest in new 
literary productions, and the love of reading, 
greatly increased after the time of Augustus. 

To facilitate the appearance of a great 
number of copies at the same time, the 



scribes were often set to write from dicta- 
tion. Much use was made of the abbrevia- 
tions nwtm) invented by Tiro, the freedman 
of Cicero. The binding was done, as well 
as the writing, by the librarii • and as the 
brittle papyrus was the usual material, the 
book was generally made up in the form of 
a roll (see Writing Materials). The 
ends of the roll were strengthened with 
thin strips of bone or wood, which were 
either provided at top and bottom with a 
knob {umbilicus), or finished off in the 
shape of a horn. Previously to this, the 
upper and lower edges were carefully clip- 
ped, smoothed with pumice-stone, and tinted 
with black. To protect it from moths and 
worms, the roll was dipped in cedar oil, 
which gave it a yellowish tinge. The title 
of the work (titiilus or index) was written 
in red on a strip of parchment attached to 
the end of the roll. Expensive copies, 
especially in the case of poems, had a gilt 
umbilicus, as well as a parchment cover of 
purple colour. The books were then ex- 
posed for sale in the bookseller's shops, and 
sold at what appear, considering the cir- 
cumstances, reasonable prices. The book- 
sellers were called librarii or bibliopolo? ; 
their shops were situated in the most fre- 
quented parts of the city, and much used, 
both as reading-rooms and rendezvous for 
learned discussion. As a general rule there 
was a good sale for books, especially such 
as had won popularity before publication in 
the public recitations (see Recitations). 
Books were also much bought in the pro- 
vinces, whose inhabitants were anxious to 
keep abreast with the intellectual life of 
the capital. Even works which were little 
thought of in Rome sometimes found an 
easy sale in other parts of the empire. It 
does not appear that the author received 
any honorarium from the publisher. 1 

Boreas. In Greek mythology, the North 
Wind, son of Astraea and Eos, brother of 
Zephyrus, Eurus, and Notus. His home 
was in the Thracian Salmydessus, on the 
Black Sea, whither he carried Orithyia 
from the games on the Ilissus, when her 
father, Erechtheus king of Athens, had re- 
fused her to him in marrage. Their chil- 
dren were Calais and Zetes, the so-called 
Boredda?, Cleopatra, the wife of Phineus, 
and Chione, the beloved of Poseidon (see 
Eumolpus). It was this relationship which 
was referred to in the oracle given to the 
Athenians, when the fleet of Xerxes was 
approaching, that " they should call upon 
their brother-in-law/' Boreas answered their 

prayer and sacrifice by destroying a part 
of the enemy's fleet on the promontory of 
Sepias ; whereupon they built him an altar 
on the banks of the Ilissus. 

Boule or Bule (" Council"). The Council 
instituted at Athens by Solon consisted of 
400 members (bouleutai), 100 being taken 
from each of the four Ionic tribes (phylai). 
By Cleisthenes the number was increased to 
500, 50 being taken from each of the ten 
newly constituted tribes, and chosen by lot; 
whereas up to his time the councillors had 
been elected from the number of candidates 
who offered themselves for the position. In 
306 B.C. two new tribes were added, and the 
number of the council was accordingly in- 
creased to 600, at which figure it remained, 
with some variations, down to the times of 
the Roman empire. But in the 2nd century 
a.d. it again fell to 500. In ancient times 
no one was eligible as a councillor who did 
not belong to one of the three wealthiest 
classes ; but after the time of Aristldes the 
position was open to any free Athenian of 
thirty years of age, and in possession of full 
civic rights. In choosing councillors by lot, 
two candidates were presented for each 
vacancy. The same person might hold the 
office several times, though not for two 
years in succession. Every councillor had 
to take a special oath, strictly formulated, 
on entering the Boule. At the meetings of 
the Council its members wore myrtle crowns 
as insignia of their office. They had the 
further privilege of a place of honour at 
the festivals, and were excused, during their 
term of office, from military service. They 
also received a payment of five obols (nearly 
Id.) for every sitting they attended. Their 
place of meeting was called the boule v- 
terion ("council-chamber"); here they met 
every day except on public holidays, each 
member having his numbered seat. \\ hen 
assembled, the Council was divided into ten 
sections of 50 members each, each represent- 
ing one of the tribes. These sections were 
called Pnjtdneis ("Presidents"), and offici- 
ated in succession, as arranged at the be- 
ginning of each year, for 35-36 days, or in 
leap-years for 38-39. This period was 
called a Pri/taneia, and during its continu- 
ance the prytaneis for the time being pre- 
sided over the full sittings of the Council 
and of the public assembly. At other times 
thev remained the whole day at their office 
(ThSlos or " dome ") near the council-cham- 
ber, where they usually dined at the ex- 
pense of the State. A president (Epistdtes) 
was chosen every day by lot from among the 

1 Cp. Marquardt, Privatleben der Romer, p. 829, ed. IS 



prytatM it b >M in. hi in the < kranoil 

.iii.l • be public assembly, t.. keep the !*■ 
the fortress and the archives, and the 

From B78 B.O. the presidency "f 
i in- pnblio ami uiiily was committed to a 
I ohairman, elected from among the 
Dine protdroi ("presidents"), who were 
oho* u bj lot by the epistatea of the pry- 
tanrit from the remaining nine tribes at 
. aoh sitting of the i kranoil. 

The tii >t duty of the Council was to pre- 
pare all the measures which were to come 
e tin' public assembly, anil to draw up 
.1 preliminary deoree prdboxdeuma). \< 

OOItlingly it was its business tn receive the 

reports of the generals and of foreign am- 
bassadors. Foreign affairs always stoo. 1 . 
tirst in the order of daily business. Besides 
this, the Council exercised a general superin- 
tendence over all public business, ami 
illy ever the financial administration. 
ft gave the authority for the farming of the 

. contracts for public works, sales oj 

confiscated property, for adopting new 
lines of expenditure or modes of raising 
income, for arresting tax-gatherers and tax- 
farmers if they fell into arrear. The 
-urers of the temples were also re- 
sponsible to it. The cavalry and the navy 
were placed under its special supervision, 
and it had, in particular, to see that a 
certain number of new ships of war was 
built every year. It examined the quali- 
fications of the newly elected archons. In 
many cases it acted as a court of justice, 
and had the power of inflicting tines up to 
the amount of 5<X> drachma (,£16 13s. id.). 
But more serious cases it had to pass on to 
the Heluistai, or to the public assembly see 
Heliastai . The assembly would sometimes 
entrust the Council with absolute power to 
deal with cases which, strictly speaking, 
lay outside its jurisdiction. The decrees 
passed by the Council on matters affecting 
the public administration ceased to be bind- 
ing on the expiration of its year of office, in 
case they were not adopted bv its successors 
[Aristotle, Const, of Athens, 43-49]. 

The voting took place by show of hands 
(cheirStdnia : voting pebbles and other de- 
vices being only used for judicial decisions. 
Private citizens could transact business with 
the Council only after previous application 
for an audience, generally made in writing. 
The official correspondence was transacted 
by three secretaries (called gramm&teis or 
■• writers ") appointed from among the mem- 
bers, and assisted by a number of subordi- 
nate functionaries. 

Bouleuterlou. 8et Boi 
Bows. (Gr. toxOn I •■ i 
kinds of l>ow wen- known to antiquity, One 
consisted of the t wo horni ol ■ kind of ante- 
lope, or an arm of wood shaped 1 i U • - them 
joined together bya bridge winch served 

both as a hold for the hand and as a rest 
fur the arrow The siiihl'. made "f plaited 

hair or twisted ox-gut. was fastened 
h end i lig. 1). The other, called thi 
Scythian or Parthian bow, was made of a 
piece of elastic wood, the ends of which 
were tipped with metal, and bent slightly 
upwards to bold the string (fig. 2). Tin 
arrow (Gk. oistOs, or toxeuma, Lat. 
tagitta) was made of a stem of reed or 




(2) From Museum If mlffr., pt. 23 L. 


(-4) Museo Pio Clementino, 
IV tav. xliii. 


light wood, one end furnished with a three- 
cornered point, sometimes simple and some- 
times barbed; the other end with feathers. 
A notch in tb.3 shaft served to place it on 
the string. The arrows (and sometimes the 
bow were kept in a quiver (phdretra) made 
of leather, wood, or metal, fitted with a 
suspender, and sometimes open, sometimes 
having a lid. The quiver was worn either 
on the back, according to the Greek manner, 
or in Oriental fashion, on the left hip. The 
Cretans had the reputation of being the 
best archers among the Greeks. They 
generally served among the light-armed 
auxiliaries as a special corps. Mounted 



bowmen were employed by the ancient 

Athenians (see Hippeis) ; but it was not 
until after the Punic wars that archers 
formed a regular part of the Roman arnry. 
They were then furnished by the allies, or 
rawed by recruiting, and were mostly taken 
from Crete and the Balearic Islands. 

Brauronia. See Artemis. 

Briareus. See He atoxcheiroi. 

Briseis. The favourite slave of Achilles. 
Agamemnon took her from him, and thus 
kindled the wrath of the hero, to the ruin 
of the Greeks. (See Trojan War.) 

Britomartis (" sweet maid "). A Cretan 
goddess, supposed to dispense happiness, 
whose worship extended throughout the 
islands and along the coasts of the Mediter 
ranean. Like Artemis, with whom she 
was sometimes identified, she was the 
patroness of hunters, fishermen and sailors, 
and also a goddess of birth and of health. 
Her sphere was Nature, in its greatness and 
its freedom. As goddess of the sea she bore 
the name of Dictynna, the supposed deriva- 
tion of which from the Greek diktyon (" a 
net ") was explained by the following 
legend. She was the daughter of a hun- 
tress, much beloved by Zeus and Artemis. 
Minos loved her, and followed her for nine 
months over valley and mountain, through 
forest and swamp, till he nearly overtook 
her, when she leaped from a high rock into 
the sea. She was saved by falling into 
some nets, and Artemis made her a goddess. 
She would seem originally to have been a 
goddess of the moon, her flight symbolizing 
the revolution of the moon round the earth, 
and her leap into the sea its disappearance. 

Brizo. A goddess localized in Delos, to 
whom women, in particular, paid worship 
as protectress of mariners. Thej T set before 
her eatables of various kinds (fish being 
excluded) in little boats. She also presided 
over an oracle, the answers of which were 
given in dreams to people who consulted it 
on matters relating to fishery and naviga- 

Bromius. See Dionysus. 

Brontes. See Cyclopes. 

Brutus (Marcus Jun ius). The well-known 
friend of Cicero, and murderer of Csesar. 
He was born in 85 B.C., and died by his own 
hand after the battle of Philippi, B.C. 42. 

As an orator and a writer on philosophy 
he held a prominent position among his con- 
temporaries. Two books of correspondence 
between Brutus and Cicero have come down 
to us, the authenticity of which is disputed. 
There is also a collection of seventy letters 

in Greek, purporting to represent correspon- 
dence between Brutus and the Greek cities 

Obv . Head of Brutus: brltis 
muni "R : L. FR-sTTuEIUS ces- 
tianl s (one of his partisans). 

, Cap of Liberty between two 
daggers, ejd. mail. 


From a mural 
painting of gladia- 
tors (Gell and 
Gandy, Pompeiana, 
pi. 75). 

(Cohen, Mid. Cons., pi. xxiv. Junia 16., 

of Asia Minor ; but this is no more than the 
patchwork of a rhetorician. 

Bua, Buagor. See Edu- 

Buclna (properly " a 
cow-horn ") was the name 
of a tin trumpet, shaped 
like a serpent, and blown 
by a trumpeter called 
bucinator. The bucina 
gave the signal called 
classlcum, and also the 
call for relieving guard 
at night. 

Bucolic (or pastoral) 
Poetry. Prom very an- 
cient times it was the 
habit of the Dorian shep- 
herds in Sicily to practise 
a national style of song, the inventor of 
which was supposed to be Daphnis, the hero 
of shepherds (see Daphnis). The subject of 
their song was partly the fate of this hero, 
partly the simple experiences of shepherds' 
life, especially their loves. There was a 
good deal of the mimic element in these 
poems, the shepherds contending with each 
other in alternate verses, particularly at the 
town and country festivals held in honour 
of Artemis. Pastoral poems, relating the 
Story of Daphnis' love and of his tragic 
end, had been written by the Sicilian poet 
Stesichorus (about 600 B.C.). But it was 
Theocritus of Syracuse (about 270 B.C.) who 
developed pastoral poetry into something 
like an epic style, often with a strong 
dramatic tinge. This was in the Alex- 
andrian period, when, as in all over-civilized 
ages, men found pleasure and relief in the 
contrasts afforded by the simple ways of 
country life. Theocritus' sketches of rural 
life, and indeed of the ways of the lower 
orders in general, are true to nature and ex- 
quisitely finished. He called them eidyllia 
or little pictures. Theocritus was unsur- 

Ill I.K 



I 111 lii - on n itj l''. « hioh « as cultivated 
bin by BiOn and Moschus, 

'I'll.- putonl si \ I.' w U ii- ml" 

Latin i tn bj Vergil, who, while closely 

imitating Theocritus, had the taol t" per- 
oeive thai the simple sketohe >■! ancient 
rural life in Sicily given by his m 
would n"i !"• sufficient in s;tii>fy the taste 
of his countrymen. Under the mask of 
shepherds, therefore] he introduced oon 
temporary oharaoten, thus winning 
tion by the expression of his personal feel- 
ings, and by covert allusions to events of the 
day. Two poems falsely attributed to him, 
the Moretum ("Salad") and COpa (" Hos- 
'), are real idylls; true and natural 
studies from low life. Vergil's allegorical 
style was revived in later times by Cal- 
purnius in the age of Nero, and Nemesianus 
at the end of the Brd century a.d. 

Bftle. See BoulS. 

Bulla. A round or heart-shaped box 
containing an amulet, worn round the neck 
by free-born Roman children. The fashion 
was borrowed from the Etrurians. To wear 
a golden bulla was originally a privilege 
of the patricians, which was in later times 
extended to the iquitSs, and generally to 
rich and distinguished families. Leather 
bulla were worn by the children of poor 
families and of freedmen. Boys ceased to 
wear the bulla when they assumed the 
toga virllis. It was then dedicated to the 
l.a re~8 t and hung up over the hearth. Girls 
most probably left it off on marriage. It 
was sometimes put on by adults as a pro- 
tection against the evil eye on special oc- 
casions, as, for instance, on that of a triumph. 
(See Fascinum). 

Buphdnla. See Diipolia. 

Burial. (1) Greek. The Greeks regarded 
the burial of the dead as one of the most 
sacred duties. Its neglect involved an 
offence against the dead ; for, according to 
the popular belief, the soul obtained no 
rest in the realms of the dead, so long as 
tlie body remained unburied. It involved, 
further, an offence against the gods, both 
of the upper and the lower world. The 
unburied corpse was an offence to the 
eyes of the former, while the latter were 
deprived of their due. An)' one finding 
an unburied corpse was expected at least 
to thmw a handful of dust over it. If a 
general neglected to provide for the burial 
of the slain in war, he was deemed guilty 
of a capital offence. Burial of the dead 
■was not refused even to the enemy, whether 
Greek or barbarian. It. was a violation of 

the laws I I 

the tnti : and 

ii the conquered were unable to fulfil the 
duty, the responsibility fell anon the cou- 
querors. There were i ertair circumstances 
under which, according to Athenian law, 
children, during the lifetime of their fal 
were held free from all obligations to them; 
but die obligation to give them burial 
death was never cancelled. 

The usages of the Athenians, and proba- 
bly of the "thor Greeks, were as Colli 
The eyes of the dead having been closed, 
an BbSUfS was put in the mouth as passage- 
s' for Charon. The body was then 
washed and anointed by the women oi the 
family, who proceeded to adorn it with 
fillets and garlands (commonly of ivy), to 
clothe it in white garments, and lay it out 
on a couch in the hall, with its face turned 
to the door. The kinsfolk and friends stood 
by, mourning: but the laws of Solon forbade 
all exaggerated expressions of grief. Hired 
women were sometimes introduced, singing 
dirges to the accompaniment of the flute. 
Near the couch were placed painted earthen- 
ware vases containing the libations to be 
afterwards offered. Before the door was 
a vessel of water, intended for the purifica- 
tion of all who went out. This water might 
not be brought from another house in 
which a dead body lay. The corpse was 
laid out on the day following the death : 
and on the next day before sunrise (lest the 
sun should be polluted by the sight) was 
carried out to the place of burial, attended 
by kinsmen and friends, who sometimes 
acted as bearers. This office, however, was 
usually performed by freedmen or hired 
assistants : in the case of men of mark, it 
would be undertaken by young Athenian 
citizens. The procession was headed by 
men singing songs of mourning, or women 
playing the flute : then came the male 
mourners in garments of black or grey, 
and with hair cut short ; and these were 
followed by the bier. Behind the bier fol- 
lowed a train of women, including all who 
were related to the dead as far as to the 
fifth degree. No other women might attend 
but those who were more than sixty years 
of age. 

In the heroic age the bodies are always 
burnt, burial being unknown ; but in later 
times burial and burning are found existing 
side by side, burial being preferred by the 
poor on the ground of expense. In case of 
burial, the body was placed in a coffin of 
wood, clay, or stone, or in a chamber in a 



wall, or in a grave hollowed out in a rock. 
If burning was resorted to, the corpse was 
laid on a pyre, which, in the case of rich 
families, was sometimes very large, splendid 
and costly. It was kindled by the nearest 
relative ; the mourners threw into the flame 
locks of hair, and objects of all kinds in 
which the dead person had taken pleasure 
during his life. When the fire was extin- 
guished, the relations collected the ashes and 
put them in an urn. which was set up in a 
building constructed on a scale large enough 
for whole families or clans. So, too, in case 
of burial, the coffins which belonged to one 
fauiil}' or clan were laid together in a 
common tomb. Near the urns and coffins 
were placed a variety of vessels and other 
objects which had been the property of the 
dead. (Comp. fig. 1.) 

The funeral was succeeded by a meal par- 
taken of by the mourners in the house of 
mourning. The virtues of the dead were 

campaigns of the year were sometimes 
buried together at the public expense in the 
outer Ceramlcus, the most beautiful suburb 
of the city. On these occasions a funeral 


(Stackelberg, Graber dcr HeUenen, Taf. vii.) 

spoken of, and his faults passed over, to 
speak evil of the dead being regarded as an 
impiety. Then came the purification of the 
house. On the third, ninth, and thirtieth 
clay after the funeral, libations of hone}', 
wine, oil, and milk or water, with other 
offerings, were brought to the tomb. On 
the ninth day, in particular, peculiar prep- 
arations of food were added. The outward 
signs of mourning were laid aside at Athens 
on the thirtieth, at Sparta as early as the 
twelfth, day after the funeral. The kinsfolk 
visited the graves at certain seasons of the 
year, adorned them with garlands and 
fillets, and brought offerings to them. This 
was done more especially on the anniver- 
saries of births and deaths, and at the 
general festival of the dead (Xekys/a in 
September. (Comp. fig. 2.) 

After the time of Solon, a public burial 
was sometimes given at Athens to men of 
great mark. In time of war, too, the bones 
of all the citizens who had fallen in the 


Prom an Athenian vase (Stackelberg, I.e., Tat zir.) 

oration was delivered by a speaker of mark, 
chosen by the government. In later times 
a memorial festival was observed, even iD 
time of peace, in honour of the dead thus 
publicly buried. A special service was 
held annually at Marathon in memory of 
the heroes who had fallen there, and been 
buried on the spot in recognition of their 
valour. (Comp. fig. 3.) 

The ashes of persons who had died in a 
foreign country were, if possible, brought 
home and laid in a tomb. There were cases 
in which this was impossible, or in which 
the bodj- could not be removed — if, for 
instance, the deceased had been lost at sea. 
Then a krnotdphton, or empty tomb, would 
be erected to his memory. It was only to 
very heinous offenders that a tomb in their 
own country was refused. If a man's guilt 
was proved after his death, his remains 
were disinterred and sent across the fron- 


(Dodwell's Travels in G.eere, ii 160.) 

As a rule— though there were exceptions, 
as at Sparta — burial places were situated 
outside the city, and in the neighbourhood 
of the great roads. This was also the 
favourite place for private tombs standing 

HI l.'l \l.. 

on tlii'ir own ground, ;ip.u i from tin 
moa i'1-MK't ft -i<'>. The bod] was generally 
buried with the EMI turned towards the 

road. af onuments took the foi f mounds, 

tera, oolumna, and Bat gn 

\\ a often Rnd baildinga in the stylo of 

templet, with very costly adornments, 

sculptures, and inscriptions in verse and 

i ptiona i ften give more 

than the name of the deceased, and < - 

tain notices ol his life, sometimes with 
proverbs, sometimes with onrsee din 
against any one violating the tomb and 
disturbing the rest of its occupants. The 
violation of a tomb, which was regarded 
with reverence as a consecrated spot, was 
a serious offence. One of the most aggra- 
vated forms of it was the intrusion into 
the family sepulchre of a body which had 
no right to be there. 

-' Roman. The worship of the dead 
among the Romans had, characteristically 
enough, a legal tinge, and formed a part 
ot' the pontifical law, which regulated the 
place and manner of the interment. The 
theory of the Romans, like that of the 
Greeks, was that there was an obligation 
to bury every dead body, except those of 
felons, suicides, and persons struck by light- 
ning. Any one finding a corpse was ex- 
pected at least to throw some earth upon 
it as a symbol of burial. The first duty of 
a man's survivors was to bury his body ; 
if he died in a foreign country, the act had 
to be performed symbolically. If this duty 
was neglected, the offender incurred a taint 
of guilt from which he had to purify himself 
by an annually repeated atonement. After 
death the eyes and mouth were closed, the 
body bathed in hot water and then anointed, 
fully dressed, and adorned with the fitting 
insignia in case of the deceased having 
held high office. The corpse was then laid 
out on a state-bed in the atrium, the feet 
turned towards the door. Near the bed 
were pans with burning odours, while in 
the vcst'ibiihim branches of pine and cypress 
were put up as signs of mourning. The 
custom of putting a coin in the mouth is 
not mentioned in literature before the im- 
perial period : but the relics found in tombs 
show that it is much older. It was, how- 
ever, only under the Empire that it became 

In ancient times funerals took place after 
nightfall and by torchlight ; and this was 
always the case with second burials, and 
if the deceased was a child, or a person of 
slender means. Hence the use of torches 

ai disc. mi Inusd. aven when tha 
oei emony took plaa I held 

indispt i y Fun ■ d, and became. 

in net, i he aj mbol of bui ial. I he 

i at which funerals took place among 

t he upper classes was tl on of the 

eighth day after death. In the laws of the 
Twelve Tables an attempt was mad 
check ezoess in funeral expensi -. but with 
us lii tli as attended later enactments. 

[f the funeral v. I unusual ceremony, 

the citizens were publicly invited by a 
herald to attend it. The arranges 
were entrusted to a special functionary, 
who was assisted by lictors. The pi 
si. 'ii was headed by a band of wind instru- 
ments, the number of which was limited 
by the Twelve Tables to ten. In ancient 

times, and at has! down ;.. the 1'niiic wars, 

thesemusicians were followed by pn 
female singers, chanting the praises of the 
see Xi.xia). Then came a eompan}- 
of dancers and actors to amuse the specta- 
tors with their antics. Supposing the 
family was ho no rat a, in other words, had 
it had one or more members who had held 
curule offices, and the consequent right of 
setting up masked statues of its forefathers 
in its house, the central point of the cere- 
mony was the procession of ancestors. This 
consisted of persons dressed to represent 
the ancestors in their wax masks, their 
official robes, and other insignia. The in- 
direct lines of relationship were represented 
as well as the direct, Each figure was 
mounted on a high carriage and preceded 
by lictors. The train included memorials 
of the deeds done by the deceased, torch- 
bearers, and lictors with lowered fasc&s. 

The body followed, uncovered, on an ele- 
vated couch : sometimes in a coffin inside the 
bier. A wooden figure, clothed, and wear- 
ing the wax mask representing the dead, 
sat upright beside it in the attitude of life. 
The bearers were usually the sons, relations 
and friends of the deceased ; in the case 
of emperors, they were senators and high 
officials. Behind the bier came the other 
mourners, men and women, the freedmen in 
mourning and without any ornaments. Ar- 
rived at the Forum, the bier was set down 
before the rostrum. The representatives of 
the ancestors sat down on wooden chairs ; 
the rest arranged themselves in a circle 
round, while a son or kinsman ascended the 
rostrum and delivered a panegyric upon the 
dead. If the funeral was a public one, the 
orator was appointed by the senate. In the 
case of deceased ladies such speeches were 



not usual, until the last century of the Re- 
public. After the speech, the procession 
moved on in the same order to the place of 
burial, which, according to the law of the 
Twelve Tables, must be situated outside the 
city. No one could be buried within the 
city but men of illustrious merit, as, for 
instance, generals who had won a triumph, 
and Vestal Virgins. By a special resolu- 
tion of the popular assembly, these persons 
were allowed the honour of burial in the 
Forum. The tombs were in some cases 
situated on family estates, but the greater 
number formed a line extending from the 
gates of the city to some distance along the 
great roads, and especially the Via Appia. 
(Comp. fig. 4.) 

Burial was, among the Romans, the oldest 

mals. The followers threw m a variety of 
gifts as a last remembrance. The pyre was 
then kindled by the nearest kinsman and 
friends, who performed the office with 
averted faces. The ashes were extinguished 
with water or wine, and the procession, after 
saying a last farewell, returned home, while 
the nearest of kin collected the ashes in a 
cloth and buried the severed limb. After 
some days, the dry ashes were put by the 
nearest relations into an urn, which was 
deposited in deep silence in the sepulchral 
chamber, which they entered ungirt and 
bare-footed. After the burial or burning 
there was a funeral feast at the tomb. A 
sacrifice to the Lares purified the family 
and the house from the taint entailed by 
death. The mourning was ended on the 


(Gell and Gandy, Pompeiana, pi. 3.) 

form of disposing of the corpse. In certain 
families (e.g. the gens Cornelia), it long con- 
tinued the exclusive custom. Infant chil- 
dren, and poor people in general, were always 
buried. Even when the body was burnt, 
an old custom prescribed that a limb should 
be cut off and buried, otherwise the family 
was not regarded as having discharged its 
obligations. The body was laid in its tomb 
in full dress, and placed in a special sarco- 
phagus. When the body was to be burnt, 
a pyre was erected on a specified place near 
the grave. The pyre was sometimes made 
in the form of an altar, and adorned in the 
costliest manner. The couch and the body 
were laid upon it, and with them anything 
which the deceased person had used or been 
fond of, sometimes one of his favourite ani- 

ninth day after the burial by a sacrifice 
offered to the Manes of the dead, and a 
meal of eggs, lentils and salt, at which the 
mourning attire was laid aside. It was on 
this day that the games held in honour of 
the dead generally took place. (See Hakes.) 
Everything necessary for the funeral was 
provided by contract by the libitinarii or 
officials of the temple of LJbitina, at which 
a notification was made of all cases of death 
(see Libitixa). There were public burial- 
places, but only for slaves and those wko 
were too poor to buy burial-places for 
themselves. The bodies were thrown pro- 
miscuously into large common graves, called 
puticuli, orwells,on account of their depth. 
There was a burial place of this sort on the 
Esquiline, where the bodies of criminals 

lU-li;i^ (JAOI S. 


thrown i" ili'' dogi and birds, until 
M....I... laid "in his park there, Cheap 
ami promisououa burial was also provided 
by the ao-oalled " do or columbaria, 

■ plaoe in which oonld be purchased bj i" r- 

ol scant] in' u »li kb irii h . 

The gravea ol individuals and families were 
subterranean chambers, or buildings in the 
style "i houses, Freedmen, and probably 

■ Uents ainl friends, were often buried 
with the family. Hie grave was regarded 
by the Romans and Greeks alike as the 
dwelling-place of the dead, ami u 
ingly decked out with every imaginable 
kind of domestic furniture. Ft is to this 
custom thai we owe the preservation of so 
many remains of this sort. The monument 
often had a piece of land, with field and 
garden attached to it, surrounded by a 
wall, and intended to supply flowers, herbs, 

ither things necessary for the decora- 
tion of the tomb and maintenance of the 
attendants. Other buildings would often 
be attached, for burning the corpses, for 
holding the funeral least, and for housing 
the freedmen who had the care of the spot. 
Inscriptions in verse and prose, giving in- 
formation about the dead, would also be 
found there. 

Biisiris. The son of Poseidon and a 
daughter of Epaphus. The Greek mytho- 
logy made him king of Egypt. The land 
was afflicted for nine years with a series of 
bad harvests, and a prophet named Phrasing, 
of Cyprus, advised Busing to sacrifice a 
stranger every year to Zens. The king 

made hi • c i tell i I iotim. When 

I : pi during 

for the apples ol the II' p< rides, hi •'■ 

himself to be bound and 

as a victim. Then he broke I 

slevi Busiris, with hi ad his whole 

fbllovi ing. 

Butes. (1) A Thraoian, the a I U 

His brother Lyoorgns, whose life he had 

mpted, banished him, and he 
the island oi StrongjUe" or Naxos. Finding 

I here no wives for himself and Ids compan- 
ions, he carried otf some women from 
Thessaly, while the}- were celebrating a 
sacrifice to Dionysus. One of these, < Soronis, 
whom he had forced to be his wife, prayed 
to Dionysus for vengeance. The god drove 
him mad, and he threw himself into a well. 
'_' An Athenian hero, son of the Athenian 
Pandlon and Zeuxippe. A tiller of the 
soil, and a neatherd, he was a priest of 
Athene the goddess of the stronghold, and 
of Poseidon Erechtheus, and thus ancestor 
of the priestly caste of the Butadse and 
Etrobutads. He shared an altar in the 
Erechtheum with Poseidon and Hephaestus. 
The later story represented him as the son of 

j Teleon and Zeuxippe, and as taking part in 
the expedition of the Argonauts. 

(3) A Sicilian hero, identified in fable 
with the Athenian Butes. Butes the Argo- 
naut was enticed by the song of the Sirens, 
and leaped into the sea. but was rescued 
and brought to Lilybseum in Sicily, by 
Aphrodite, by whom he became the father 
of Eryx. 

Cabiri (Gr. Kabeiroi). The name of cer- 
tain deities, supposed to represent the bene- 
ficent powers of Nature, and worshipped in 
certain parts of Greece, in Boeotia, for in- 
stance, and in the islands of Imbros, Lemnos 
and Samothrace. Nothing certain is known 
of their real character, or the forms of their 
worship. The name is perhaps Phoenician, 
and, if so, means " the great or mighty 
ones." It would seem that they were 
originally imagined as possessing similar 
powers to those of the Telchlnes, Curetes, 
Corybantes and Dactyli ; and that they 
were confused sometimes with the Dioscuri, 
sometimes with Demeter and Hermes, and 
sometimes (especially in Lemnos) with 
Hephaestus. Their worship was secret. 
The mysteries of the Cabiri of Samothrace 
stood in high consideration during the Mace- 

donian and Roman periods, being regarded, 
indeed, as inferior only to the Eleusinian 
mysteries in sanctity. The initiated were 
supposed to have secured special protection 
against mishaps, especially by sea. 

Cacus (a figure in Italian mythology). A 
fire-spitting giant, the son of Vulcan, who 
lived near the place where Rome was after- 
wards built. When Hercules came into th^- 
neighbourhood with the cattle of Geryon. 
Cacus stole some of them while the hero was 
sleeping. He dragged them backwards into 
his cave tinder a spur of the Aventine, so 
that their footsteps gave no clue to the direc- 
tion in which they had gone. He then closed 
the entrance to the cave with a rock, which 
ten pairs of oxen were unable to move. 
But the lowing of the cattle guided the hero, 
in his search, to the rignt track. He tore 



open the cave, and, after a fearful struggle, 
slew Cacus with his club. Upon this he 
built an altar on the spot to Jupiter, under 
the. title of Pater Inventor ("the discoverer"), 
and sacrificed one of the cattle upon it. The 
inhabitants paid him every honour for free- 
ing them of the monster, and Evander, who 
was instructed by his mother Carmentis in 
the lore of prophecy, saluted him as a god. 
Hercules is then said to have established 
his own religious service, and to have in- 
structed two noble families, the Potitii and 
the Pin&rii, in the usages to be observed 
at the sacrifice. This sacrifice was to be 
offered on the Ara Maxima, which he him- 
self had built on the cattle market {Forum 
Bo&riwm) where the cattle had been pas- 

Cadmus (Gr. Kadmos). (1) Son of Agendr 
king of Phoenicia, and of Telephassa. His 
sister Europa being carried off by Zeus, 
Cadmus, with his brothers Phcenix and 
Cilix, was sent out with the command to 
look for her and not to return without 
her. In the course of his wanderings he 
came to Thrace. Here his mother, who 
had accompanied him so far, breathed her 
last ; and Cadmus applied for counsel to 
the Delphic oracle. He was advised not 
to seek his sister any more, but to follow a 
cow which would meet him, and found a 
city on the spot where she should lie down. 
The cow met him in Phocis, and led him 
into Bceotia. He was intending to sacrifice 
the cow, and had sent his companions to a 
neighbouring spring to bring the necessary 
water, when they were all slain by a ser- 
pent, the offspring of Ares and the Erinys 
Tilphosa, which guarded the spring. After 
a severe struggle, Cadmus destroyed the 
dragon, and, at the command of Athene, 
sowed its teeth over the neighbouring 
ground. A host of armed men sprung up, 
who immediately fought and slew each 
other, all except five. The survivors, who 
were called Spartoi (" sown "), helped Cad- 
mus to build the Cadmea. or the stronghold 
of what was afterwards Thebes, which bore 
his name. They were the ancestors of the 
Theban aristocracy ; and one of them, 
Echion, or " the serpent's son," became the 
husband of Cadmus' daughter Agave. Cad- 
mus did atonement to Ares for eight years 
for the slaughter of the dragon. Then 
Zeus gave him to wife Harmonia, the 
daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, who bore 
him a son Polydorus, and four daughters, 
Autonoe, Ino, Agave, and Semele. {See 
Harmonia and Semele^ Crushed bv the 

terrible doom which weighed upon his 
home, he afterwards sought retirement 
among the Enchelei in Illyria, a country 
which he named after his son Illyrius, who 
was born there. He resigned the kingdom 
to Illyrius ; and then he and his daughter 
Harmonia were changed into serpents, and 
carried by Zeus to Elysium. 

Hermes was worshipped in Samothrace 
as the ancestral god of the inhabitants 
under the name of Cadmus or Cadmilus 
(Kadmtlos) ; and it is therefore natural to 
conjecture that the Theban Cadmus was 
originally an ancestral god of the Theban s, 
corresponding to the Samothracian deity. 
He was regarded as the inventor of agri- 
culture, of working in bronze, and of civili- 
zation in general ; and it is to be remarked 
at the same time that the oldest Greek 
poets know nothing of his migration from 
the East or from Egypt, or of the Phoenician 
origin of Thebes. When once the later 
story of his Phoenician descent had taken 
shape, his name was naturally connected 
with the introduction of the alphabet, for 
which the Greeks well knew that they 
were indebted to the Phoenicians. 

(2) A Greek historian. See Logographi. 

Caduceus. See Hermes (conclusion). 

Cadus. See Vessels. 

Caecilius Statins or Statius Cscilius. A 
writer of Latin comedy. He was a Gaul, 
of the race of the Insubrians, who were 
settled in Upper Italy. He was brought to 
Rome, probably about 194 B.C., as a prisoner 
of war. He was set free by one of the 
Csecilii, became very intimate with Ennius, 
and died not long after him, B.C. 166. It 
was long before he could obtain a footing on 
the stage ; but, this once achieved, he won 
a considerable reputation, and was numbered 
among the masters of his craft. The influ- 
ence of Ennius seems to have been apparent 
in the comparative care and regularity with 
which his pieces were constructed. Cicero, 
however, finds fault with his defective 
Latinity ; and we must therefore infer that, 
being of Gaulish extraction, he never suc- 
ceeded in fully mastering the niceties of 
colloquial Latin. The titles of some forty 
of his plays have survived ; the contents he 
mostly borrowed from Menander. 

Cseirus. (1) Ca;lius Antqnlter ; see 

(2) Marcus Co?lius Rufus, a Roman 
orator, born 82 B.C. He was a man of 
great gifts, but dissolute life, as even his 
advocate Cicero was forced to admit in 
the speech which he made in his defence. 

i'i:m i 

< I \i: 


ll< belonged originally to the party of 

the outiindU s ; bat on il atonal ol 

i lii< Civil War, attached himself to On u 
then, thinking himself slighted bj thi 
latter, he triad, daring hu prsBtorship, 
d -I der in noma I !•■ a 

Jirived of hi offioe bj I be lenate, Bed ft on 
; e, and, in the 3 ear I s b.o,, al tempted 

1 as ite ■ rising in Lower Italy, in which 

be mel u iili a violent death, h cord to 

Cioero, bis strong point as an orator wa- 
ins power of baranguing the ] pie ; in the 

courts be shone stly when on the side 

ol the proseoution. His Btyle was. ii 
Cicero maj be believed, brilliant, dignified, 
and witty. Several of his letters to 1 
are preserved in the eighth book of 
o's EpistAlee ad Familiarfg. They 
constitute an important contribution to the 
history of the timi 

Caeneus (Gr. Kaineus . The son of Elatus 
and Hippla, one of the Laplthss of Gyrtdn 
in Thessaly. The story was thai he was 
originally a girl named Csenis (Kainis), 
whom her lover Poseidon changed, at her 
own request, into a man, and at the same 
time rendered her invulnerable. Caeneus 
took part in tin- Argonautic expedition ami 
the C&lydonian boar-hunt. At the marriage 
of Plrithous, the Contours, finding him in- 
vulnerable, crushed him to death with the 
trunks of trees, and he was afterwards 
changed into a bird. See PntrrHOUS. 

Caesar was for centuries the cognomen of 
the ancient patrician family of the Inlii. 
From the dictator Gains Iulius Cesar it 
passed to his adopted son Octavianus, the 
founder of the Roman empire, and was 
assumed by all the male members of the 
Julian dynasty, including the emperor. 
After this dynasty had died out, all the 
male members of the subsequent dynasties 
assumed it. to show that they belonged to 
the imperial house. But after the death of 
Hadrian in 138 a.d., the title of Caesar was 
only assumed by the princes whom the 
emperors had named as their successors, 
or chosen to be their colleagues in the 

Caesar (Gains Julius). Julius Caesar was 
born in 102 or 100 B.C., and was assas- 
sinated on March 15th, B.C. 44. He was 
famous no less as an orator and writer 
than as a general and statesman. Endowed 
with extraordinary natural gifts, he re- 
ceived a careful education under the super- 
intendence of his mother Aurelia. In B.C. 
77 he came forward as the public accuser of 
Dolabella, and entered the lists against the 

moat celebrated adi 

and Bortensiua, Prom that time his fame 
■ ttablished as ' bat ■■> an a 1 

thu lii st 1 .ml.. 

The i.i' ult iea of whi< h be had 
evidence be cultivated to their hi 

point under the tuiti 1 the rhetoi 

ttOlfi in Rhodes, and at tained bui b 


(Naples, Museum.) 

that his contemporaries regarded him as 
an orator second only to Cicero. Indeed, 
Cicero himself fully recognizes his genius, 
awarding especial praise to the elegance 
and purity of his Latin. Csesar, however, 
left but few speeches in a finished state, 
and these have not come down to us. A 
number of writings give evidence of the 



many-sidedness of his genius and literary 
activity, but these are also lost. There 
were poems, which never attained much 
reputation, including, besides boyish effu- 
sions, some verses on his journey to Spain 
in B.C. 46. A treatise on Latin accidence, 
dedicated to Cicero, and entitled De 
Analogid. was written during his march 
across the Alps to his army in Gaul. The 
Anticatoncs, composed in his Spanish camp 
before the battle of Munda in B.C. 45, was 
a reply to Cicero's panegyric on Cato of 
Utlea. A treatise on astronomy, De Astris, 
had probably some connection with the 
reform of the calendar introduced by him, 
as Pontif\:r Maxvmus, in B.C. 45. His 
two great works have, however, survived. 
These are his Commentdrii de Bello 
Gallico, 58-52 B.C., in seven books, and his 
Commentarii de Bello Clvlli, 49-48 B.C., 
in three books. The former was written 
down rapidly, at the end of 52 and begin- 
ning of 51, in his winter quarters before 
Bibracte. The latter was probabl}- com- 
posed in Spain after the conquest of the 
Pompeians in 45. 

The history of the Gallic War was com- 
pleted after Ca?sar"s death by Aulas Hirtins. 
This writer added an eighth book, which 
included the last rising of the Gauls in 51, 
and the events of the year 50 which pre- 
ceded the Civil War. The book, as we now 
have it, is unfinished. There are three 
other anonymous books which continue the 
history of the Civil W?T. The Bell inn 
Ah\i:andrinum (War in Alexandria) is per- 
haps from the hand of Hirtius. The BeUum 
Afrzcum (War in Africa) is written in 
a pompous and affected style [and has 
recently been assigned, but without suffi- 
cient reason, to Asinius Pollio]. TheBellum 
Hispanum (Spanish War), is to be attri- 
buted to two different authors. Its style is 
rough, and shows that the writer was not 
an educated man. 

Cassias Bassus. A Latin poet, a friend 
of Persius the satirist, whose book he 
edited. He is said to have perished during 
the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. He 
had a high reputation in his day as a 
lyric poet, and is said to have composed a 
didactic poem on metre. There is a con- 
siderable fragment in prose on the same 
subject which bears the name of Cassius 
Bassus, but this is perhaps from a prose 
version of the poetical treatise. 

Calais (Gt. Kala'is) and 7-etes. The Bore- 
adae, or sons of Boreas and Orithyia. They 
were both winged heroes, and took part in 

the Argonautic expedition. Coming in the 
course of the enterprise to Salmydessus, 
they set free Phineus, the husband of their 
sister Cleopatra, from the Harpies, chasing 
them through the air on their wings (see 
Phtneus). According to one story, they 
perished on this occasion : according to 
another, they were slain afterwards by 
Heracles on the island of Tenos, on their 
return from the funeral games of Pelias 
(see Acastcs). This was in retribution for 
the counsel which they had given to the 
Argonauts on the coast of Mysia, to leave 
Heracles behind. Their graves and monu- 
ments were shown in Tenos. One of the 
pillars was said to move when the north 
wind blew. 

Calamis \Kdldmis\ A Greek artist, who 
flourished at Athens about 470 B.C. He 
worked in marble and metal, as well as 
gold and ivory, and was master of sculp- 
ture in all its branches, from the chisel- 
ling of small silver vessels to the execu- 
tion of colossal statues in bronze. His 
Apollo, at Apollonia in Pontus, was 120 
feet high. This statue was carried away 
to Pome by Lucullus, and set up on the 
Capitol. We hear of statues of the gods 
and heroic women from his hand, as well 
as of men on horseback and four-horsed 
chariots. His horses are said to have been 
unsurpassed. His female figures, if we 
mav believe the ancient critics, were char- 
acterized by antique harshness and severity, 
but were relieved by a touch of grace and 

Calamus. See Writing Materials. 

Calantica. See Clothixg. 

Calathus (Gr. Edldthos). See Vessels. 

Calceus. A shoe, part of the regular 
Roman dress, and usually worn in public. 
Each order, and every gens, had its par- 
ticular kind of calceus. The patricians 
wore a mulleus or calceus patr'tcius. This 
was a shoe of red leather with a high sole, 
like that of the cothurnus. The leather 
passed round the back of the heel, where it 
was furnished with small hooks, to which 
the straps were fastened. It was originally 
a part of the royal dress, and was after- 
wards worn by generals on the occasion of 
a triumph. In later times, with the rest of 
the triumphal costume, it became a part of 
the dress of the consuls. In the second 
rank came the calceus sendtorius, or shoe 
worn by senators. This was black, and 
tied round the leg by four straps. In the 
case of patricians it was ornamented by a 
crescent-shaped clasp. The calceus of the 



IquttlMf and of ordinary oitisens, waa also 
The [attar w ta called p< rfl : it rosi 
the ankle, and was Fastened with 
mple lit-. 
CaU-has Kaichdi , s "n of ThestOr of 
Mvo&naB, Oalohaa waa the oelebrated Beer 
who accompanied the Qroekson their ezpe 
dition against Troy. Homer calls him the 
best oi soothsayers, who knew the past, the 
nt, and the future. Before the fleet 
started from Aulis, Calohas predicted that 
the Trojan war would last ten years. His 

own dial h s.i ran the prophecy) was to 

ooonr whenever be met a wiser seer than 
himself. After the Trojan war he came to 
tin' island of I'lares, w here, in the sacred 
preoinots of Apollo, he fell in with the 
soothsayer Mopsos, who brat him in a 
match of guessing riddles. [See Mopscs(2)]. 
Calohas died ot' grief, or, according to an- 
other story, took away his own lite. A 
temple was erected to him in Apulia, where 
the votaries lay down to sleep on sheepskins, 
and received oracles in their sleep. 

Caldarlnm. See Baths. 

Calendae (Kcdendce). See Calendar. 

Calendar. (1) Greek, The Greek year 
consisted of twelve months, some " full " — 
fa. of SO days each — the others "hollow" 
or incomplete, of 29 days each. This made 
up a lunar year of 354 days, 11 days short 
of the solar year. To maintain some corre- 
spondence between the lunar and solar 
years, and to provide at least for the festivals 
of the seasons always occurring at the right 
time of year, the Athenians earl}- resorted 
to the method of intercalation. A space 
of time was taken which included as many 
days as would exactly make up eight solar 
years, and could easily be distributed 
among the same number of lunar years. 
This space of time was called a " great 
year." Then in every 3rd, 6th, and 8th 
year a month of 29 or 30 days was in- 
serted, so that the years in question con- 
sisted each of 383 or 384 days. This system 
was introduced at Athens by Solon. The 
period of eight years was sometimes called 
< nnat'tcris, or a period of nine j r ears, because 
it began again with every 9th year; some 
times oktdettrls, or space of eight years. 
For this the astronomers, of whom Meton in 
the Periclean age may be taken as a represen- 
tative, substituted a more accurate system, 
which was afterwards adopted in Athens 
and other cities as a correction of the old 
calendar. This was the ennSaJcaidSkdetSris 
of 19 years. The alternate "full" and 
" hollow " months were divided into three de- 

oades, consisting of 1 if the 

might be The daj - oi the I 
ware i orated from on 
spend with the waning of the moon. Thus 
the -1st "I t lie month was i ailed thi I 1 tth 

el the waning >n, the 22nd the 9th, the 

28rd t lie 8th, and l 'I h 

the year, with the order and name, .,i the 
months, differed more or less in din 
states, th ly common point being the 

names of the months, which W6M 

without exception taken from the chief 

festivals celebrated in them. The Athenian.-, 
and the other Ionian* began their year with 
the lirst new moon alter the summer solstice, 

the 1 Lilians with the autumnal equinox, the 

Boeotians and other .Knlians with the winter 
solstice. The Attic months are as follows: 
I. Hi? kdtombaiOn ( July August ; 2. MStd- 
geitnlOn (August-September); 3. B6Sdr6- 

niinii September-October); 4. PpdnepsfOn 
(October - November) ; 5. MaimaktSriOn 
(November - December) ; 6. PSseidSOn 
(December-January) ; 7. GdmCliOn < Janu- 
ary-February) ; 8. Antln stri'iOn (February- 
March) ; 9. Eldjihrbi'/lion (March April : 
10. Mfniyclndn (April— May); 11. ThargS- 
lion (May-June) ; 12. SkeirdphSriOn June- 
July). The intercalary month was a second 
Poseideon inserted in the middle of the 
year. The official system of numbering the 
years differed also very much in the various 
states. The years received their names 
from the magistrates, sometimes secular, 
sometimes spiritual. (See Epoxymus. 
Historical chronology was first computed 
according to Olympiads, beginning B.C. 776, 
by the historian Timseus in the 3rd cen- 
tury B.C. 

(2) The Roman year was supposed to 
have consisted, under Romulus, of 10 
months, four full ones of 31 days (March, 
May, July and October), and six " hollow '" 
of 30 days (April, June, August, September, 
November, December). But, as a space of 
304 days makes up neither a solar nor a 
lunar year, it is difficult to understand the 
so-called " year of Romulus." King Numa 
was usually supposed to have introduced 
the year of 12 months by adding January 
and February at the end ; for the Roman 
year, it must be remembered, began origin- 
ally with March. On this system every 
month except February had an odd number 
of days : March 31, April 29, May 31, June 
29, Quintilis 31, Sextilis 29, September 29, 
October 31, November 29, December 29, 
January 29, February 28. Numa is also 
credited with the attempt to square this 



lunar year of 355 days with the solar year 
of 365 : but how he did it is not certainly 
known. The Decemviri in 450 B.C. pro- 
bably introduced the system of adjustment 
afterwards in use. According to this a 
cycle of four years was taken, in the second 
year of which an intercalary month (mensis 
mcrcedonius) of 23 days was inserted be- 
tween the 24th and 25th of February, and 
in the fourth year a month of 22 days be- 
tween the 23rd and 24th February. Thus 
the period of 4 3 r ears amounted to 1465 days. 
But this gave the year an average of 366j 
days, or one day too many, so that a special 
rectification was necessary from time to 
time. This was probably carried out by 
the omission of an intercalary month. It 
was the business of the Pontifices to keep 
the calendar in order by regular intercala- 
tion ; but, partly from carelessness, partly 
from political motives, they made insertions 
and omissions so incorrectly as to bring the 
calendar into complete disorder, and destroy 
the correspondence between the months and 
the seasons. The mischief was finally 
remedied by Caesar, with the assistance of 
the mathematician Sosigenes. To bring 
the calendar into correspondence with the 
seasons, the year 46 B.C. was lengthened so 
as to consist of 15 months, or 415 days, and 
the calendar known as the Julian was in- 
troduced on the 1st January, 45 B.C. This 
calendar is founded simply on the solar 
year, which is well known to be a discovery 
of the Egyptians. Caesar fixed this year to 
365^ days, which is correct within a few 
minutes. After this the ordinary year con- 
sisted of 365 days, divided into 12 months, 
with the names still in use. Every fourth 
year had 366 days, a day being inserted at 
the end of February. The Julian calendar 
maintained its ground till 1582, when Pope 
Gregory XIII corrected the trifling error 
which still attached to it. The old names of 
the months were retained with two excep- 
fcions, that of Quintilis, which, in honour of 
Caesar, was called Julius, and that of Sex- 
tilis, which in 8 B.C. was called Augustus 
in honour of the emperor. The old divisions 
of the lunar month were also retained for 
convenience of dating. These were (a) the 
KalendCB, marking the first appearance of 
the new moon; (b) the Nonce, marking the 
first quarter : (c) the Idus, marking the 
full moon. KalendtB means properly the 
.lav of summoning, from colore, to summon. 
The Pontiff :e was bound to observe the first 
phase, and to make his announcement to 
the Rex Sacrdrum. who then summoned 

the people to the Capitol, in front of the 
Curia Caldbra, so called from colore. Here 
he offered sacrifice, and announced that the 
first quarter would begin on the 5th or 7th 
day (inclusive) as the case might be. This 
da}' was called Nonce, as (according to 
Roman calculation) the 9th day before the 
full moon, and fell in March, May, July 
and October on the 7th, in the other months 
on the 5th. The appearance of the full 
moon was called Idus (probably connected 
with the Etruscan word idudre, to divide), 
because it divided the month in the middle. 
The days of the month were counted back- 
wards, in the first half of the month from 
the Nones and Ides, in the last half from 
the Kalends of the following month. The 
Romans also had a week called internuml'i- 
num, or the interval between two nundinal. 
It consisted of eight days, and, like our 
weeks, could be divided between two months 
or two years. (For further details see 

After the establishment of the Republic 
the Romans named their years after the 
consuls, a custom which was maintained 
down to the reign of Justinian (541 A.D.). 
After the time of Augustus it became the 
practice in literature to date events from 
the foundation of Rome, which took place 
according to Varro in 753, according to 
Cato in 751 B.C. 

The Day. The Greeks reckoned the civil 
day from sunset to sunset, the Romans (like 
ourselves) from midnight to midnight. The 
natural day was reckoned by both as lasting 
from sunrise to sunset. The divisions of 
the day were for a long time made on no 
common principle. It was for military pur- 
poses that the Romans firet hit on such a 
principle, dividing the night during service 
into four equal watches (vigil icv'i. Corre- 
sponding to this we find another division 
(probably calculated immediately for the 
courts of justice) into mane (sunrise to 9 or 
10), forenoon (ad meridiem), afternoon (de 
meridie) until 3 or 4, and evening 
(supremo) from thence till sunset. After 
the introduction of sun-dials and water- 
clocks the day and night were divided each 
into 12 hours ; but the division was founded 
on the varying length of the day, so that 
each hour of the day was longer, and con- 
versely each hour of the night shorter, in 
summer than in winter. 

Caliga. A boot with large nails in the 
sole, worn in ancient Italy by huntsmen, 
waggoners, and peasants, and, during the 
imperial period, by common soldiers. 



CAlix. & \ 

Cnllicratis (Gr. KdUikrdtfa). A <• k 

architect who, together with Eotlnuo, built 
i be I'm i iirii.m i ■/ i 

Callimachus (Gr. KaUfmOcJtfls), [1) \ 
Greek artiet, who flourished in the second 
half of the 5th oentury B.C. He was the in- 
ventor of the Corinthian order of pillar, and 
the iiri of boring marble is also attributed 
to him. though perhaps 1 1 « - « t i« I ao more than 

bring il to ported ion. Tin- ancient ei it ies 

represent bun as unwearied in polishing 
and perfeoting liis work; indeed, they 

thai liis product inns lost something 
through their excessive refinement and 
purity. One of liis celebrated works was 
the golden chandelier in the Ereohthfium 
at Athens, 

J A Greek scholar and poet, the chief 
representative of the Alexandrian school. 
Hi' was the son of liattus, ami thus sprung 
from the noblo family of the Battiadse. He 
at first gave his lectures in a suburb of 
Alexandria; but was afterwards summoned 
by Ptolemy Philadelphus to the Museum 
there, and in about 260 n.C. was made 
president of tho library. He held this office 
till his death, which took place about '24(1 
B.C. He did a great service to literature 
by sifting and cataloguing the numerous 
books collected at Alexandria. The results 
of his labours were published in his great 
work called Findkis, or "Tablets."' "This 
contained 120 books, and was a catalogue, 
arranged in chronological order, of the 
works contained in the library, with obser- 
vations on their genuineness, an indication 
of the first and last word in each book, and 
a note of its bulk. This work laid the 
foundation of a critical study of Greek 
literature. 800 works, partly in prose, 
partly in verse, were attributed altogether 
to Callimachus ; but it is to be observed 
that he avoided, on principle, the compo- 
sition of long poems, so as to be able to 
give more thought to the artistic elabora- 
tion of details. The essence of Callimachus' 
verse is art and learning, not poetic genius 
in the real sense. Indeed, some of his 
compositions had a directly learned object ; 
the Aitia, or "Causes," for instance. This 
was a collection of elegiac poems in four 
books, treating, with great erudition, of the 
foundation of cities, the origin of religious 
ceremonies, and the like. 

Through his writings, as well as through 
his oral instruction, Callimachus exercised 
an immense influence, not only on the course 
of learning, but on the poetical tendencies 

of t be A lei tndrian I I, Amnng i,, , 

pupils n ere the mi ant i 

nl I lie I ime, Kiato-ih, ii. pli.ui.-, ot 

Byzantium. Apoll6nius oi Rhode . and 
others. Of his writings only a ven 

inrvived in a compl' 

six hymns, five oi which are in epie and one 

in elegiac form, and six! \ -loin 

The hymns, both in their language and their 

mailer, attest the learned taste oi their 

author. His elegy, entitled the I "mini 

BSr(nlcS8,Ol "I kof Iierenice," is imi- 
tated by Catullus in nno of his remaining 
pieces. Ovid, in the twentieth of his 
Jlcrtihlrs, as well as in his litis, look poems 
of Callimachus for his models. Indeed, the 
Romans generally set a very high value on 
his elegies, and liked to imitate them. Of 
his other works in prose and poetry — among 
the latter may be mentioned a very popular 
epic called llfrah — only fragments have 

Callinus (Gr. Kcdllnds), the creator of the 
Greek political elegy, was a native of 
Ephesus, and flourished, probably, about 
7i kj B.C., at the time when the kings of 
Lydia were harassing the Greek colonies 
of Asia Minor by constant wars. One elegy 
from his hand has survived, in which, in a 
simple and manly tone, he endeavours to 
kindle the degenerate youth of his father- 
land to courage and patriotism. 

Calliope (Gr. KalliOpe). See Muses. 

Callirrhoe (Gr. Kallirrlide). Sec Acarnan 
and Alcmjeon. 

Callisthenes (Gr. Kallisthgnes). A Greek 
historian, born at Olynthus about 360 B.C. 
He was a relation of Aristotle, from whom 
he received instruction at the same time 
as Alexander the Great. He accompanied 
Alexander on his Asiatic campaign, and 
offended him by refusing to pay him servile 
homage after the Persian fashion, and by- 
other daring exhibitions of independence. 
The consequence was that the king threw 
his friend into prison on the pretext that 
he was concerned in a conspiracy against 
his life. Callisthenes died in captivity in 
328 B.C., in consequence, probably, of mal- 
treatment. Of his historical writings, par- 
ticularly those dealing with the exploits of 
Alexander, only fragments remain ; but he 
was always ranked among the most famous 
historians. Indeed, his reputation as the 
companion of Alexander and the historian 
of his achievements maintained itself so 
well, that he was made responsible in 
literature for the romantic narrative of 
Alexander's life which grew up in the fol- 



lowing centuries. This was translated into 
Latin towards the end of the 3rd century 
a.d. by Julius Valerius, and became the 
main authority for the medifeval adaptations 
of the myth of Alexander. 

Callisto (Gr. Kallisto). A nymph, the 
daughter of the Arcadian Lycilon, and a 
companion of Artemis. She became, by 
Zens, the mother of Areas, the ancestor of 
the Arcadians. She was turned into a bear, 
according to one account by the jealous 
Hera, according to another by Zeus, who 
was anxious to protect her from Hera's 
wrath. In this shape she was slain by 
Artemis, and set among the constellations 
by Zeus under the title of the She-Bear. 
There was another story, according to which 
Callisto's son was intending to slay his 
transformed mother while hunting ; upon 
which Zeus set him in the sky under the 
name of Arcturus (Ai'ktouros), the Watcher 
of the Bear, and his mother under the name 
of Arctus (Arktos), the She-Bear. As the 
stars bearing these names never set, Homer 
describes them as the only ones which have 
no share in the bath of the ocean. Later 
poets, accordingly, invented the further 
story that Tethys, wishing to gratify Hera, 
refused to receive her former rival into her 

Callistratus (Gr. Kallistrdtos). A Greek 
rhetorician, who probably flourished in the 
3rd century a.d. He was the author of de- 
scriptions of fourteen statues of celebrated 
artists, Scopas, for instance, Praxiteles, and 
Lysippus, written after the manner of Pbi- 
lostratus. His style is dry and affected, 
and he gives the reader no real insight into 
the qualities of the masterpieces which he 
attempts to describe. 

Callynteria (Gr. KaUynteria) and Plyn- 
terta ("Feasts of Adorning and Cleansing "), 
were the names given to the two chief days 
of a service of atonement held at Athens 
from the 19th to the 25th of Thargellon 
(or May-June). The Erecththeum, or sanc- 
tuary of Athene of the stronghold, was 
cleansed, the ancient wooden image of the 
goddess was unclothed, the garments washed j 
and the image itself purified. These duties | 
were performed, with mysterious rites, by j 
the famity of the Praxiegldte, with the aid ( 
of certain women called Plyntrides. The 
Plynteria, or day on which the image was 
washed, was an unlucky day, on which no 
public business was transacted. The cere- j 
monies would seem originally to have been 
intended to commemorate the season of the j 
year and the ripening of the corn and fruit, , 

for which the votaries of the powerful god- 
dess desired to secure her favour. 

Calpis (Gr. Ealpis). See Vessels. 

Calpurnius. (1) Calpurnius PlsO FrUgl, 
See Annalists. 

(2) Titus Calpurnius Siculus, a Roman 
poet, who flourished in the middle of 
the 1st century a.d. At the beginning 
of Nero's reign he wrote seven Eclogw, 
or bucolic poems, which are somewhat 
servile imitations of Theocritus and Vergil. 
The language is declamatory, but the 
laws of metre are strictly observed. The 
poet was poor, and wished his writings to 
be brought under the notice of the young 
emperor, through the instrumentality of a 
personage high in favour at court. This 
individual appears under the name of Meli- 
bceus, and has sometimes been supposed to 
have been the philosopher Seneca, some- 
times the Piso who was executed in 65 a.d. 
as the leader of a conspiracy against Nero. 
Calpurnius lavishes the most fulsome praises 
upon the emperor. Four of the Ecldgce, 
which were formerly attributed to Calpur- 
nius, are now known to have been written 
by Nemesianus, who not only imitates Cal- 
purnius, but plagiarizes from him. 

(3) Calpurnius Flaccus, a Latin rhetori- 
cian of uncertain date, under whose name 
fifty-one school-boy harangues, or rather ex- 
tracts from them, have come down to us. 

Calumnia (in old Latin KiLlumnva). The 
Latin word for slander. It was technically 
applied to false accusations. The falsely 
accused person, if acquitted, had the right 
of accusing the prosecutor in his turn on 
the charge of calumnia before the same 
jury. In civil cases the penalty was a pecu- 
niary fine ; in criminal cases the calum- 
niator lost his right to appear again as a 
prosecutor, and in early times was branded 
on the forehead with a K. 

Calydonian (Gr. Ealydonian) Hunt. See 
Meleager (1) and (Eneds. 

Calypso (Gr. Kalypso). A nymph, the 
daughter of Atlas, who dwelt on the island of 
Og5'gia, where she gave a friendly welcome 
to Odysseus, whom she kept with her for 
seven years. {See Odtssecs.) 

Camena? (Latin). The name of certain 
fountain nymphs, who presided over child- 
birth. They had also the gift of prophecy, 
and were identified by the Latin poets with 
the Greek Muses. (See Muses.) 

Cameos, and The Gonzaga Cameo. See 

Camilli and Camillas. The Latin name 
for the boys and girls who attended on the 

.Will 3 M \i:ilis 0ANDELABR1 U 


* < AMlI.I.l'S, WITH 

(Hurtnli, .Idmir. 14.) 

i . : in . I priestesses daring the perform 
mot of their religious fund ions, [l ws i 

thai they 
ihottld i"' l">rn "I 

tree poxente, end 
have both parents 

living. Theso 

1 I tendanl a wei e 
i s|i, icially attached 
i ,. t he Fid men 

Pi, ilis, and liis wife 

the i'lniiiiiiii-,1, and 

also t>> the ' 'iiriiiiu a, 
'I'lii' priests gene- 
rally brought up 
their own children, 
in- preference, for 
i his service, to teach 
them their duties, 
ami secure l hem a 
succession to the 
priestly office. 

Campus Martins ("Field of Mars"). _ A 
plain lying to the north of Rome, outside 
the PH iik' nil in, between the Tiber, theQui- 
rinal and the Capitoline Hills. (See Pome- 
RIUM.) During the regal period it was part 
of the property of the Crown, and, after the 
expulsion of the kings, was dedicated to 
Mars. The northern part, on the banks of 
the Tiber, served 
as an exercise- 
ground for the 
Roman youth for 
athletics, riding, or 
military drill. The 
smaller part, next 
to the city, was 
used ibr. the meet- 
ings of the Comitia 
Centuriata, and for 
holding the lus- 
trum. In the midst 
of it stood an altar 
to Mars, which 
formed the centre 
of the ceremony of 
the lustrum, and 
of some other fes- 
tivals held on the 
spot in honour of 
that deity. (See 
Lustrum.) Until 
the end of the re- 
publican age there 
was only one build- 
ing on this part of 
the Campus, the Villa Publico.. This was 
the residence assigned to foreign ambassa- 

D. C. A. 


(Bronze statuette in British 

,„i Roman generals on their return 
from war, to whom th 
audiences in th ng temp 

l'„ Uona. Bu1 In B i •">■• Pompeiusen i ted in 
the Campus the first stone theatre buill in 
Rome, with a great oolonnade adjoining it. 
ll,. i e too Julius < '.■ ai oommenoed his mai ble 
sii/ii<t, or inclosures for the Comitia Cm- 
turiati , with a greal oolonnade surrounding 
th, ,,, ,,, S • OoMmA.) These were i 
pleted byAgrippa in 27 B.C. In B.0. 28, 

Oeiaviimus Cii'Sar added the Muiisnlrn „i. 

i hereditary burial-place of the Cse 
and Agrippa the Pantheon and the first 
Thermce or Bathe. Under the succeeding 
emperors a number of buildings rose here; 
for instance, Domitian's Race-course (Std- 
dium | and Odeum. The rest of the Campus 
was left free for gymnastic and military exer- 
cises, the grounds being magnificently deco- 
rated with statues and colonnades. The altar 
survived until the last days of ancient Rome. 

Canachus (Gr. Kd nuchas). A Greek sculp- 
tor born in Slcyon about 480 B.C. He worked 
in bronze, in the combination of gold and 
ivory, and also in wood. His master- 
piece was the colossal bronze statue of 
Apollo at Miletus, of which some idea may 
be still derived from ancient coins of that 
city. It seems to have been extremely 
antique in its character (see cut). 

Candelabrum. A lamp furnished with a 
point, on which a taper (candela) was fixed. 
(See Lighting.) As the use of lamps 
became more common, the word candela- 
brum was transferred to the wooden or 
metal support, usually made up of a base, 
a tall thin shaft, and a disc (discus), on 
which the lamp was set up to illuminate 
a large room. There were other forms of 
candelabra, notably the lampdddrtum or 
"lamp-bearer" (see cut, p. 114). This had 
no disc, but a number of arms, as many as 
the lamps it was intended to carry. Other 
candelabra had an apparatus for raising 
and lowering the lamps. The shaft was 
hollow, and contained a movable rod, sup- 
porting the disc or the arms, which could 
be fixed at any required height by bolts 
passed through it. Like lamps, candelabra 
were made in the greatest possible variety 
of forms, and ornamented in a number of 
different ways, especially by figures in 
relief. Besides the portable candelabra in- 
tended for common use, and set on a table 
or on the ground, there were large and 
heavy ones, shaped like pillars, and set up 
on fixed pedestals as ornaments for temples 
and palaces (see cut, p. 114). 



Candidatus. The Latin term for a com- 
petitor for a public office. He was so called 
from the peculiar dress in which he usually 
showed himself to the people in the Forum. 
This was the toga Candida, a new toga 
whitened with chalk. No one could appear 
as a candidatus unless his name had been 
given in to, and accepted by, the authorities 
presiding over the election. 

Caneon (Gr. Kdncon). See Vessels. 

Canephori (Gr. KrinCphSroi)," basket-bear- 
ers." The title of certain maidens belong- 
ing to the first families at Athens, whose 
duty it was to carry baskets containing 
consecrated furniture, on their heads, at 
the solemn processions, particularly at the 
Panathenaea. The graceful attitude made 

not simply recited, but suDg or performed in 
melodrama with musical accompaniments. 

Capaneus (Gr. Kapdneus). One of the 
Seven against Thebes who was struck by 
lightning during the assault upon the city. 
He was climbing 
the wall, and was 
boasting that not 
even the lightning 
of Zeus would 
scare him away. 
During the burn- 
ing of his body 
on the funeral 
pyre, his wife 
Evadne threw 
herself into the 

1 s 


(Naples Museum. > 

fl) from Garsiulo's Rnccoltn, tav. 63. 

(2) and (3.) iluseo Borhouico, VIII xsxi, and II ziii. 


(Naples Museum. 
From Gargiulo's Saccolta, tav. -l^i. 

the figure of a ranej)hords a favourite one 
with sculptors. Such figures were often 
employed by architects as supports for the 
entablatures of temples. The Erechtheum 
on the Acropolis at Athens is an example. 
(See Caryatides.) 

Cantharus. Sec Vessels. 

Canticum. A technical term of the 
Roman stage. In the narrower sense, it 
denoted a melody or air composed in chang- 
ing rhythms, the text to which was sung 
behind the stage to the accompaniment of 
a flute, while the actor expressed the mean- 
ing by pantomime. In Cicero's time, how- 
ever, the cantica were sometimes performed 
by the actors. In a wider sense, the word 
might mean any part in a play which was 

flames. His son was Sthenelns, the chario- 
teer of Diomedes. 

Capelium (Gr. Edpcleion). See Ixxs. 

Capella. See Martiaxus Capella. 

Caper (Flavins). A Latin scholar of some 
note, who flourished in the 2nd century 
A.D., and whose writings were frequently 
used and quoted by the later ffi-ammarians. 
Only two small treatises bearing his name 
have come down to us. the De Ortho- 
grdphia ("On Orthography ") and Dc Ver- 
bis Dvbils ("On Irregular Words"); but 
these are only meagre extracts from the 
original works. 

Capite censi. See Proletarii. 

Capltolums (Iirfias). See Historle Ar> 




c\i pit niiii in Tin's linn sii in in 1 1 of the 

Capitoline Hill at Borne, separated bom 
arx ..i northern summit bj •> laddie, 
■ >n ulnrii were tinaspium and ill" temple 
oi \ i i.'vis. The Capitol was approached 
iad mounting in several sig-aaga from 
the Forum. On the highest point of tlio 
southern top was the temple of Jupiter 
Optlmus Maxltnus, begun by the Tarquins, 
but not finished (ill the first year of the 
Republic (609 B.O.). The temple was quad- 
alar and iH.irl \ Bquare, with three rowa 
olumns in t"i-oiit , six in each row, ami 
tour columns on each side. Thoy wore in 
i lie Peru-, or rather the Tuscan, style. The 
interior was divided by parallel walls in- 
to three ctihv or chambers. The central 
chamber was dedicated to Jupiter, and con- 
tained a statue of the god in terra-cotta. 
The si' n ate son let i lues held its sittings here, 

particularly at the opening of the year, and 

OOasions when war was declared. The 

right-hand chamber was sacred to Minerva, 
the left-hand to Juno. The entablature 
was entirely constructed of wood ; the 
pediment was of terra-cotta, as was the quad- 
rii/a or four-horsed chariot, with the figure 
of the god, above. After the Third Punic 
War the entablature was gilded. In 83 
B.C. the whole temple was burnt down to 
the vaults in which the Sibylline books 
and other consecrated objects were pre- 
served. Sulla rebuilt the structure Strictly 
on the lines of the old one, though with 
much greater splendour in detail ; but the 
new temple was not consecrated till &J B.C. 
A statue of Jupiter in gold and ivory, on 
the model of the Olympian Zeus, by Apol- 
lonius, was substituted for the old image of 
terra-cotta. A hundred years later the 
building was again burnt down, in the civil 
war of Vitellius and Vespasian. Vespasian 
restored it, but the new structure was again 
destroyed by tire in 80 a.d. In 82 Do- 
mitian erected a new temple, a Corinthian 
hc.rastylos, which survived unhurt till the 
5th century a.d. This was gradually de- 
stroyed, partly by the invading barbarians 
who plundered it, and partly in the dis- 
sensions of the Middle Ages. The Palazzo 
Caffarelli now stands upon its foundation. 

Caprotina. A Roman epithet of Juno. 
A special feast, called the Nuncb Caprotinoe, 
was celebrated in her honour on the Nones 
of Quintilis, or 7th of July. In this 
celebration female slaves took a consider- 
able part. The festival was connected 
with another, called Poplifugium, or the 
l: Flight of the People," held on the 5th of 

July. Tin | was given to 

it, though the in of l*ith fe»nvuln 

had l i probably foi ■■, it ten Ann their 

Left it by I be I fault, the Roman • n en 
quered and put to flight by a sudden attach 
of their neighbours, the Latins, who de- 
manded the surrendei ol a lai ge sum b 
girls and widows. Thereupi 

gest i f a girl called Tut ula lor I Mill 

the female slaves disguised then, 
Roman ladies, went into the enemy's camp, 
and contrived to make the enemy drunk, 
while Tut ula, climbing a wild fig-tree, gave 
the signal for the Romans to attack by hold- 
ing up a torch. The Po/tlifni/iu were cele- 
brated by B mimic tlight. On the 7th July, 
the female slaves went in procession to the 
'•/-tree, where they carried on all kinds of 
spoils with the assembled multitude. Be- 
sides this, there was a sacrifice and a festal 
meal at the tree, and on the next day a 
thanksgiving, celebrated by the /lonttf'icrs. 

Capys (Or. Kdpys). See Dabdanus and 

CarchesIuni(Gr. A*ii/v//i >/o/( >. See Vessels. 

Cardea. The tutelar}- goddess of hinges, 
in other words, of family life, among the 
Romans. She was supposed to ward off 
all the noxious influences of evil spirits, 
especially of the Strlga>, who were believed 
to suck the blood of children by night. It 
is doubtful whether she is to be identified 
with the goddess Carna, who is said to have 
taken the larger organs of the body — heart, 
lungs and liver — under her especial pro- 
tection. Carna had a shrine on the Cselian 
Hill, in Rome, and a festival on the 1st of 
June, at which they ate beans and bacon, 
and made offerings of them to the goddess. 

Caristia. See Manes. 

Carmenta or Carmentis. An ancient 
Italian goddess of prophecy, who protected 
women in child-birth. In Rome she had 
a priest attached to her, the flamen Car- 
mentdlis, and a shrine near the gate under 
the Capitol, named after her the porta Car- 
mentCdis. On this spot the Roman matrons 
celebrated in her honour the festival of the 
Carmentalia, the flamen and pontifex as- 
sisting. Two Carmentes, called Porrima or 
Antevorta, and Postvorta, were worshipped 
as her sisters and attendants. These names 
were sometimes explained with reference 
to childbirth, sometimes as indicating the 
power of the goddess of fate to look into the 
past and future. In the legend of the 
foundation of Rome Carmenta appears as 
the prophetic mother, or wife, of the Arca- 
dian stranger Evander. 



Carna. See Cardea. 

Carnea (Gr. Karneia). A festival cele- 
brated in honour of Apollo Carneus (" the 
protector of flocks ") as early as the time of 
the immigration of the Dorians. In keeping 
up the celebration, the Dorians characteristic- 
ally gave it a warlike colour, by transform- 
ing their original pastoral deity into the 
god of their fighting army. The Carina 
lasted nine days, from the 7th to the 15th 
of the month Carneus (August-Septeniber). 
The proceedings symbolized the life of 
soldiers in camp. In every three phrd- 
tria> or 6ba>, nine places were set apart, on 
which tents or booths were put up. In 
these tents nine men had their meals in 
common. All ordinary proceedings were 
carried on at the word of command, given 
out by a herald. One 
part of the festival 
recalled its originally 
rural character. This 
was a race, in which 
one of the runners, 
supposed to symbo- 
lize the blessings of 
harvest, started in 
advance, uttering 
prayers for the city. 
The others, called 
" vintage - runners," 
pursued him, and if 
they overtook him, the 
occurrence was taken 
as a good omen, if they 
failed, as a bad one. 
After the twenty-sixth 
Olympiad (676 B.C.) a 
musical contest was 
added, at which the 
most celebrated artists 
in all Greece were 
accustomed to com- 
pete. The first artist 
who sang at this con- 
test was Terpander. 

Carpentum. See 

Carpo. See Horje. 

Carroballista. See Artillery. 

Carruca. See Chariots. 

Caryatides (Gr. KaryaHdes). A technical 
term of Greek architecture. Caryatides 
were female statues clothed in long drapery, 
used instead of shafts, or columns, to sup- 
port the entablature of a temple (see cut). 
The name properly means " maidens of 
Caryse (Karyai)" a Spartan town on the 
Arcadian frontier. Here it was the custom 


From the Erechtheum, 
Athens (British Museum). 

for bands of girls to perform their country 
dances at the yearly festivals of Artemis 
Karyatis. In doing so they sometimes 
assumed the attitude which suggested the 
form adopted by the artists in the statues 
mentioned above. {See also Canephori.) 

Cassandra (Gr. Kassandra). In Homer 
Cassandra is the fairest of the daughters of 
Priam and Hecuba. For the promise of 
her love, Apollo conferred upon her the 
gift of prophecy ; she broke her word, and 
the god punished her by letting her retain 
the gift, but depriving her of the power of 
making her hearers believe her. Her utter- 
ances were therefore laughed to scorn as 
the ravings of a mad woman. It was in 
vain that, at the birth of Paris, she advised 
that he should be put to death, and that, 
when Helen came to Troy, she prophesied 
the destruction of the city. When the city 
was taken, she was dragged by Ajax the 
son of O'ileus from the altar of Athene, at 
which she had taken refuge : but Agamem- 
non rescued her and took her as his slave 
to Mycena?. Here she was slain by Cly- 
taemnestra when Agamemnon was murdered. 
She was worshipped with Apollo in several 
places under the name of Alexandra. 

Casslanns Bassus. See Geoponici. 

Cassiodorus Senator (Magnus Aureltus) 
was born in Bruttium, about 480 a.d. He 
belonged to an old Roman family which had, 
particularly in the three preceding genera- 
tions, distinguished itself in the public 
service. His father stood in high favour 
with Theodoric, who had an equal regard 
for his talented and highly educated son, 
Cassiodorus Senator. On account of his 
trustworthiness and ability as a statesman, 
the younger Cassiodorus was appointed to 
the highest offices by Theodoric and his 
successors. He was consul a.d. 514, and 
four times praifectus. For a period of 
nearly forty years he enjoyed an active and 
successful career in the public administra- 
tion, notably as Theodoric's private secre- 
tary. After the fall of Vitlges in 540, 
Cassiodorus retired to the monastery of 
Vivarium (Vivarese), which he had founded 
on his estates in Bruttium. Here he passed 
the rest of his life in religious exercises 
and literary labour. He died about 575. 

Among the works which he composed 
during his career as a statesman, we have 
a universal history called Chronica, from 
Adam down to the year when it was writ- 
ten. This consists mainly of a catalogue of 
the Roman consuls, and is the longest of 
all the lists which have come down to us. 

OASSIOPEA <\ u;\. 


Anntii,! work of Ins whiofa baa survived 
is the Fin ! sifl/a in I welve I 

This is a oolleotion of imperial rescripts, 
;iinl has considerable bistonoal importance. 
i [pi - be made oat, par) U in the 
h. mi. of Theodorio and liis bu partly 

in his own nam.' aa pra/ectua. The I i 

likew iae oontains a oolleotion "f formularies 
for di nomination. His Qothic bia- 

tory, in twelve books, is only preserved in 
extracts, and in the paraphrase oi Jord 

Tin' chief aim of his monastic lift '■'. 

noble one. He hoped to make the monan- 

ti'ins an asylum of knowledge, in which 
ilio Literature of classical antiquity aud of 
i he Christian age mighl 

bi'collivti'l. Thonum- 

The Soman poets Lndulgi i in the fiction 
thai ii oonfei red i ion. 

Q$MUu(Qr.KattOr \ Pollux. 8a In^. i i.i. 

Castra. A Roman camp, fortified with 

a rampart and ditch, outside of which a 

M army never spenl a single night. 

It was mark' 1 '! OUl "ii a plaC I by 

officers detached for th generally 

on tlio spur of a lull. The same plan was 

always observed, ami the divi 

by coloured Bags and lances, so that the 
divisions of the army, as they came in, 
could find their places at once. In the 
middle of the '2nd century B.C., according to 
the account of Polyblus [vi 27], the plan of 









3 — J 


."^. -..'p _^li."' 

ber of books was to be 
inoreased by copyists, 
and the clergy were to 

gain their necessary 
education by studying 
them. The libraries 
and schools of the mo- 
nasteries in succeeding 
centuries were ulti- 
mately formed upon the 
model which he set up. 
Besides a number of 
theological writings, he 
composed, in about 544 
a.d., a sort of Encyclo- 
paedia,:"} four books, for 
the instruction of his 
monks. This is the " In- 
structions in Sacred aud 
Profane Literature'" 
{Institiitioncs Di ulna- 
rum et SceculdrUan 
Litterarum). The first 
part is an introduction 
to the study of theology, 
the second a sketch of 
the seven liberal arts. 
Finally, in his ninety- 
third year, he compiled a treatise De Ortho- 
graphic! or on Orthography. 

Cassiopea (Gr. Kassiopeia). See Andro- 

Cassius. (1) Casshis Hemlna. See Anna- 
lists. (2) See Die- Cassius. 

Castalia (Gr. Kastalia). A nymph, the 
daughter of the river-god Acheloiis. Pur- 
sued by Apollo, she threw herself into a 
spring on Mount Parnassus, which took its 
name after her. The spring was conse- 
crated to Apollo and the Muses, and it was 
in its water that the pilgrims to the neigh- 
bouring shrine of Delphi purified themselves. 


- • 






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s - 

^ I. 

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f 1 



— «- 

1 5 

s a 

l * 

o « 

s> ° 













I 1 

•S • 

a S 

2 C 

r" n c i p a. l-is s 




— ■ 


a camp for a consular army of two legions, 
with the proper contingent of Italian allies, 
and its auxiliary troops, was as follows (see 
Plan). The camp was square, its front 
being on the side furthest from the enemy. 
It had two main roads through it. (1) 
The via principalis, 100 feet wide, which 
divided it into a front part amounting to 
about two-thirds of the whole, and a back 
part, turned toward the enemy. This road 
ended at two gates, the porta principalis 
dextra, and the porta principalis sinistra. 
(2) The via prcetoria, which cut the via 
principalis at right angles, and divided 



the whole length of the camp into two 
parts. This road was 50 feet in width, 
and ended in two gates, the porta dScu- 
iiulna in front, and the porta prwtorta on 
the side opening towards the enemy. In the 
front part were encamped the two legions, 
with their allied contingents. They lay in 
three double rows of tents on each side of 
the via prcetoria, which made aright angle 
with the via principalis. Its whole length 
was divided by roads 50 feet in width, 
while across it, from one lateral rampart 
to the other, ran the via quintana. The 
front side of the rows of tents was turned 
towards the intervening roads. Starting 
from the via prcetoria, the first two lines 
of tents on each side contained the cavalry 
and infantry of one legion each, while the 
third row, lying nearest to the rampart, 
contained the cavalry and infantry of the 
allied contingents. In the hinder part of 
the camp, directly upon the via principalis, 
and on both sides of the via prcetoria, 
were the tents of the twelve militar}' 
tribunes, opposite the four ranks of the 
legions. On both sides were the tents of 
the praifecti of the allied contingents, 
placed in the same way opposite those of 
the troops under their command. Then 
followed the headquarters, or pr&torium, 
a space 200 feet square, intersected by the 
via prcetoria. In this was the general's 
tent (tabernaculum) ; in front was the altar 
on which the general sacrificed, on the left 
the augurale for taking the. auspices, and 
on the right the tribunal. This was a bank 
of earth covered with turf, on which the 
general took his stand when addressing 
the troops, or administering justice. Right 
of the prcetorium was the qucestdrium, con- 
taining the quarters of the paymasters, and 
the train of artillery. On the left was the 
forum, a meeting place for the soldiers. Be- 
tween these spaces and the lateral ramparts 
were the tents of the select troops who com- 
posed the body-guard of the general. Those 
of the cavalry had their front turned in- 
wards, while those of the infantry were 
turned towards the wall. The tents of the 
picked allied troops occupied the hinder part 
of the camp, which was bounded by a cross 
road 100 feet in breadth. The tents of the 
cavalry looked inwards, those of the in- 
fantry towards the rampart. The auxiliary 
troops were posted at the two angles of this 
space. The rampart was divided from the 
tents by an open space 200 feet in width. 
This was specially intended to facilitate the 
■march of the troops at their entrance and exit. 

The construction of the fortifications' 
always began before the general's tent was 
pitched. The legionaries constructed the 
rampart and ditch in front and rear, while 
the allies did the same on either side. The 
stakes required for the formation of an 
abattis on the outer side of the wall were 
carried by the soldiers themselves on the 
march The whole work was carried on 
under arms. The watches (exciitiiaz and 
vigilioz) were kept with great strictness 
both by day and night. The vigilioz, or 
night-watches, were relieved four times, 
the trumpet sounding on each occasion. 
The posts of each night-watch were in- 
spected by four Roman equites. The pass- 
word for the night was given by the general. 
Each gate was guarded by outposts of infan- 
try and cavalry, the light-armed troops i [v8l$- 
tes) being also distributed as sentries along 
the ramparts. When the camp was to break 
up, three signals were given ; at the first, 
the tents were taken down and packed up ; 
at the second, they were put upon beasts 
of burden and in wagons, and at the third 
the army began its march. 

After the time of Polybius the Roman 
military system underwent many changes, 
which involved alterations in the arrange- 
ments of the camp, but we have no trust- 
worthy information on this subject in detail 
until the beginning of the 2nd century 
a.d. The treatise of one Hyginus on castra- 
metation gives the following statements as 
to the practice of his time. The ordinary 
form of a camp was that of a rectangle, 
the length of which was about a third part 
greater than the breadth. In former times 
the legions were posted inside the camp ; 
but now, being regarded as the most trust- 
worthy troops, they were encamped along 
the whole line of ramparts, the width of 
which was now limited to 60 feet. They 
were separated from the interior of the 
camp by a road 30 feet wide {via sagularis), 
running parallel to the line of ramparts. 
The interior was now divided, not into two. 
but into three main sections. The midmost 
of these lay between the via principalis, 
which was 60, and the eta quintana, which 
was 40 feet wide. It was occupied by the 
prcetorium and the troops of the guard, 
and was called the wing of the prwtorium 
(latcra pratorii). The auxiliary troops were' 
stationed in what was now the front part, 
or prwtcntura, between the via principalis 
and the porta prcetoria, and the rear, or 
retentura, between the via quintana and 
the porta decumana. The via prcetoria, 



9 Inch u .is alto • i» ' I « -• ■ t n [di 

the i'iii torium an. I t lit- forum in R 

it t.i the j'crtii /inii'iiKi, :ts nt this time the 

•iiiirstnriiiiii mi situated between thejwfia 

iii riniKUKi and tin- /'in ■iiiriiim. The gi 
siiiuM'iniciiilriH-t) <>f tin- menia was, 

daring the imperial period, in the hai 
the prafectus castrOrum. (Set Pb I rEOTUB 

Catalfiptdn [not Ctttitti eta. Imi Qr. Kirto- 
l,/, inn ---••on a small scale "J. Tim title of a 
collection of short poems attributed in anti- 
quity to Vergil. I 9 i Vi kgil. i 

Catapulta. See Ah iii.uks. 

Cathedra <m. Kuthnini . See Chaibb. 

Cato , Miin-iis Poreius). The earliest im- 
portant representative oJ Latin prose, and 
an ardent ohampion of Roman national feel- 
i ti ir in life as in literature. He was bom 
B.C., at Tusculum, ami passed his youth 
ill a laborious life in the country. At the 
age of seventeen ho euti'ii-' 1 tin- army, and 
fought with distinction in the Hannibalic 
war in Italy, Sicily and Africa. He was 
elected qiwstor in 204, ajdile in 199, and 
prsstor in 198 B.C., when lie administered 
the province of Sardinia. He attained the 
consulship in B.C. 195. As proconsul he was 
so successful in the measures he adopted for 
the subjugation of the province of Spain, 
that ho was honoured with a triumph on 
his return. Four years later, in the capa- 
city of legfitus, he dealt the decisive stroke 
which gave the Romans the victor}- over 
the troops of king AntTochus at Ther- 
mopylae. In 1S4 he was elected censor, 
and administered his office with such strict- 
ness that he received the cognomen of 
Censorius. He was the enemy of all inno- 
vations, especially of the Greek influence 
which was making itself felt at Rome. 
Everything which he thought endangered 
the ancient Roman discipline, he met with 
unwearied opposition, regardless of any un- 
popularity he might incur. He is said to 
have been prosecuted forty-four times, and 
to have been always acquitted. The occa- 
sions on which he himself appeared as 
prosecutor were even more numerous. 

Even in extreme old age he retained the 
vigour of his intellect, and was as active 
as before in politics and literature. He 
is said to have been an old man when he 
made his first acquaintance with Greek 
literature. He died 149 B.C., in his eighty- 
sixth year. [See Livy xxxix 40.] 

Cato was the first writer who composed a 
history of Rome in Latin, and who pub- 
lished any considerable number of his own 
speeches. His chief work was the Orlglnes, 

'.'■n i ks of Italian and I!' man 

: •, . The title Ori 
Hi '"iy, " applied prop rlj only to tin- first 

books, u hioh contain* d thi 
the Icings, and traced the riw oft 
cities of Italy. Bat it was afterwards ex- 
tended to the whole work, which 
the hi Eb me do\i a to b.i .161. In 

the ii of bis own achievemen 

inserted his own speeches. From early 
manhood he display energy as an 

i'. More than 160 of his .-pi-eches 
were known to Cicero, who speaks with 
respect of bisoratorical performances. The 
titles, and some fragments of eighty of his 
orations have survived. 

In the form of maxims addressed to his 
son {Prcecepta ad l-'iliitm)he drew a com- 
prehensive sketch of everything which, 
in his opinion, was useful for a young man 
to know if he was to be a vir bonus. He 
also put together in verse some rules for 
every-day conduct (Carmen De MOHbus). 
The only work of Cato which has come 
down to us in anything like completeness is 
his treatise on agriculture (De Re Rustled), 
though even this we do not possess in its 
original shape. This was intended as a 
manual for the private use of one Manlius, 
and had reference to a particular estate 
belonging to him. One part is written sys- 
matically, the other is a miscellaneous col- 
lection of various rules. There is also a 
collection of 146 proverbs, each in a couple 
of hexameters, which bears the name of 
Cato. But this belongs to the later Empire, 
though it is probably not later than the end 
of the 4th century a.d. This little book 
was a well known manual all through the 
Middle Ages, and was widely circulated in 

Catreus (Gr. Katreus). In Greek mytho- 
logy a king of Crete, the son of Minos and of 
Pasiphae. An oracle had prophesied that he 
would fall by the hand of one of his own chil- 
dren. He accordingly put his daughters, 
Aerope and Clymene, into the hands of Xau- 
plius, who was to sell them into a foreign 
country; his son Althtemenes, meanwhile, mi- 
grated to Rhodes with his sister Apemosyne. 
His sister, who had been led astray by 
Hermes, he killed with a blow of his foot, and 
slew his aged father, who had come to put 
into his hands the government of Crete, mis- 
taking him for a pirate. Clymene became 
the wife of Nauplius, and the mother of 
Palamedes and 03ax. Aerope married 
Atreus, and bore him two sons, Agamem- 
non and Menelatis ; but was finally thrown 



into the sea by her husband on account of 
her adultery with Thyestes. (See Atrecs ) 

Catullus (Gdius Valerius Catullus). 
Perhaps the greatest of Roman lyric poets. 
He was born at Verona B.C. 87, and died 
about 54. He came to Rome while still 
young, and found himself in very good 
society there, being admitted to the circle of 
such men as Cicero, Hortensius, and Corne- 
lius Nepos, and the poets Cinna and Calvus. 
He had an estate on the Lacus Larius (Lake 
of Como), and another at Tlbur (Tivoli); but, 
if we may believe what he says about his 
debts and poverty, his pecuniary affairs must 
have been in bad order. In consequence of 
this he attached himself to the propraetor 
Gaius Memmius, on his going to Bithynia 
in the year 57. He gained nothing by 
doing so, and in the following spring re- 
turned home alone, visiting on the way the 
tomb of his brother, who was buried near 
Troy. Some of his most beautiful poems 
are inspired by his love for a lady whom 
he addresses as Lesbia, a passion which 
seems to have been the ruin of his life. 
She has been, with great probability, iden- 
tified with the beautiful and gifted, but 
unprincipled sister of the notorious Clodius, 
and wife of Metellus Celer. Catullus was, 
in his eighteenth year, so overmastered by 
his passion for her, that he was unable, 
even after he had broken off all relations 
with her, and come to despise her, to dis- 
entangle himself. 

In his intercourse with his numerous 
friends Catullus was bright and amiable, 
but unsparing in the ridicule he poured 
upon his enemies. He held aloof from 
public life, and from any active participa- 
tion in politics, but none the less bitterly 
did he hate those whom he thought respon- 
sible for the internal decline of the Re- 
public — themselves and all their creatures. 
On Caesar, though his own father's guest, 
and on his dissolute favourite Mamurra, he 
makes violent attacks. But he is said to 
have apologized to Caesar, who magnani- 
mously forgave him. 

Catullus' poems have not all survived. 
We still possess 116, which, with the ex- 
ception of three, are included in a collection 
dedicated to Cornelius Nepos. The first 
half is taken up with minor pieces of various 
contents, and written in different lyric 
metres, especially the iambic. Then follows 
a series of longer poems, amongst them the 
wonderful lament of Attis, wonderful in 
spite of the repulsiveness of its subject ; 
the epic narrative of the marriage of Peleus 

and Thetis, and a paraphrase of Callima- 
chus' best elegy, " The Lock of Berenice." 
These are all in the Alexandrian manner. 
The remaining poems are short, and of dif- 
ferent contents, but all written in elegiacs. 

Catullus takes his place in the history 
of literature as the earliest classical metrist 
among the Romans. He is a complete 
master of all varieties of verse. More than 
this, he has the art of expressing every 
phase of feeling in the most natural and 
beautiful style ; love, fortunate and unfor- 
tunate, sorrow for a departed brother, 
wanton sensuality, the tenderest friendship, 
the bitterest contempt, and the most burning 
hatred. Even his imitations of the Greek 
are not without an original stamp of their 

Caupona. See Lxxs. 

Causia (Gr. Kausia). A flat, broad-brim- 
med felt hat, worn in Macedonia and by the 
Macedonian soldiers. When worn by per- 
sons high in society it was coloured purple : 
the kings of Macedon surrounded it with 
the ro}-al diadem, and thus the purple 
causia with the diadem continued to be the 
emblem of sovereignty in the kingdoms 
which arose from the empire of Alexander. 
The Macedonian hat was in later times 
adopted by fishermen and sailors at Rome, 
and in the imperial period was worn by the 
higher classes in the theatre as a protection 
against the sun. 

Cavea. See Theatre. 

Cebes (Gr. Kibes). A Greek philosopher, 
the author of a school-book called Pinax or 
"The Picture," which was very popular, and 
was translated into Arabic. It is a dialogue 
upon an allegorical picture, representing the 
condition of the soul before its union with 
the body, and the nature of human life in 
general. The purport of the conversation 
is to prove that the foundations of happi- 
ness are development of the mind and the 
conscious practice of virtue. It is doubtful 
to which Cebes the book is to be referred, 
for there were two philosophers of the 
name. One was Cebes of Thebes, the dis- 
ciple of Socrates, who wrote three philoso- 
phical dialogues, one of which bore the 
title Pinax • the other was a Stoic of Cyzi- 
cus, who flourished in the 2nd century a.d. 

Cecrops (Gr. Kekrops). One of the abori- 
gines of Attica, and as such represented with 
a human body ending in a serpent (see cut). 
In the later story he was erroneously repre- 
sented as having come to Attica from Sals 
in Egypt. He was said to have been the 
first king of Attica, which was called after 



li i nt < Hi' iliviiini iiif rada in 

li:ilni.iiiis into t« elva oommuo anded 

the ■tron| hold oi Athens, which nru oalled 
( leoropia .11 tar him, tnd Introduced the ele 

(Vase painting at Talermo.) 

ments of civilization, the laws of marriage 
and property, the earliest political arrange- 
ments, and the earliest religious services, 
notably those of Zeus and Athene. 

When Poseidon and Athene were con- 
tending for the possession of the land, 
Poseidon struck the rock of the acropolis 
with his trident, and water (or, according 
to another story, the horse) sprang forth : 
but Athene planted the first olive tree. 
Cecrops, on being called in to decide be- 
tween them, gave judgment in favour of the 
goddess, as having conferred on the land the 
more serviceable gift. 

Cecrops had four children by his wife 
Agraulos : a son Erfsichthon, who died 
childless, and three daughters, Agraulos, 
Herse, and Paudrosos. The names of the 
last two show them to be the deities of the 
fertilizing dew ; and indeed the three were 
regarded as in the service of Athene, and 
as giving fruitfulness to the fields. Pan- 
drosos was Athene's first priestess. She 
had a shrine of her own (Pandrdseum) in 
the temple of Erechtheus on the acropolis, 
and was invoked in times of drought with 
the two Attic Hor<v, Thallo and Carpo 
(see Erechtheum ). In her temple stood 
the sacred olive which Athene had created. 

Celaeno (Gr. Kelaino). (1) See Harpies. 
(2) See Pleiades. 

Ceieus (Gr. Keic-os). A king of Eleusis, in 

home I I'MniNi . v. I I og for bar 

daughl red an affectionate welcome 

and oomfoi t « bile tending her newlj 

■on I >i in"|'li""ii. {Set I >i mi 1 1 r ana I h 

Cella. Set Temple. 

CclsilS i .1. ' '"/-<<• litU . A B ant. 

eminent in several branches ol knowledge, 
who flourished in the age ol Tiberius, a. n. 
I I B7. Ilf was the am nor oi 
olopsdic work called i> would seem ArU», 

desig I after the manner of Vano' D 

pllnce. The work of Celsus included more 

than 'J' i I ks, treating of agriculture, 

medicine, philosophy, rhetoric, and tb 
of war. Of these all that remain are i 
7-13, Dt MSdidna. This is the earliest and 

the most considerable work of the sort in 
the extant Roman Literature. The mat 

VI hieh the author has collected, partly from 
Greek sources, parti}' from his own expe- 
rience, is treated iu systematic order, and 
with a purity of style which won for ('• Is IS 
the name of the Cicero of physicians. 

Cena. .See Meals. 

Cenaculum. See EotJSE. 

Cfenotaphium (Gr. KSnStdpMdn). See 

Censores (Roman). The officials whose 
duty it was (after 444 B.C.) to take the 
place of the consuls in superintending the 
five-yearly census. The office was one of the 
higher magistracies, and could only be held 
once by the same person. It was at first 
confined to the Patricians ; in 351 B.C. it 
was thrown open to the Plebeians, and after 
, 339 one of the censors was obliged by law 
to be a plebeian. On occasion of a census, 
the censors were elected soon after the ac- 
cession to office of the new consuls, who 
presided over the assembly. They were 
usually chosen from the number of consu- 
lages, or persons who had been consuls. 
Accordingly the censorship was regarded, if 
not as the highest office of state, at least as 
the highest step in the ladder of promotion. 
The newly elected censors entered imme- 
diately, after due summons, upon their office. 
Its duration was fixed in 433 B.C. to eighteen 
months, but it could be extended for certain 
purposes. For the object of carrying out 
their proper duties, the census and the. 
solemn purifications (lustrum) that con- 
cluded it, they had the power of summon- 
ing the people to the Campus Martins, 
where, since 434 B.C., they had an official 
residence in the Villa Publica. The tri- 
bunes had no right of veto as against their 
proceedings in taking the census ; indeed, 



so far as this part of their duties was con- 
cerned, they were irresponsible, being bound 
only in conscience by the oath which they 
took on entering upon and laying down 
their office. Having no executive powers, 
they had no lictors, but only messengers 
(etdtdrcs) and heralds (pra'cones). Their 
insignia were the sella eurillis and a purple 
toga. The collegial character of the office 
was so pronounced, that if one censor died, 
the other abdicated. From the simple act 
of taking the census and__ putting up the 
new list of citizens, their functions were 
in course of time extended, so as to include 
a number of very important duties. Among 
these must be mentioned in particular a 
general superintendence of conduct (regimen 
mOram). In virtue of this they had the 
power of affixing a stigma on any citizen, 
regardless of his position, for any conceiv- 
able offence for which there was no legal 
punishment. Such offences were neglect 
of one's property, celibacy, dissolution of 
marriage, bad training or bad treatment 
of children, undue severity to slaves and 
clients, irregular life, abuse of power in 
office, impiety, perjury, and the like. The 
offender might be punished with degrada- 
tion ; that is, the censors could expel a man 
from the senate or ordo equestcr, or they 
could transfer him from a country tribe 
into one of the less respectable city tribes, 
and thus curtail his right of voting, or 
again they could expel him from the tribes 
altogether, and thus completely deprive 
him of the right of voting. This last pen- 
alty might be accompanied by a fine in the 
shape of additional taxation. The censors 
had also the power of issuing edicts against 
practices which threatened the simplicity 
of ancient Roman manners ; for instance, 
against luxury. These edicts had not the 
force of law, but their transgression might 
be punished by the next censors. The 
effect of the censorial stigma and punish- 
ment lasted until the next census. The 
consent of both censors was required to 
ratify it, and it directly affected men only, 
not women. The censors exercised a special 
superintendence over the equites and the 
senate. They had the lectio sen&tus, or 
power of ejecting unworthy members and 
of passing over new candidates for the sena- 
torial rank, as, for instance, those who had 
held curule offices. The equites had to 
pass singly, each leading his horse, before 
the censors in the forum, after the comple- 
tion of the general census. An honourable 
dismissal was then given to the superan- 

nuated or the infirm ; if an eques was now 
found, or had previously been found, un- 
worthy of his order (as for neglecting to care 
for his horse), he was expelled from it. The 
vacant places were filled up from the number 
of such individuals as appeared from the 
general census to be suitable. There were 
certain other duties attached to the censor- 
ship, for the due performance of which they 
were responsible to the people, and subject to 
the authority of the senate and the veto of 
the tribunes. (1) The letting of the public 
domain lands and taxes to the highest bidder. 
(2) The acceptance of tenders from the 
lowest bidder for works to be paid for by 
the State. In both these cases the period 
was limited to five years. (3) Superinten- 
dence of the construction and maintenance 
of public buildings and grounds, temples, 
bridges, sewers, aqueducts, streets, monu- 
ments, and the like. 

After 167 B.C. Roman citizens were freed 
from all taxation, and since the time of 
Marius the liability to military service was 
made general. The censorship was now a 
superfluous office, for its original object, the 
census, was hardly necessary. Sulla disliked 
the censors for their power of meddling in 
matters of private conduct, and accordingly 
in his constitution of 81 B.C. the office was, 
if not formally abolished, practically super- 
seded. It was restored in 70 B.C. in the 
consulship of Pompey and Crassus, and con- 
tinued to exist for a long time, till under 
the Empire it disappeared as a separate 
office. The emperor kept in his own hands 
the right of taking the census. He took 
over also the other functions of the censor, 
especially the supervision of morals, a pro- 
ceeding in which he had Csesar's example to 
support him. The care of public buildings, 
however, he committed to a special body. 

Censorinus. A Roman scholar of the 
3rd century a.d. Besides some grammatical 
treatises now lost, he was the author 
of a short book, De Die Xcltclll (" On the 
Day of Birth "), in which he treats of the 
influence of the stars on the birth of men, 
of the various stages of life, and the different 
modes of reckoning time. In the course of 
the work he gives a number of valuable 
historical and chronological notices. 

Census. After the establishment of the 
constitution of Serving Tullius the number 
of Roman citizens was ascertained every 
five years (though not always with per- 
fect regularity) to determine their legal 
liability to the payment of taxes and to 
military service. This process was called 

: \i l;l < > J TO 

<•< nun*, 'l'lui osnraa wii originally i 
by the kings; altar the expulsion "i the 
hongi by taa eon rail \ aftai ' • ' B.O. by 
i offioen oalled o ruori n - I 'i nboreh , 
The oensora took the auspices on the night 

{ireceding the oanini) on the next day their 
teralil summoned tlic i pi.' i" the Campus 

'■I ins, where they bad an official residence 
in tin' villa publico. Each tribe app 
asaively before them, and its citizens 
summoned individually according to 
the existing register. Bach had I 
oath ins age, liis own name, those of his 
father, Ins w ife, his i bildren, liis abode, and 
the amount of Ins property. Tin' facta were 
embodied in lists by tin assistants. 

The census oi the provinces was sent in by 
the provincial governors. There was a 
special commission tor numbering the armies 
outside the Italian frontier. The censors, 
in nutting up the new lists, took into con- 
ation not only a man's property but 
his moral conduct (si t I i MS ires, p. 122a . 
The census was concluded with the solemn 
ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted 
army (lustrum). [See Lustrum.) The re- 
publican census continued to exist under 
the early Empire, but the last lustrum was 
held by Vespasian and Titus in a.d. 74. The 
provincial census, introduced by Augustus 
and maintained during the whole imperial 
period, had nothing to do with the Roman 
census, being only a means of ascertaining 
the taxable capacities of the provinces. 

Centauri (Gr. Kentauroi). Homer and the 
older mythology represent the Centaurs are 
a rude, wild race, fond of wine and women, 
dwelling in the mountains of Thessaly, es- 
pecially on Pelion and (Eta. In Homer they 
are spoken of as shaggy animals, living in 
the mountains. It was, perhaps, not until the 
5th century B.C. that they were represented 
in the double shape now familiar to us. 
Originally the Centaur was conceived as a 
being with the body of a man standing on 
a horse's legs ; but in later times the human 
body was represented as rising up in the 
front of a horse's body and four legs (see cut). 
According to one version of the current 
legend they were the offspring of Nephele 
and Ixion ; according to another, the son 
of this pair, Kentaurds, begat them upon 
mares (see Ixion). The story of their 
contest with the Laplthse at the wedding 
of Pirithous, born of their drunkenness and 
lust, is as early as Homer [Iliad i 268, 
Odyssey xxi 295 foil.] {See Pirithous.) 
In Homer Nestor, and in the later story 
Theseus, are represented as taking part in 

it. It 

and artists. Tli.- I ii iv. ii 

from Pelion by Pirithous and tin- Lapitha, 

and even tl Chiron was forced to %c 


(Paris, Louvre.) 

with them (see Chiron). Artists were 
always fond of treating the fabulous combats 
of the Centaurs and the heroes of old : but 
in later times the Centaurs appear in a 
different light. They form part of the 
following of Dionysus, moving. peaceably in 
his festal train among satyrs, nymphs, and 
Bacchants, drawing the victorious car of the 
god and his queen Ariadne, playing on the 
lyre, and guided by gods of love. The 
forms of women and children were some- 
times represented in the shape of Centaurs, 
and used in various ways by artists for their 
smaller pictures. For the Centauro-Tritones 
or Ichthijuccntaurt {" Fish-Centaurs '") see 

Cento. Properly a patchwork garment. 
In its secondary meaning the word was 
applied to a poem composed of verses or 
parts of verses by well-known poets put 
together at pleasure, so as to make a new- 
meaning. Homer and Vergil were chiefly 
used for the purpose. The Christians were 
fond of making religious poems in this way, 
hoping thus to give a nobler colouring to 
the pagan poetry. For instance, we have a 
Homeric cento of 2,343 verses on the Life 
of Christ, ascribed to Athenai's, who, under 
the title of Eudocia, was consort of the 



emperor Theodosius II. Another instance 
is a poem known as the Christus pdtlens, 
or " the suffering Christ," consisting of 
2,610 verses from Euripides. Instances of 
Vergilian centos are the sacred history of 
Proba Faltonia (towards the end of the 
4th century A.D.), and a tragedy entitled 
Medea by Hosidius Geta. 

Centumvlri (" The hundred men "). This 
was the title of the single jury for the trial 
of civil causes at Rome. In the republican 
age it consisted of 105 members, chosen from 
the tribes (three from each of the thirty-five). 
Under the Empire its number was increased 
to 180. It was divided into four sections 
(consilia), and exercised its jurisdiction in 
the name of the people, partly in sections, 
partly as a single collegium. It had to deal 
with questions of property, and particu- 
larly with those of inheritance. In the 
later years of the Republic it was presided 
over by men of quaestorian rank ; but from 
the time of Augustus by a commission of 
ten (decern viri lltibus iudicandls). The 
pleadings were oral, and the proceedings 
public. In earlier times they took place 
in the forum ; under the Empire in a basi- 
lica. In the imperial age the centumviral 
courts were the only sphere in which an 
ambitious orator or lawyer could win dis- 
tinction. The last mention of them is in 
395 a.d. The peculiar symbol of the cen- 
tumviral court was a hasta or spear (see 

Centuria (" a hundred "). In the Roman 
army of the regal period the centuria was 
a division of lOO cavalry soldiers. In the 
half-military constitution of Servius Tullius 
the word was applied to one of the 193 
divisions into which the king divided the 
patrician and plebeian populus according 
to their property, with the view of allotting 
to each citizen his due share of civil rights 
and duties. Of the 193 centurke 18 con- 
sisted of cavalry soldiers (100 each) belong- 
ing to the richest class of citizens. The next 
17U, whose members were to serve as infantr y, 
fell into five classes. The first 80 included 
those citizens whose property amounted to 
at least 100,000 asses. The second, third, 
and fourth, containing each 20 centuries, 
represented a minimum property of 75,000, 
50,000, and 25,000 asses respectively. The 
fifth, with 30 centuries, represented a mini- 
mum of 12,500, 11,000 or 10,000 asses. 
These 170 centurise were again divided into 
85 centuries of iunlores, or men from 18-45 
years of age, who served in the field ; and 
85 of senlures, citizens from 46 to 60 years 

of age, who served on garrison duty in the 
city. Besides these there were 2 centuries 
of mechanics (fabrum), and 2 of musicians 
(comiclnum, and tubicinum). 

The centuria: fabrum were enrolled be- 
tween the first and second class : the centuries 
cornicinum and tubicinum between the 
fourth and fifth. The 193d centuria con- 
sisted of citizens whose income fell below 
the minimum standard of the rest, and who 
were called proletdrii or cdpitS censi. 
These last had originally no function beyond 
that of voting at the assembly of the 
citizens in the comitia centuriata, and wei-e 
not liable to military service. But in later 
times the richer among them were admitted 
to serve in the army. A fresh division of 
centuria} was made at every census. The 
military equipment of each citizen, and his 
position in battle array, was determined 
by the class to which his property entitled 
him to belong. (See Legion.) On the poli- 
tical position of the different classes see 
Comitia (2). 

In military parlance centuria meant one 
of the 60 divisions of the legion, each of 
which was commanded by a centurio. 

Centuriata Comitia. See Comitia (2). 

Centuriones. The captains of the 60 cen- 
turies of the Roman legion. They carried a 
staff of vinewood as their badge of office. 
In the republican age they were appointed, 
on the application of the legion, by the 
military tribunes on the commission of the 
consuls. There were various degrees of rank 
among the centurions according as they be- 
longed to the three divisions of the triarii, 
principes, and liastdti, and led the first or 
second centuria of one of the 30 manipuli. 

The centurion of the first centuria of a 
manipidus led his manipulus himself, and 
as centurio prior ranked above the leader of 
the second centuria, or centurio posterior. 
The highest rank belonged to the first cen- 
turio of the first manipulus of the triarii, 
the primipilus or primus pllus, who was 
admitted to the council of war. The method 
of promotion was as follows : The cen- 
turiones had to work first through the 30 
lower centuries of the 30 manipuli of the 
hastati, principes, and triarii, and then 
through the 30 upper centuria! up to the 

After the end of the Republic and under 
the Empire the legion was usually divided 
into 10 cohorts ranked one above the other, 
each cohort consisting of three manipuli or 
six centuria 1 . The division into priores 
and posteriores, and into triarii, principes 

CKPH \ .1 KCIS. 


tnd hastati »ti\] remained, bul only foi the 

oentnrioni and within irt, which 

Jwkya inolnded n prior end 

posterior of the three ranks in question. 

The method oi promoti which wu |>r- 

I arly fixed until the time of 
the standing armies of the Empire, seems to 
old one, thi i 

up by a 1"\\ er stage through all i 

and the higher stage always beginning in 
the tenth. The Brsl centurion of i u b 
cohort probably led it. and was admitted to 
the council oi war. The promotion usually 
d with the advana menl to the rank of 
primipihi8. [f a centurion who had re 
this point did not i retire, he w as 

employed on special services, as commandant 
of a fortress for instance. Under the 
Empire, however, exceptional cases occurred 
of promotion to higher posts. 

Cephalus i^Gr. KZpJidlhs I. In Greek mytho- 
logy the son of Hermes and Herse, the daugh- 
ter oJ Cecrops king of Athens. According to 
another story he was s<m of Delfin of Phocis 
and Pi. 'in. IS, and migrated from Phocis to 
Thoricus in Attica. He was married to 
is. the daughter of Erechtheus, and 
lived with her in the closest affection. But 
while hunting one day in the mountains, lie 
was carried away for his beaut}- by Eos, the 
goddess of the dawn. To estrange his wife's 
heart from him, Eos sent him to her in the 
form of a stranger, who, by the offer of 
splendid presents, succeeded in making her 
waver in her fidelity. Cephalus revealed 
himself, and Procris, in shame, fled to Crete, 
where she lived with Artemis as a huntress. 
Artemis (or, according to another storv, 
Minos), gave her a dog as swift as the wind, 
and a spear that never missed its aim. On 
returning to Attica she met Cephalus hunt- 
ing. He failed to recognise her, and offered 
his love if she would give him her dog and 
her spear. She then revealed herself, and, 
the balance of offence being thus redressed, 
the lovers were reconciled and returned to 
their old happy life together. But Procris 
at last fell a victim to her jealousy. When 
Cephalus went out hunting, he used often 
to call on Aura, or the breeze, to cool his 
heat. Procris was told of this, and, sup- 
posing Aura to be some nymph, hid herself 
in a thicket to watch him. Hearing a 
rustling near him. and thinking a wild 
beast was in the thicket, Cephalus took aim 
with the unerring spear which Procris had 
given him, and slew his wife. For this 
murder he was banished, and fled to Boeotia. 
Here he assisted Amphitryon in the chase I 

of the Taumi 

and the hunted annual were turn 
by Z'us. Sni l Amphi- 

tryon in his expedition again 
and, to on< a< i ount, bet ame 

of the Oephalleniat irding 

Jul; from the promontory oi 1. .-.■, on 
which he had founded a temple to Apollo, 

Cepheus (Gr. Kephctu . I The son of 
Bedus, kini; of Ethiopia, husband I 

pfiS and father of Andromeda. 8( < AmiKu- 

■-'. Son of At.'-ns. king of Tfigea and bro- 
ther of Augfi see Telephi b). tie fell with 
his twenty sons when fighting on the side 
.I BfiraclSs against Bipp6c5on of Sparta. 

Cephis6d6tus (Gr. KSpJOsSdOtOs). A 
Greek artist, born at Athens, and connected 
with the family of Praxiteles. He flourished 
towards the end of the 4th century B.C. 
The celebrated statue now in the Glyptothek 
at Munich, representing Eirene with the 
infant Plutus in her arms, is probably a 
cop}' of a work by Cephisodotus (see cut, 
under ElRENE). There was another Cephi- 
sodotus, a contemporary of his, and the son 
of Praxiteles, who was likewise in high 
repute as a sculptor. 

Cer (Gr. KBr). In Greek mythology, a 
goddess of death, especially of violent death 
in battle. In Hesiod she is the daughter of 
Nyx (night), and sister of Moros (the 
doom of death), Hypnos (sleep), and Dreams. 
The poets commonly speak of several Keres, 
goddesses of different kinds of death . Homer 
and Hesiod represent them as clothed in 
garments stained by human blood, and drag- 
ging the dead and wounded about on the 
field of battle. Every man has his allotted 
Doom, which overtakes him at the appointed 
time. Achilles alone has two, with the 
power to choose freely between them. In 
later times the Eeres are represented 
generally as powers of destruction, and as 
associated with the Erinyes, goddesses of 
revenge and retribution. 

Cerberus (Gr. Kerbcros). In Greek mytho- 
logy, the three-headed dog, with hair of 
snakes, son of Typhaon and Echidna, who 
watches the entrance of the lower w-orld. 
He gives a friendly greeting to all who enter, 
but if any one attempts to go out, he seizes 
him and holds him fast. When Heracles, at 
the command of Eurystheus, brought him 
from below to the upper world, the poison- 
ous aconite sprang up from the foam of his 
mouth. (See the cuts to the article Hades.) 

Cercis (Gr. Kcrkls). See Theatre. 




Cercyon (Gr. Kerkyon). In Greek mytho- 
logy the son of Poseidon, and father of 
Alope, who lived at Eleusis, and compelled 
all passers-by to wrestle with him. He was 
conquered and slain by the young Theseus, 
who gave the kingdom of Eleusis to his 
grandson, Hippothoon. {See Alope, and 

Cerealia. See Ceres. 

C8res. An old Italian goddess of agri- 
culture. The Ceres who was worshipped at I 
Rome is, however, the same as the Greek 
Demeter. Her cidtits was introduced under 
the Italian name at the same time as that 
of Dionysus and Persephone, who in the 
same way received the Italian names of 
Liber and Libera. It was in 496 B.C., on the 
occasion of a drought, that the Sibylline 
books ordered the introduction of the wor- 
ship of the three deities. This worship was 
so decidedly Greek that the temple dedi- 
cated on a spur of the Aventine in 490 B.C., 
over the entrance to the Circus, was built 
in Greek style and by Greek artists ; and 
the service of the goddess, founded on the 
Greek fable of Demeter and Persephone, 
was performed in the Greek tongue by 
Italian women of Greek extraction. The 
worshippers of the goddess were almost 
exclusively plebeian. Her temple was placed 
under the care of the plebeian sediles, who 
{as overseers of the corn market) had their 
official residence in or near it. The fines 
which they imposed went to the shrine of 
Ceres, so did the property of persons who 
had offended against them, or against the 
tribunes of the plebs. Just as the Patricians 
entertained each other with mutual hospi- 
talities at the Megalesian games( April 4—10), 
so did the Plebeians at the Cerealia, or games 
introduced at the founding of the temple of 
Ceres. Those held in later times were given 
by the sediles from the 12th-19th April, and 
another festival t:> Ceres, held in August, 
was established before the Second Punic 
War. This was celebrated by women in ; 
honour of the reunion of Ceres and Proser- 
pina. After fasting for nine da\-s, the women, 
clothed in white, and adorned with crowns of 
ripe ears of corn, offered to the goddess the 
firstfruits of the harvest. After 191 B.C. a 
fast {ieiunlum Cereris) was introduced by 
command of the Sibylline books. This was 
originally observed every four years, but in 
later times was kept annually on the 4th of 
October. The native Italian worship of 
Ceres was probably maintained in its purest 
form in the country. Here the country 
offered Ceres a sow {porca prceeiddnea) 

before the beginning of the harvest, and 
dedicated to her the first cuttings of the 
corn (pr&metium). {See Demeter.) 

Ceryx (Gr. Keryx). The son of Pandrosos 
and Hermes, and the ancestor of the Keryces 
of Eleusis (see Ceryx, 2). Herse (or Erse) 
was mother, by Hermes, of the beautiful 
Cephalus (see Cephalus). She had a special 
festival in her honour, the Arrheph&rla (see 
Arrephoria). Agraulos, mother of Al- 
cippe, by Ares, was said in one story to 
have thrown herself down from the citadel 
during a war to save her country. It was, 
accordingly, in her precincts on the Acro- 
polis that the young men of Athens, when 
they received their spears and shields, took 
their oath to defend their country to the 
death, invoking her name with those of the 
Charites Auxo and Hegemone. According 
to another story, Athene entrusted Erich- 
thonius to the keeping of the three sisters 
in a closed chest, with the command that 
they were not to open it. Agraulos and 
Herse disobeyed, went mad, and threw 
themselves down from the rocks of the 

Ceryx (Gr. Keryx). (1) The Greek name 
for a herald. In the Homeric age the keryx 
is the official servant of the king, who 
manages his household, attends at his meals, 
assists at sacrifices, summons the assem- 
blies and maintains order and tranquillity 
in them. He also acts as ambassador to the 
enemy, and, as such, his person is, both in 
ancient times and ever afterwards, inviol- 
able. In historical times the herald, be- 
sides the part which he plays in the politi- 
cal transactions between different cities, 
appears in the service of the gods. He an- 
nounces the sacred truce observed at the 
public festivals, commands silence at reli- 
gious services, dictates the forms of prayer 
to the assembled community, and performs 
many services in temples where there is 
only a small staff of attendants, especially 
b}- assisting in the* sacrifices. He has also 
a great deal to do in the service of the 
State. At Athens, in particular, one or 
more heralds were attached to the various 
officials and to the government boards. It 
was also the herald's business to summon 
the council and the public assembly, to re- 
cite the prayer before the commencement of 
business, to command silence, to call upon 
the speaker, to summon the parties in a 
lawsuit to attend the court, and to act in 
general as a public crier. As a rule, the 
heralds were taken from the poor, and the 
lower orders. At Athens they had a salary, 

ci n:\ CHAIRS 

! •' 

.in' l took thai all al (ha public exp 

with il fBoiali to "li"ni they wen >■ 

taobed, < In l be berald'i ttafl (Gi fci ry- 

fc, ftjjl, Lat. r,i,hh-, us !, ft e III RMES. 

(2) lu < ; i . ■. • k ni\ ; bologj , the son of 
Herme . the herald el the goda. by Agrauloa 
: he daughter ol I lea ips, oi ding to 

another atory) oi BSumolpua, and anoeator of 
the Eleuaiman family of the EL6r*k8s, one 
of whoaa members always performed the 
functions "f a herald at the Eleusinian 

m\ stories. 

Cetra. The li^ht shield of the Roman 
auxiliaries. | S< e Shield.) 

Ceyx (Or. A', j/x). En Greek mythology, (1) 
A king of Trachis, the friend and nephew 
of HSraolSs. (See Heracles.) 

(■_') The Bon of SSOaphOrOa or the Morn- 
ing-Star, and the nymph Phllonis ; the 
husband of Alkyoiio or Halky6n§, daughter 
of the Theaa&lian iEolua. The pair w< re 
arrogant enough to style themselves Zeua 
and Hera, and won- accordingly changed 
respectively by Zeus into the birds of the 
Bame name, a diver and a kingfisher. 
Another story confused Ceyx with the king 
of Traohis, and dwelt ou the tender love of 
the pair for each other. Ceyx is drowned 
at sea, and Alcyone finds his body cast up 
upon his native shore. The cods take pity 
on her grief, and change the husband and 
wife into kingfishers (alcySnSs i, whose affec- 
tion for each other in the pairing season was 
proverbial. Zens, or, according to another 
story, the wind-god JEolus (Sometimes repre- 
sented as the father of Alcyone), bids the 
winds rest for seven days before and after 
the shortest day, to allow the kingfishers to 
.sit on their eggs by the sea. Hence the 
expression "halcyon days," applied to this 
season. Dasdalion, the brother of Ce3 - x, 
was turned into a hawk, when he threw 
liimself from a rock on Parnassus in grief 
,at the death of his daughter Chione. 

Chalcus (Gr. Chalkous). See Coinage 

Chaldsei. See Astrology. 

Chads. According to Hesiod, the yawn- 
ing, unfathomable ab3ss which was the first 
of all existing things. From Chaos arose 
Gaia (Earth), Tartarus (Hell), and Eros 
(Love). Chaos bore Erebus and Night ; 
from their union sprang ^Ether and Hcmcra 
(Sky and Day). The conception of Chaos 
as the confused mass out of which, in the 
beginning, the separate forms of things 
arose, is erroneous, and belongs to a later 

Chaeremon. A Greek tragedian, who 
flourished at Athens about 380 B.C. His 

si j la ■ ■' li and p ■■-, but hi< 

u era ai l ifioial, ana bettei adapted i"i 
reading i ban f"i p rl A few 

"!' them remain, which ihow 
Lmaginai ive power. 

Chairs and Seats. Of theae there 
a greal variety in the ancient world, 
with, and some without, aupporti for the 

and back. The latter BOTi Qt 

diphrSs, Lat. tella) were mostly low, and 

(From Greek Vases.) 


(From Greek Vases.) 

(Zeus, Coin of Elis.) 

were supported sometimes on four upright 
legs, sometimes on feet arranged and shaped 
like a sawing stool (see cuts). The seat 
being made of leather straps, the chair could, 
in the latter case, be folded up and carried 
by a servant. A chair of this kind, made of 
ivory, was one of the insignia of the curule 
magistrates at Rome (see Sella Curulis). 
The official chair of the Roman magis- 
trates was always without a back. Stools 



without backs were also used by mechanics, 
soldiers, and boys at school. The backed 
chairs ordinarily in use much resembled our 
modern chairs. They generally had a slop- 
ing back, sometimes arched out in the centre 
(see cuts). Chairs of this form were made 
for women and invalids; and the cathedra 
or professor's chair was of the same descrip- 
tion. The Greek thronds and the Latin 
solium were seats of honour. They were 
lofty, and had footstools accordingly ; the 
back was high and straight, the legs were 
upright, and there were arms at the sides. 
The Roman pater familias, when giving 
his clients their morning audience, sat in 
a solium. Seats were not always stuffed, 
but cushions were put on them, and cover- 
ings on the backs. Chairs were made of 
metal and ivory, as well as of wood. 

Chares. (1) Chares of Mityltne. 
A Greek historian, court-marshal of 
Alexander the Great. He was the 
author of a comprehensive work, con- 
taining at least ten books, upon the 
life, chiefly the domestic life, of this 
monarch. This history had the repu- 
tation of being trustworthy and in- 
teresting. Only a few fragments of 
it remain. 

(2) Chares of Lindas in Rhodes. 
A Greek artist, a pupil of Lysippus. 
In 278 B.C. he produced the largest 
statue known in antiquity, the colos- 
sal image of the sun, 280 feet high, 
placed at the entrance of the harbour 
of Rhodes, and general!}' known as 
the Colossus of Rhodes. This was 
destroyed by an earthquake as early 
as 222 B.C. The thumbs were thicker than 
the average span of a man's hand, the 
fingers larger than many ordinary statues. 

Chariots. (1) Greek. The racing chariots 
in use at the public games require especial 
mention. These preserved the form of the 
war-chariots of the heroic age, made to 
carry the warrior and his charioteer (see 
cut). They were also used at Rome in 
the games of the circus and in festal 
processions. The chariot had two low 
wheels, usually with four spokes each. On 
these rested the car (see cut), elliptically 
shaped in front, protected by a board 
rising to the knees of the driver in front, 
and sloping off to the rear, where the 
chariot was open. In the triumphal chariot 
of the Romans this board was breast high. 
At the end of the pole was fastened the yoke. 
This consisted either of a simple arched 
piece of wood, or of two rings connected 

by a cross-beam, and was fixed on the necks 
of the two horses or mules which were next 
to the pole. Sometimes a third and fourth 
horse were attached by means of a rope 
passing from the neckband to a rail form- 
ing the top of the front board. It was 
indeed the universal custom in antiquity to 
make the two principal horses draw by the 
yoke. It was only the extra horses that drew 
by traces, and this always at the side of the 
others, never in front of them. Carriages 
in ordinary use sometimes had two, some- 
times four wheels. They were used mostly 
for carrying burdens. Only women, as a 
rale, travelled in carriages ; men usually 
either walked or rode, thinking it affecta- 
tion to drive except in case of old age or 
illness. It was, however, customary at 
Athens and elsewhere for a bride to be 


(Vase painting.) 

drawn to the house of the bridegroom in a 
carriage drawn by mules or oxen, sitting 
between the bridegroom and his friend. 

(2) Rome. Among the Romans we find a 
great variety of carriages in use, for trans- 
port, travelling and state occasions. This 
variety is apparent in the number of differ- 
ent names, which cannot however always 
be referred with certainty to the forms of 
carriage presented in works of art. The 
various kinds of travelling-carriages must 
have been borrowed from abroad, as is 
proved by their names. The redo, for 
instance, came from Gaul. This was a four- 
wheeled travelling carriage for family and 
baggage, or for company. The cisium and 
esse~dum were light two-wheeled convey- 
ances. The essedum was probably a Gaulish 
war-chariot, as the covinnus was a British 
war-chariot. The four-wheeled pilenhim 
came also from Gaul. It was drawn by 


:uiil generally ued bj (hi 
and suite. The piletttum and covinnui 

u era usi'.i on « ere 

both covered carriages, the pilenta having 
tour wheels, the covinnui two. The covin- 
mm often mentioned in the Literature of the 
empire had four wheels, and resembled a 
We moat also mention the tAenso, a 
chariot adorned with gold and ivory, in 
which ili<> images of the Rods and deified 
emperors, lying opon a onahion on a frame 
or a litter, wore borne to the circus thi 
the streets and the Forum al the CSrcensian 
games. Tho use of carriages for travelling 
purposes was allowed in Roman society, 
but there was very little driving in Rome 
itself. Married ladies were from very old 
tunes permitted the use of carpi nta in the 
city, and to drive in pilenta to sacrifices 
and games. The privilege was said to 
have been granted them in acknowledgment 
of their contributions to the ransom of the 
city after it was burnt by the Gauls, B.C. 390. 
In 45 B.C. Ca?sar finally restricted their pri- 
vilege to the public sacrifices to which the 
Vestal Virgins, the married ladies, and the 
flamcns also drove in pilenta. 

Men were strictly forbidden to drive in 
the city, except iu two cases. A general 
at his triumph was borne to the circus in a 
gilded chariot drawn by four horses and in 
the procession w^hich preceded the games of 
the circus, the magistrates rode in chariots 
drawn by two horses. Six horses were 
sometimes allowed to the emperor. Through- 
out the cities of the empire driving in the 
streets was generally forbidden in the first 
two centuries after Christ. At length, in 
the 3rd century, the use of a carriage was 
allowed as a privilege to the senators and 
high imperial officials, who rode in carrucce 
plated with silver. In later times private 
citizens were permitted to drive in these 
coaches. Wagons (the general name of 
which was plaustra) were, with certain ex- 
ceptions, forbidden by a law of Caesar to 
ply between sunrise and the tenth hour (4 
in the afternoon), in view of the immense 
traffic in the streets. Some wagons had 
two, some four wheels. They were gener- 
ally drawn by oxen, asses, or mules. If 
they were meant to carry very heavy loads, 
the wheels would be made of one piece and 
without spokes. 

Charisius (Flavins SOstpater). A writer 
on Latin grammar, who flourished towards 
the end of the 4th century a.d. His Ars 
Grammdtica, a work in five books, imper- 
fectly preserved, is a compilation, made with- 

D. C. A. 

oaf much Lntelligi nee, from the woi I 
older scholars. Its value ii derived from 
the numerous ■< 
the older Latin Literature. 

Charlies m Graces. Goddesses 
and of everything which lends oharm 
beauty t<> nature and human life. A 
ing to Hi i I they are the otl 
Zeus and the daughter of Onaniis 
Kuryiimne. Their names are Enphri 
(joy), Thalia (bloom), and Aglai'a i brilliance). 
AgltLi'n is the youngest, and the wife of 
Hephsstus, For the inspiration of the 
Be was deemed as necessary to the 
plastic arts, as to music, poetry, science, 
eloquence, beauty, and enjoyment of life. 
Accordingly the Graces are intimate with 
the Muses, with whom they live together on 
Olyiupia. They are associated, too, with 
Apollo, Athene, Hermes, and Peitho, but 
especially with Eros, Aphrodite, and Diony- 
sus. Bright and blithe-hearted, they were 
also called the daughters of the Sun and 
of jEgle (" Sheen "'). They were worshipped 
in conjunction with Aphrodite and Dionysus 
at Orchomenus in Boeotia, where their shrine 
was accounted the oldest in the place, and 
where their most ancient images were found 
in the shape of stones said to have fallen 
from heaven. It was here that the feast of 
the Charitesia was held in their honour, 
with musical contests. At Sparta, as at 
Athens, two Charites only were worshipped, 
Cleta (Klcta) or Sound, and Phaenna or 
Light ; at Athens their names were Auxo 
(Increase), and Hegemone (Queen). It 
was by these goddesses, and by Agraulos, 
daughter of Cecrops, that the Athenian 
youths, on receiving their spear and shield, 
swore faith to their country. The Charites 
were represented in the form of beautiful 
maidens, the three being generally linked 
hand in hand. In the older representations 
they are clothed : in the later they are 
loosely clad or entirely undraped. 

Chariton, of Aphrodisias in Phrygia. 
The assumed name of the author of a Greek 
romance in eight books, on the fortunes of 
Chaereas and Callirrhoe. He was a Chris- 
tian, probably of the 4th century a.d. 
His treatment of the story is simple, but 
full of life and movement ; the narrative is 
easy and flowing, the language on the whole 
natural and unadorned. 

Charon. (1) In Greek mythology, the son 
of Erebus and the Styx ; the dark and grisly 
old man in a black sailor's cloak, who ferries 
the souls of the dead across the river of 
the lower world for the fare of an obolos. 



The coin was put into the mouth of the 
dead for this purpose. (See Future Life.) 

(2) A Greek historian. (See Logographi.) 

Charybdis. See Scylla. 

Cheiromantla. See Mantike. 

Cheirotonia. A show of hands. The 
usual method of voting in Greek popular 
assemblies, whether at political meetings 
or elections. In elections, the cheirotonia 
was contrasted with the drawing of lots, 
which was usual since the time of Cleis- 
thenes in the case of many offices. 

Cheliddnis. See Aedon. 

Chiliarckus. The leader of a division of 
1,000 men. (See Phalanx.) 

CMmaera. A fire-breathing monster of 
Lycia, destroyed by Bellerophon. Accord- 
ing to Homer the Chimsera was of divine 
origin. In front it was a lion, behind it 
was a serpent, and in the middle a goat, 
and was brought up b}' Amisodarus as a 
plague for many men. Hesiod calls her the 
daughter of Typhaon and Echidna, and by 
Orthos the mother of the Sphinx and the 
Nemean lion. He describes her as large, 
swift-footed, strong, with the heads of a 
lion, and goat, and a serpent. In numerous 
works of art, as in statues, and the coins of 
Corinth, Sicyon, and other cities, the Chi- 
msera is generally represented as a lion, 
with a goat's head in the middle of its back, 
and tail ending in a snake's head. The 
bronze Chimsera of Arretium, now in Flor- 
ence, is a very celebrated work of art. 
Even in antiquity the Chinifera was re- 
garded as a symbol of the volcanic character 
of the Lycian soil. 

Chidne. (1) Daughter of Boreas and 
Oreithyia, mother of Eumolpus by Posei- 
don. (See Eumolpus.) 

(2) Daughter of Daedalion, mother of 
Philainmon by Apollo, and of Autolycus by 
Hermes. She was slain by Artemis for 
venturing to compare her own beauty with 
that of the goddess. (Sec Daedalion.) 

Chiron. A Centaur, son of Cronus and the 
Ocean nymph Philyra. By the Naiad nymph 
Chariclo he was father of Endei's, wife of 
..Eacus, the mother of Peleus and Telamon, 
aud grandmother of Achilles and Ajax. He 
is represented in the fable as wise and just, 
while the other Centaurs are wild and un- 
civilized. He is the master and instructor 
of the most celebrated heroes of Greek 
story, as Actseon, Jason, Castor, Polydeuces, 
Achilles, and Asclepius, to whom he teaches 
the art of healing. Driven by the Laplthse 
from his former dwelling-place, a cave at 
the top of Pelion, he took up his abode on 

the promontory of Malea in Laconia. Here 
he was wounded accidentally with a poisoned 
arrow by his friend Heracles, who was 
pursuing the flying Centaurs (see Pholus). 
To escape from the dreadful pain of the 
wound, he renounced his immortality in 
favour of Prometheus, and was set by Zeus 
among the stars as the constellation Archer. 
Chiton. The undershirt worn by the 
Greeks, corresponding to the Roman tunica. 
Two kinds were commonly distinguished, 
the short Doric chiton of wool (fig. 1) and 

(1) SftLDIEB IN A 


(Bas-relieffromMuller's (Bronze statuette from Hercu- 
Denlcm, I. taf. siis.) laneum, in Naples Museum.) 

the long Ionic tunic of linen, which was 
worn at Athens down to the time of 
Pericles. The chiton consisted of an ob- 
long piece of cloth, wrapped round the 
body. One arm was passed through a hole 
in the closed side, while the two corners 
were joined together by a clasp on the 
shoulder. The garment, which thus hung 
down open on one side, was fastened to- 
gether at both corners, or sometimes sewn 
together below the hips. At the waist it 
was confined by a belt. In course of time 
short sleeves were added to the arm-holes. 
Sleeves reaching to the wrist were by the 
Greeks regarded as effeminate ; but they 
were worn by the Phrygians and Medians, 
and often appear on monuments as part of 
the dress of Orientals. The chiton worn 
on both shoulders was distinctive of free 



n. Workman, won 

u chiton with one armhole onlj for the left 

while the right arm and right b 
w . ■ i . ■ I.- it uncovered. Thiawaa oalled the 

ils. Country folk wore ■ chiton oi 
akina, The chiton worn by Doric Ladiei 

i long garment like ■ chemise, slit up- 
wards on both aides from the hips and bold 

bei by i laspa at the shoulders. In the 

-I young girls it was fastened up so 
high that it hardly reached tin' knees. For 

tin- nst of Greeoe the usual drees of a lady- 
was the Ionian chiton, long, broad, reaohing 
to the feet in many folds, and only drawn 
up ;i short distance by the girdle, from 
this long ladies' chiton was developed tln> 
double chiton, a very long and broad piece 
of cloth, folded together round the body, 
and fastened with clasps at the shoulders. 
It was folded double round the breast and 
. and was open or fastened with clasps 
on the right side, and fell simply down to 
tlu> feet. Sometimes the open side was 
sewn together from the girdle to the lower 
For the garments worn over the 
chiton see Himatiox, Chlahts, and Tri- 

Chlamys. An outer 
garment introduced at 
Athens from Thessaly 
and Macedonia. It con- 
sisted of an oblong piece 
of woollen cloth thrown 
over the left shoulder, 
the open ends being 
fastened with clasps 
on the right shoulder. 
The chlamys was worn 
by {phebT : it was also 
the uniform of general 
officers, like the /)<i/«- 
ddmentum, as it was 
called in later times 
among the Romans. It 
commonly served as an 
overcoat for travelling, 
hunting, and military 
service. (Set' cut.) 

Chloris. (1) The 
personification of the 
spring season, and god- 
dess of flowers, the wife of Zephyrus, mother 
of Carpos (" Fruit "). She was identified by 
the Romans with Flora. {See Flora.) 

(2) Daughter of Amphion of Orchomenus, 
wife of Neleus, mother of Xestor and 
Periclymenus. (iSfee Periclymexus.^ 

Chcerllus. (1) An Athenian dramatist, 
one of the oldest Attic tragedians, who 

(Statue of Phocion, 
Vatican, Rome.) 

appea - early oh MO ■ i 

lb- v. of I'l.itn 

■. lus. Hi-* favourite In i bava 

been the eatyric drama, in bi 
lulu; a popular writer. 

- A Gh in iii .- . 

aboul 470 B.O., a friend of Eei 
afterward Spartan Lg inder. He 

lived oral at A-li.i ,t the 

of Bang Ai'lulaus of Macedonia, 
where he was treated with great consider- 
ation, and died about -U») II. r. Ho was tin- 
first epic poet who, feeling that the old 
mythology was exhausted, ventured to 
a historical subject of immediate in- 
i Persian wars, in an epio entitled 
Cs. According to one account the | 
was read in the schools with Homer. The 
few fragments that remain show that it did 
not lack talent and merit ; but little regard 
was paid to it by posterity. 

."■ CharUus of Idsda in Caria. This 
Choerilus was also an epic poet, who accom- 
panied Alexander the Great. Alexander 
promised him a gold piece for every good 
verse he wrote in celebration of his achieve- 
ments, but declared that he would rather 
be the Thersites of Homer than the Achilles 
of Choerilus. 

Chdes. See Diontsia. 

Chorus. The word chords in Greek meant 
a number of persons who performed songs 
and dances at religious festivals. When 
the drama at Athens was developed from 
the dithyrambic choruses, the chorus was 
retained as the chief element in the Diony- 
siac festival. (See Tragedy.) "With the 
old dramatists the choral songs and dances 
much preponderated over the action proper. 
As the form of the drama developed, the 
sphere of the chorus was gradually limited, 
so that it took the comparatively subordi- 
nate position which it occupies in the ex- 
tant tragedies and comedies. The function 
of the chorus represented by its leader was 
to act as an ideal public, more or less con- 
nected with the dramatis persona. It 
might consist of old men and women or of 
maidens. It took an interest in the occur- 
rences of the drama, watched the action 
with quiet sympathy, and sometimes in- 
terfered, if not to act, at least to advise, 
comfort, exhort, or give warning. At the 
critical points of the action, as we should 
say in the entr'actes, it performed long 
lyrical pieces with suitable action of dance 
and gesture. In the better times of the 
drama these songs stood in close connexion 
with the action ; but even in Euripides this 



connexion is sometimes loose, and with the 
later tragedians, after the time of Agathon, 
the choral performance sank to a mere in- 
termezzo. The style of the chorus was 
distinguished from that of the dialogue 
partly by its complex lyrical form, partly 
by its language, in which it adopted a mix- 
ture of Attic and Doric forms. The proper 
place of the chorus was on the orchestra, 
on different parts of which, after a solemn 
march, it remained until the end of the 
piece drawn up, while standing, in a square. 
During the action it seldom left the orchestra 
to re-appear, and it was quite exceptional 
for it to appear on the stage. As the per- 
formance went on the chorus would change 
its place on the orchestra ; as the piece re- 
quired it would divide into semi-choruses 
and perform a variety of artistic movements 
and dances. The name of Emmeleia was 
given to the tragic dance, which, though 
not lacking animation, had a solemn and 
measured character. The comedy had its 
burlesque and often indecent performance 
called Cordax ; the satyric drama its Sicin- 
nis, representing the wanton movements of 
satyrs. The songs of the choruses, too, had 
their special names. The first ode per- 
formed by the entire body was called pclro- 
dos ; the pieces intervening between the 
parts of the play, stcisima ; the songs of 
mourning, in which the chorus took part 
with the actors, commoi. The number of 
the members (choreutai) was, in tragedies, 
originally twelve, and after Sophocles fifteen. 
This was probably the number allowed in 
the satyric drama ; the chorus in the Old 
Comedy numbered twenty-four. 

The business of getting the members of 
the chorus together, paying them, maintain- 
ing them during the time of practice, and 
generally equipping them for performance, 
was regarded as a Liturgia, or public ser- 
vice, and devolved on a wealthy private 
citizen called a Choregus, to whom it was a 
matter of considerable trouble and expense. 
We know from individual instances that 
the cost of tragic chorus might run up to 
30 minse (about £100), of a comic chorus 
*o 16 minse (about £53). If victorious, the 
Choregus received a crown and a finely 
wrought tripod. This he either dedicated, 
with an inscription, to some deity as a 
memorial of his triumph, or set up on a 
marble structure built for the purpose in 
the form of a temple, in a street named 
the Street of Tripods, from the number of 
these monuments which were erected there. 
One of these memorials, put up by a certain 

Lysicrates in 335 B.C., still remains. (See 
Lysicrates.) After the Peloponnesian war 
the prosperity of Athens declined so much 
that it was often difficult to find a sufficient 
number of choregi to supply the festivals. 
The State therefore had to take the business 
upon itself. But many choruses came to an 
end altogether. This was the case with the 
comic chorus in the later years of Aristo- 
phanes ; and the poets of the Middle and 
New Comedy accordingly dropped the chorus. 
This explains the fact that there is no 
chorus in the Roman comedy, which is an 
imitation of the New Comedy of the Greeks. 
In their tragedies, however, imitated from 
Greek originals, the Romans retained the 
chorus, which, as the Roman theatre had no 
orchestra, was placed on the stage, and as a 
rule performed between the acts, but some- 
times during the performance as well. 

Choregus, Choreutae. See Chorus. 

Chorizontes. See Homer. 

Chresmologi. See Mantike. 

Chrysaor. Son of Poseidon and Mgdiisa, 
brother of Pegasus, and father of the three- 
headed giant Geryon and Echidna by the 
Ocean-Nymph Callirrhoe. 

Chrysels. The daughter of Chryses, 
priest of Apollo at Chryse. She was 
carried away by the Greeks at the con- 
quest of her native city, and allotted to 
Agamemnon. Agamemnon having refused 
the father's proffered ransom, Apollo visited 
the Greek camp with pestilence until Aga- 
memnon gave her back without payment. 
(See Trojan War.) 

Chrysippus. (1) Son of Pelops and the 
Nymph Axioche, murdered by his step- 
brothers Atreus and Thyestes, who were 
consequently banished by Pelops. 

(2) A Greek philosopher of Tarsus or Soli 
in Cilicia (about 282-206 B.C.). At Athens 
he was a pupil of the Stoic Cleanthes, and 
his successor in the chair of the Stoa. 
Owing to the thorough way in which he 
developed the system, he is almost entitled 
to be called the second founder of the Stoic 
school ; and, indeed, there was a saying 
" Had there been no Chrysippus, there had 
been no Stoa." The author of more than 
705 books, he was one of the most prolific 
writers of antiquity, but his style was 
marred by great prolixity and carelessness. 
Only a few fragments of his writings survive. 

Cnthonia. (1) Daughter of Erechtheus 
of Athens, who was sacrificed by her father 
to gain the victory over the men of Eleusis. 
(See Erechtheus.) 

(2.) An epithet of Demeter (q. v.). 


ChthOniau Gods (from ChtMn,t\ nth 

The deil i« i « ho i alt li i ; be i ixi li or 

who arc connected with the lower world, u 

I lades, I 'lu t . ., Pei Spl , I •fimetfli , 1 1 

mis, II.-. mii', and Bermes. 

Cliytroi Petal of Pot* the third daj of 
the Antheateria Set Dionysi \. 

Cicero. I ifarcut Tullius Cicero. The 
celebrated Roman orator, born at Arplnum, 
January 8rd, 106 B.C. II. wia ion of Mar- 
oua Tullius Cioero and Belvia, liis family 
being of aqueetrian rank, but not yel 
ennobled by office. With his bi 
Qointns he received bia education in Borne, 
where he soon had an opportunity oi heai 
ing and admiring the two moal celebrated 
ira of the day, Craaana and Antoniua. 
He took the tdga vlrllis in JM.I H.c., ami, 
while practising rhetorical exercises, .!•- 
voted himself with ardour to the study of 
law. In 89 lu- served on his firal campaign 
in the Maraian War. After this he Began 
his studies in philosophy, mainly unde 
guidance of the Academic philosopher, 
Philo of Lariaaa. The pri if the 

Rhodiau rhetorician fifolo in Rome, and 
afterwards the instruction in dialectic given 
him by the Stoic DiOdotus, gave him the 
opportunity he desired for furthering his 
training as an orator. Having thus care- 
fully prepared himself for his future voca- 
tion during the period of the civil distur- 
bances, he started on his career as an orator 
under Sulla's dictatorship. He began with 
civil or private cases. One of his earliest 
speeches, the Pro Quinctio, still survives. 
This oration [in which he defends his client 
on the question of his conduct in a partner- 
ship] he delivered in 81 B.C., in his 26th 
year. In the following year he first appeared 
in a causa publico, and not on the side of 
the prosecution, the usual course for begin- 
ners, but on that of the defence. His client 
was Sextus Roscius of Ameria, accused of 
murdering his own father. This speech laid 
the foundation of Cicero's fame, and not 
only because it was successful. People ad- 
mired the intrepidity with which Cicero 
stood up against Chrysogonus, the favourite 
of the omnipotent dictator. 

In the following year, for the sake of his 
delicate health, Cicero started on a two years' 
tour in Greece and Asia, taking every oppor- 
tunity of finishing his education as a philo- 
sopher and orator. For philosophy he had 
recourse to the most celebrated professors at 
Athens : for rhetoric he went to Rhodes, to 
his former instructor. Molo. In B.C. 77 he 
returned to Rome, his health restored, and 

his il. | | || tl, ,,,;,,- 

ried l 

i with luoh ■ that hi 

Mil. Mil- I HI ~l<- 

lb' was gtati ■■! at I.i!\ l.a-i.m. in Siolv. 

I I See unimpeachably. 
A i . i Ins nt in n be entered the m oat 
develop) d an extraordinary 
apeaker. In conaequenoe he waa ele 

tin- curulc a'dileship in 70 B.O, It was in 

* cicero {Madrid). 

this year that the Sicilians, remembering 
the conscientiousness and unselfishness he 
had displayed in his qusestorship, begged 
him to lead the prosecution against Terres. 
For three j T ears this man had, in the most 
infamous manner, ill-treated and plundered 
the province. Cicero had to contend with 
all kinds of hindrances thrown in his way 



by the aristocratic friends of Verres. By 
the Dtvlndtio in Coscilium he had to make 
good his claims to prosecute against those 
of Csecilius Niger. The defence was led by 
the most famous orator of the day, Horten- 
sius. But Cicero managed to collect such a 
mass of evidence, and to marshal it with 
such ability, that after the actio prima, or 
first hearing, Verres found it advisable to 
retire into voluntary exile. The unused 
material Cicero worked up into an actio se- 
cunda in five speeches. The whole proceed- 
ing made him so popular that, spoiled as the 
multitude was, no one complained of his 
economical expenditure on the games during 
his sedileship. He was unanimously elected 
praetor in 67 B.C. In this office he made 
his first political speech in 66, successfully 
defending the proposal of the tribune 
Manilius to give Pompeius the command 
in the Mithridatic war, with unprecedented 
and almost absolute power. 

In 64 B.C. he came forward as candidate 
for the consulship, and was successful, in 
spite of the efforts of his enemies. He owed 
his success to the support of the nobility, 
who had hitherto regarded him, as a homo 
novus, with disfavour, but had come to re- 
cognise him as a champion of the party of 
order. He obtained the office, as he had the 
rest, suo anno, that is in the first year in 
which his candidature was legally possible. 
The danger with which Catiline's agitation 
was threatening the State, determined Cicero 
to offer a vigorous opposition to everything 
likely to disturb public order. With this 
view he delivered three speeches, in which 
he frustrated the agrarian proposals of the 
tribune Servilius Rullus. He also led 
the defence of the aged Rabirius, whom 
the leaders of the democratic party, to 
excite the people against the senate, had 
prosecuted for the murder of Saturninus 
thirty-six years before. To avoid the 
danger and excitement of a fresh consular 
election for 62, he undertook the defence of 
the consul designdtus L. Murena, on the 
charge of bribery ; and this, although the 
accusers of Murena numbered among them 
Cicero's best friends, and, indeed, rested 
their case upon the very law by which 
Cicero had himself proposed to increase 
the penalties for bribery. The conspiracy 
of Catiline gave Cicero an opportunity of 
displaying in the most brilliant light his 
acuteness, his energy, his patriotism, and 
even his power as an orator. He discovered 
the conspiracy, and helped largely to 
suppress it by the execution of the chief 

conspirators, who had remained behind in 

Cicero's consulship marks the climax of 
his career. He received, it is true, the 
honourable title of pater patriae ; but, a 
few weeks later, he had a clear warning of 
what he had to expect from the opposite 
party in the way of reward for his services. 
When laying down his office he was about 
to make a speech, giving an account of 
his administration. The tribune Metellus 
Nepos interrupted him, and insisted on his 
confining himself to the oath usual on the 
occasion. In the following year he had 
opportunities for displaying his eloquence 
in the defence of P. Cornelius Sulla and the 
poet Archias. But he was often attacked, 
and had, in particular, to meet a new danger 
in the hostility of Clodius Pulcher, whose 
mortal hatred only too soon hit upon a 
chance of sating itself. Cicero would not 
accede to the plans of Csesar, Pompey and 
Crassus, but offered them a strenuous re- 
sistance. He deceived himself as to his 
own political importance, and refused to 
quit the city except under compulsion. The 
triumvirs accordingly abandoned him to the 
vengeance of Clodius. Clodius was elected 
tribune of the plebs in 58 B.C., and at once 
proposed that any person should be made 
an outlaw, who should have put Roman 
citizens to death without trial. Cicero met 
the charge by retiring into voluntary exile 
early in April, 58.„ He went to Thessa- 
lonica and Macedonia, where he found a 
safe retreat at the house of the qusestor 
Plancius. The sentence was, however, pro- 
nounced against him ; his house on the 
Palatine was burnt down, his country 
houses plundered and destroyed, and even 
his family maltreated. It is true that, as 
early as the next year, he was recalled with 
every mark of distinction, and welcomed in 
triumph by the people on his entrance into 
Rome at the beginning of September. But 
his political activity was crippled by the 
power of the triumvirs. His fear of Clodius 
forced him to comply with their commands 
as a means of keeping in their good graces. 
But all this only stimulated him to show 
greater energy as an orator. His chief 
efforts were put forth in defending his 
friends, when prosecuted by political an- 
tagonists, as, for instance, Publius Sestius 
in 56 B.C., Gnseus Plancius in 54, Titus 
Annius Milo in 52. His defence of the 
latter, accused of the murder of Clodius, 
was unsuccessful. It was at this period 
that he began to apply himself to literature. 

I'll ■! 


■ '. nc. In' ■• i augur : from J 

">l , to July, 61 ', tu administer) d i he province 
..I c. i proconsul In this oapecity, 
Ins olemenoj . uprightness and onselnshnees 
won for him the greatest respect ffor his 
oondnol in 11 oampeign against the robbei 
tribes of Mount Amanus he was honoured 
I-, the ii> Is "i Tmpertttor, a public thanks 
giving. sod the pro a triamph. 

II, • landed in Italy towards the end of 
November, B.o, BO, and bond thai ■ breach 
i ml i !msar whs inevitable. 

Tlic civil war broke out in the next year, 
and, utter long hesitation, Cicero finally 
< i<-. i< lod for Poiiipcv, and followed him to 
ce. Hut after the battle of Pharsalas, 
in which ill-health prevented him from 
taking a part, he deserted his friends, and 
crossed to lirundisium. Here he had to 
wait a whole year before Ca?sar pardoned 
him, and gave him leave to return to Rome. 
Cesar treated him with distinction and 
kindness, but Cicero kept aloof from public 
life. Nothing short of the calls of friend- 
ship could induce him to appear in the 
courts, as he did for Marcellus, Lig&rins, 
and Deiotarus. The calamities of his 
country ; his separation from his wife 
Terentia, in 46 B.C., after a married life 
of thirty-three years; his hasty union with 
the young and wealthy Publilia, so soon to 
be dissolved ; the unhappy marriage and 
death of his favourite daughter Tullia ; all 
this was a heavy affliction for him. He 
found some consolation in studying philo- 
sophy, and applying himself with energy to 
literary work. 

The murder of Caesar on March 15th, 44 
B.C., roused him from his retirement, though 
he had taken no actual part in the deed. 
His patriotism excited him once more to take 
an active part in public life, and his first aim 
was to effect a reconciliation of parties. He 
succeeded so far as to secure the passing of 
a general amnesty. But it was not long 
before the intrigues and the hostility of the 
Caesarian party forced him again to leave 
Rome. He was on his way to Greece, 
when, at the end of August, he was re- 
called, by false rumours, to the Capitol. 
In a moment of deep irritation against 
Antonius, he delivered, on the 2nd of Sep- 
tember, the first of his fourteen Philippic 
orations, so called after those of Demos- 
thenes. The second Philippic was never 
spoken, but published as a pamphlet ; the 
last was delivered on the 21st April, B.C. 43. 
On the retirement of Antonius from Rome, 
Cicero found himself again playing: a promi- 

nent pai i in politics. All thi I bis 

party t" bring ration of 

ancient republican freedom centred in him. 
Bnt,when < IctavTanc inU d the hopes 

whioh he had excited, and attai in d I 
self to Antonius and Lepldo in I 
triumvirate, Oil ■ man in 

the senate, was declared an outlaw. In- 

tending to lly t<> Macedonia, as he had done 

fifteen years before, he was overtaken by 
Ins pursuers near CaiBta, and pnl to death 
on September 7th, 48 B.O., shortly bef< i 

had Completed his sixty-fourth year. His 
head and right hand were exposed en the 

nistni by Antonius. 

The literary labours of Cicero signalize 
an important advance in the development 
in literature. It is not only that be 
is to be regarded as the creator of classical 
Latin prose. He was also the first writer 
who broke ground, to any great extent, in 
fields of literature which, before him, had 
remained almost untouched. He had in- 
sight enough to perceive that his vocation 
lay in the career of an orator. His industry, 
throughout his whole life, was untiring; he 
was never blinded by success ; to educate 
himself, and perfect himself in his art, was 
the object which he never lost sight of. 
His speeches, accordingly, give brilliant 
testimony to his combination of genius with 
industry. Besides the fifty-seven speeches 
which survive in a more or less complete 
shape, and the most important of which 
have been mentioned above, we have about 
twenty fragments of others, and the titles 
of thirty-five more. Cicero was justified in 
boasting that no orator had written so many 
speeches, and in such different styles, as 
himself [Orator, c. 29, 30]. These orations 
were partly political, partly forensic ; the 
latter being mostly on the side of the de- 
fence. Cicero was also the author of pane- 
gyrics, as that, for instance, upon Cato. 
With few exceptions, as the second actio 
against Verres, the Pro Milone, and the 
panegyrics, they were actually delivered, 
and published afterwards. Extending over 
thirty-eight years, they give an excellent 
idea of Cicero's steady progress in the 
mastery of his art. They are of unequal 
merit, but everywhere one feels the touch of 
the born and cultivated orator. A wealth 
of ideas and of wit, ready acuteness, the 
power of making an obscure subject clear 
and a dry subject interesting, mastery of 
pathos, a tendency to luxuriance of lan- 
guage, generally tempered by good taste to 
the right measure, an unsurpassed tact in 



the use of Latin idiom and expression, a 
wonderful feeling for the rhythm and struc- 
ture of prose writing : these are Cicero's 
characteristics. With all the faults which 
his contemporaries and later critics had to 
find with his speeches, Cicero never lost 
his position as the most classical represen- 
tative of Latin oratory, and he was judged 
the equal, or nearly the equal, of Demos- 

The knowledge which he had acquired in 
his practice as a speaker he turned to 
account in his writings on Rhetoric. In 
these he set forth the technical rules of the 
Greek writers, applying to them the results 
of his own experience, and his sense of the 
requirements of Latin oratory. Besides the 
two books entitled Rhetorlca or De Inven- 
tions, a boyish essay devoid of all origina- 
lity, the most important of his works on 
this subject are: (1) The De Oratore, a 
treatise in three books, written 55 B.C. This 
work, the form and contents of which are 
alike striking, is written in the style of a 
dialogue. Its subject is the training neces- 
sary ibr an orator, the proper handling of 
his theme, the right style, and manner of 
delivery. (2) The Brutus, or De Claris 
OratOrlbus, written in - B.C. 46 ; a history of 
Latin oratory from the earliest period down 
to Cicero's own time. (3) The Orator, a 
sketch of the ideal orator, written in the 
same year as the Brutus. 

Cicero also devoted a large number of 
books to Greek philosophy, a subject which 
he was concerned to render accessible to 
his countrymen. His writings in this line 
lack depth and thoroughness ; but it must 
be said at the same time that he has the 
great merit of being the first Latin writer 
who treated these questions with taste and 
in an intelligible form, and who created a 
philosophical language in Latin. The frame- 
work which he adopts is usually that of the 
Aristotelian dialogue, though he does not 
always consistently adhere to it. It was 
not until after his fiftieth year that he 
began to write on philosophy, and in the 
years B.C. 45 and 44, when almost entirely 
excluded from politics, he developed an 
extraordinary activity in this direction. 
The following philosophical works survive, 
either in whole or in part : (1) Fragments, 
amounting to about one-third of the work, 
of the six books, De Re Publico, written 
B.C. 54-51. (2) Three books of an unfinished 
treatise, De Legibus, written about 52. 
(3) Pdrddoxa Stmcorum, a short treatment 
of six Stoical texts, B.C. 46. (4) Five 

books on the greatest good and the greatest 
evil (De Flnlbus Bonorum et Mdloruni), 
B.C. 45. This is the best of his philoso- 
phical works. (5) The second book of the 
first edition, and the first book of the second 
edition, of the Acddemlca, B.C. 45. (6) 
The rive books of the Tusculan Disputations, 
B.C. 44. In the same year appeared (7) 
the De Naturd, Deorum, in three, and (8) 
the De Dlvlndtlone, in two books. (9) A 
fragment on the Stoical doctrine of Fate. 

(10) The Cato Maior, or De SSnectute. 

(11) Ladlus, or De Amicitta. (12) De 
Offlcils, or On Ethics, in three books. 
Besides these, a whole series of philoso- 
phical and other prose writings by Cicero 
are known to us only in fragments, or by 
their titles. 

The multifarious nature of Cicero's occu- 
pation as a statesman and an orator did 
not hinder him from keeping up a volu- 
minous correspondence, from which 864 
letters (including 90 addressed to Cicero; 
are preserved in four collections. These 
letters form an inexhaustible store of infor- 
mation, bearing upon Cicero's own life as 
well as upon contemporary history in all 
its aspects. We have (1) The Epistulai ad 
Fdmiliares, in sixteen books, B.C. 63-43 ; 
(2) The Epistulai ad Attlcum, in sixteen 
books, B.C. 68-43 ; (3) Three books of letters 
to his brother Quintus; (4) Two books of 
correspondence between Cicero and Brutus 
after the death of Caesar, the genuineness 
of which is [rightly] disputed. 

Cicero also made some attempts to write 
poetr}', in his youth for practice, in his 
later life mainly from vanity. His youth- 
ful effort was a translation of Aratus, of 
which some fragments remain. After 63 
B.C. he celebrated his own consulship in 
three books of verses. [He is a consider- 
able metrist, but not a real poet.] 

(2) Qjuintus Tullius Cicero, the younger 
brother of Marcus, was born in B.C. 102. 
He was praetor in 62, and legatus to Csesar 
in Gaul and Britain from 54^52 B.C. In 
the civil war he took the side of Pompey, 
but was pardoned by Csesar. In 43 he was 
made an outlaw, at the same time as his 
brother, and in 42 was murdered in Rome. 
Like Marcus, he was a gifted man, and 
not unknown in literature, especially as a 
writer of history and poetry. In 54 B.C., 
for example, when engaged in the Gallic 
campaign, he wrote four tragedies in six- 
teen days, probably after Greek models. 
We have tour letters of his, besides a short 
paper addressed to his brother in 64 B.C., 


i n 

on tin' lino to t.o taken in canvassing for 
tin' oonsulship 

Cin.lus Allinentus. 8u Ann.ujmn. 

Cinctus Gabinus. 8te 'I'm; a. 

Cinyras i h')u prtfl i. Supposed, in tin' 

. mythology, t" have been kii 
Cyprus, the oldest priest of Aphrfidltl in 
Paphos, the founder oi thai oity, ami the 

SnoestOT of the priestly family of the t'iny- 

niiin . Sis wealth and long life, bestowed 
upon liim by Aphrodite, wen proverbial; 

SDfl from Apollo, who was saiii to he bis 

. lie received the gift of song. He 

was seoonnted the founder of tho aneienl 

hymns sung at the services of the Paphiau 
Aphrodite and of Adonis. Consequently 
he was reckoned among the oldest singers 
and musicians, his name, indeed, being 
Phoenician, derived from kinnor, a harp. 
The story added that he was the father of 
Adonis by his own daughter Myrrlia, and 
that, when made aware of the sin, he took 
away his own life. 

Cippns. The Latin name for a sepulchral 
monument. The form of the cippus was 
sometimes that of a pedestal with several 
divisions, supporting an upright cone, either 

q<ORN ELivs-q. 



(Olten : Ann. d'Inst. 1860 tav. E, 4.) 

pointed at the end, or entirely cylindrical ; 
sometimes that of a cube with several pro- 
jections on its surface. (See cut here, and 
also under SiGNUM.) 

Circe (Kirke) (a figure in Greek mytho- 
logy). A celebrated magician, daughter 
of the Sun (Helios) and the Ocean nymph 
Perseis, sister of -Sletes and Pasiphae. She 
dwelt on the island of iEsea. For her meet- 
ing with Odysseus and the son she bore 
him, Telegonus, see Odysseus. 

Circus, Games of (Ludl Circenses). The 
name of Circus was given at Rome par 
excellence to the Circus Maximus. This 

in ground Laid out by king 
Tarqulnlus Prisons in the valley between 
the Palatine end Aventini bills, Mntb "t 
the I lapitol. Its oent i e s i marked bj 
situ "i I ten in i. \ scond ciroua, i 
the Circut Fldmlnfut, was built by the 
oensor 0. Plaminins on the Campos Martins 
in 290 it':. Several more were built dm 
the imperial period, some ot which can still 
be recognised in their ruined State. Such 

A, Carceres; B B, Meta. 


(On the Via Appia, near Rome.) 

is the Circus of Haxentius, erroneously 
called Circo di Caracalla (fig. 1). Similar 
racecourses existed in many other cities of 
the empire, e.g., that still remaining amid the 
ruins of the town of Bovillse. The length of 
the Circus Maximus, as enlarged by Caesar, 
was some 1,800 feet, its breadth some 350. The 
seats, which rose in a series of terraces, rested 
on a substructure consisting of three stories 
of arched vaults. The lower seats were of 
stone, the upper of wood. Round the out- 
side of the circus ran a building, containing 
booths and seats, as well as the entrances 



to tbe seats, the number of which amounted, 
in Caesar's time, to 150,000, and in the 
4th century, after the building had been 
repeatedly enlarged, to 385,000. The 
podium, or lowest row of seats running 
immediately above the race-course, was pro- 
tected from the wild animals by a railing 
and a trench (eurlpus) ten feet in width 
and depth. This trench was, however, 
filled up at the command of Nero. The 
end of the circus, at which were the gate 
of entrance and the partitions in which the 
chariots stood, was flanked by two towers 
(oppida) occupied by bands of music. 
Between these was the loggia of the pre- 
siding magistrate. The opposite end of 
the building was semicircular, and had a 
gate called the porta triumphatts, which 
seems to have been used only on extra- 
ordinary occasions. The senators and 
I'quites had separate places allotted them, 
as in the theatre. The seats assigned to 
the common people were divided according 
to tribes, and the sexes were not separated. 
The eight or twelve openings (carceres) 
from which the chariots issued lay, as we 
have already mentioned, at both sides of the 
entrance, and were closed with bars They 
were arranged in slanting lines, so that the 
distance from the carceres to the starting- 
point was equalized for all. The starting- 
point was marked by three conical pillars 
(mcta-), standing on a substructure. Three 
other similar meta, corresponding to them, 
stood at the other or semicircular end of 
the circus. Between the two points where 
the metai stood was built a low wall (spina), 
extending through the whole length of the 
course. On this there used to stand the 
mast of a ship, which, after Augustus' 
time, gave place to an obelisk. The spina 
was adorned with pillars, little shrines, and 
statues of the gods, especially of Victory. 
A second and loftier obelisk was added by 
Constantine. The obelisk of Augustus now 
stands in the Piazza del Popolo, that of 
Constantine on the square in front of the 
Lateran. There was also an elevated 
substructure, supporting seven sculptured 
dolphins spouting water, and a pedestal 
with seven egg-shaped objects upon it, the 
use of which will be explained below. 

The games were generally opened by a 
solemn procession from the Capitol through 
the forum to the circus, and through the 
whole length of the circus round the spina. 
At the head of the procession came the 
giver of the games, sitting on a car of 
triumph in triumphal costume. He was 

followed by the images of the gods borne 
on litters or carriages, and escorted by 
the collegia and priestly corporations. In 
the imperial age the procession included 
the images of the deceased emperors and 
empresses, to whom divine honours were 
paid. The procession moved through the 
entrance, while the crowd rose up, cheered, 
and clapped their hands. The president 
dropped a white handkerchief into the 
arena, and the race began. Four, some- 
times as many as six, chariots drove out 
from behind the barriers at the right hand 
of the spi7ia. Then they rushed along the 
spina as far as the further posts, rounded 
these, and drove back down the left side to 
the starting-posts. They made the circuit 
seven times, and finally drove off the course 
through the barriers on the left of the 
spina. Seven circuits constituted one heat, 
or missus. A chalk line was drawn across 
the ground near the entrance, and the 
victory was adjudged to the driver who 
first crossed it. During the republican 
period the number of missus or heats 
amounted to ten or twelve, and after the 
time of Caligula to twenty-four, taking up 
the whole day. 

To keep the spectators constantly in- 
formed how many of the seven heats had 
been run, one of the egg-shaped signals, 
mentioned above, was taken down after each 
heat, and probably also one of the dolphins 
was turned round. The chariots had two 
wheels, were very small and light, and 
were open behind. The team usually con- 
sisted either of two (blgce) or of four horses 
(quadriga). In tho latter case the two 
middle horses only were yoked together. 
The driver (aurlga or agitator, fig. 2) stood 
in his chariot, dressed in a sleeveless tunic 
strapped round the upper part of his body, 
a helmet-shaped cap on his head, a whip in 
his hand, and a knife with a semi-circular 
blade in his girdle, to cut the reins with 
in case of need, for the reins were usually 
attached to his girdle. The main danger 
lay in turning round the pillars. To come 
into collision with them was fatal, not only 
to the driver himself, but to the driver 
immediately behind him. The chariots, and 
probably also the tunics and equipments of 
the drivers, were decked with the colours 
of the different factions, as they were 
called. Of these there were originally 
only two, the White and the Red. At the 
beginning of the imperial period we hear 
of two more, the Green and the Blue. Two 
more, Gold and Purple, were introduced by 


Domitian, but probably dropped out oi dm 
•iter I'is death. To ward s the end of the 
;inl century ah. the White faction joined 
with the Green, and the Red with 1 1 » . - Bine. 
Acoordinj u in the late Roman and Bysan- 
tine period we generally hear only of Hlm> 
iiml Green, it was the party reeling thus 
adored whioh was the mainspring of 

the passionate interest, often an nting 

almost i" madness, whioh the people tool 
in the games of the oirous. 

(Sella delta bi<;a, Vatican.) 

The necessary attendants, the horses, and 
the general equipment of the games were 
provided, at the cost of the giver, by special 
companies, with one or more directors at 
their head. These companies were dis- 
tinguished by adopting the different colours 
of the factions. The drivers were mostly 
slaves, or persons of low position. The 
calling was looked down upon ; but at the 
same time a driver of exceptional skill 
would be extraordinarily popular. The vic- 
tors, besides their palms and crowns, often 
received considerable sums of money ; and 

thus it would often happen thai s I 
would rise to the position o( 
or become director oi ■ oompan 
tractors. Numerous monnnu 

< memorate their victories. Sometimes, 

indeed, ■ celebrati d hoi e would 1 
monument put up to him. 
A contest of riders, saoh with two b 

was often added to the chariot 

These riders were called di tultOt • s, b 

they jumped from <<w horse to another 
while going at full gallop. The dron 

also used for boxing-matches, wrestling- 
matohes, and foot-racing; hut during the 
imperial period separate buildings 
usually appropriated to these amusements. 
Gladiatorial contests, and wild-beast hunts, 
were original ]y held in the circus, e%'en after 
the building of the amphitheatre. 

Besides these games, the circus was 
sometimes used for military reviews. The 
cavalry manoeuvres, for instance, of the six 
divisions of the knights (ludi sSvirOUs), 
with their six leaders (seviri), and an 
imperial prince as princcps incut nti.s at 
their head, would occasionally be held 
there. Under the emperors of the Julian 
dynasty a favourite pastime was the Troia 
or ludus Troia;. This consisted in a 
number of manoeuvres performed by boys 
belonging to senatorial and other respect- 
able families. They rode on horseback in 
light armour in separate divisions, and 
were practised for the purpose by special 

Ciris. See Nisus. 

CIsIum. See Chariots. 

Cithara (Kithdra). A stringed instru- 
ment, invented (so the fable ran) by Apollo. 
The cithara was ph-vyed on occasions of 
ceremony, such as public games and pro- 
cessions : the lyra, a smaller instrument 

(1), (2) and (4) Jliiseo Borbonico, XIII xl, X vi, XII xxiv. 
(3) Welcker, Dmkm. Ill 31., 

and easier to hold, was more commonly used 
in ordinary life. The cithara consisted of 
a sounding board, which extended into two 
arms or side-pieces. The sounding-board, 



made of thin pieces of wood, plates of metal, 
or ivory, was generally of a quadrangular, 
but sometimes of an oval shape : and was 
deeply vaulted at the back. The arms, 
which were broad were hollow, like the 
sounding-board. As the instrument was 
rather heavy, and the player had to stand 
while performing on it, it was generally 
provided with straps for supporting it, so 
as to leave the player's hands free. The 
phorminx, generally regarded as an at- 
tribute of Apollo, seems to have been a 
special variety of the cithara. It is gener- 
ally spoken of as " shrill-toned." Different 
forms of the cithara are given in the en- 
graving. (For further details, and for the 
manner of playing on the cithara, see Lyra ) 

Civitas. The technical Latin word for 
the right of citizenship. This was origin- 
ally possessed, at Rome, by the patricians 
only. The plebeians were not admitted to 
share it at all until the time of Servius 
Tullius, and not to full civic rights until 
B.C. 337. In its fullest comprehension the 
civitas included: (1) the ius suffrdgll, or 
right of voting for magistrates ; (2) the his 
honorum, or right of being elected to a 
magistracy ; (3) the ius provocCitlonis or 
right of appeal to the people, and in later 
times to the emperor, against the sentences 
passed by magistrates affecting life or 
property ; (4) the ius conubll, or right to 
contract a legal marriage ; (5) the ius 
commercll, or right to hold property in the 
Roman community. The civitas was ob- 
tained either by birth from Roman parents, 
or by manumission (see Mancmissio), or by 
presentation. The right of presentation 
belonged originally to the kings, afterwards 
to the popular assemblies, and particularly 
to the comltia trlbuta, and last of all to 
the emperors. The civitas could be lost 
by demlniitlo capitis (see Deminutio 
Capitis). The acrdrli, so called, had an 
imperfect civitas, without the ius suffragii 
and iushonorum. Outside the circle of the 
civitas stood the slaves and the foreigners 
or pCrrgriiu (see Peregrini). The latter 
included: (1) strangers who stood in no 
international relations with Rome ; (2) the 
allies, or socll, among whom the Lcitlni 
held a privileged place (see Latini) ; (3) the 
dtditlcil, or those who belonged to nations 
conquered in war. 

Though the Roman citizenship was con- 
ferred upon all the free inhabitants of the 
empire in 212 a.d. by the emperor Caracalla, 
the grades of it were not all equalized, nor 
was it until the time of Justinian that 

civitas and libertas became convertible 

Classiarii or classic! (from classis, a fleet). 
The crews of the Roman fleet. In the 
republican age the rowers (remlges) were 
slaves, and the sailors (nautce) were partly 
contributed by the allies (sdcil n&vOl&b . 
partly levied from among the Roman citizens 
of the lowest orders, the citizens of the 
maritime colonies, and the freedmea. Under 
the Empire the fleets were manned b}- 
freedmen and foreigners, who could not 
obtain the citizenship until after twenty-six 
years' service. In the general military 
system, the navy stood lowest in respect of 
pay and position. No promotion to higher 
posts was open to its officers, as those were 
monopolized by the army. In later times, 
a division of the marines stationed at 
Misenum and Ravenna was appointed to 
garrison duty in Rome. This division was 
also used in time of war in repairing the 
roads for the armies. In Rome the marines 
were employed, among other things, in 
stretching the awnings over the theatre. 

Classicum. The signal given by the 
bucina or horn for the meeting of the 
fniit'ifia centiirldta at Rome, and for the 
meeting of the soldiers in camp, especially 
before they marched out to battle. 

Claudianus (Claudius). A Latin poet, 
born at Alexandria in the second half of 
the 4th century a.d. In 395 a.d. he came 
to Rome. Here he won the favour of the 
powerful Vandal Stilicho, and on the 
proposal of the senate was honoured with 
a statue by the emperors Arcadlus and 
Honorius. The inscription on this statue 
is still in existence (Mommsen, Inscrip- 
tiones Regni Neapolitan!, No. 6794). His 
patron Stilicho fell in 408, and Claudian, 
apparently, did not survive him. We have 
express evidence that the poet was not a 
Christian. He was familiar with Greek 
and Latin literature, and had considerable 
poetical gifts, including a mastery both of 
language and metre. These gifts raise him 
far above the crowd of the later Latin 
poets, although the effect of his writing is 
marred by tasteless rhetorical ornament 
and exaggerated flattery of great men. 
His political poems, in spite of their lau- 
datory colouring, have considerable his- 
torical value. Most of them are written 
in praise of Honorius and of Stilicho, for 
whom he had a veneration as sincere as 
was his hatred of Rufinus and Eutropius. 
Against the latter he launched a number of 
invectives. Besides the Raptus Proserpina;, 

CLAUDIUS i,m \ I n; 1 1 . \i;n ULIBANU8. 


01 1,'iijk f/' I Viim iju in, ;>n 1 1 1 1 ti 1 1 i m)i ■ ■< I epio 

in « l ■ i < 1 1 liis 'i. oripl ive power i 

liiilluinilv displayed, hit ntuwl importanl 

ill i>> ///, /r, I /, ( 'ontQldtn 

nonorii ; (2 /'• NuptNti Honorii Vet- 

ti iiiuiitt : B) i'l'illiiiluiiiiiiiii ili Xu/itiis 
Honorii el Maria i (4) /'■ Bella Qildonlco ; 
5) ih Coraulatu 8tilichonie / (6) D< Bella 

I'uili at i a,' ,- (7) /.mis Si mm, Serena being 
Stilioho'a wife, Ee also wrote epistlee in 
, a series of minor pieoBB, narrative 
.mil aesoriptive, and a GigantOmdchla, of 
which ii fragment lias been preserved. 

Claudius Quadrigarlus. See Annalists. 

Cleanthes (Gr. Kltanthi s . A Greek j>l»i 1»»- 
sopher, native o( Asses in Asia Minor. He 
was originally a boxer, ami while attending 
at Athens the lectures of Zeno, the founder 
of the Stoic philosophy, he got a livelihood 
at night by carrying water. He was Zeno's 
disciple for nineteen years, and in 'Jtin i;.r. 
succeeded him as head of the Stoic school. 
He died in his eighty-first year by voluntary 
starvation. A beautiful hymn to Zeus is 
the only one of his writings that has come 
down to us. 

Clemens {Titus Fl&vlus) A Greek ec- 
clesiastical writer, born at Alexandria about 
150 a.d. Originally a heathen, he gained, in 
the course of long travels, a wide knowledge 
of philosophy. Finding no satisfaction in 
it, he became a Christian, and about 190 
A.D. was ordained priest in Alexandria, and 
chosen to preside over a school of cate- 
chumens there. The persecution under 
Septimius Severus having compelled him 
to take flight, he founded a school in 
Jerusalem, and came afterwards to Autioch. 
He died in 218 a.d. His writings contri- 
buting as they do to our knowledge of 
ancient philosophy, have an important place, 
not only in Christian, but also in profane 
literature. This is especially true of the 
eight books called Stromatu ; a title which 
properly means " many coloured carpets," or 
writings of miscellaneous contents. 

Cleomenes (KlcOmencs). An Athenian 
sculptor, who probably flourished in the 
Augustan age. The celebrated Venus di 
Medici, now at Florence, is his work. [He 
is described on the pedestal as son of 
Apollodorus. The Germanlcus of the 
Louvre was the work of his son, who bore 
the same name.] 

CISopatra (KlSopatra) (in Greek mytho- 
logy). (l)Daughter of Boreas and Orithyia, 
and wife of Phineus. (Sec Phineds.) 

(2) Daughter of Idas, and wife of Meleager. 
(See Meleager.) 

Clepsydra (Klepeydra), A w.r 
o] • .u i oenwai e w liel filled with 

ii e of wan i . and having a hole In 
lj.pttnin of a us r running 

away within a definite pact ol I i 
watei olooka v. i I In the Atbi 

law ooorte, to mark the time allotted I 

speakers. They were lirst intra 

Borne in L69 B.C., and need in ; fa 

there iii the same way. In the field 
were used to marl; the night-watchee. The 

invention of the best kind of Watt 
was attributed to Plato. In this the hours 
were marked by the height of the water 
flowing regularly into a vessel. This was 
done in one of two ways. (1) A dial was 
placed above the vessel, the hand of which 
onnected by a wire with a cork floating 
on the top of the water. (2) The vessel 
was transparent, and had vertical lines 
drawn upon it, indicating certain typical 
days in the four seasons or in the twelve 
months. These lines were divided into 
twelve sections, corresponding to the posi- 
tion which the water was experimentally 
found to take at each of the twelve hours 
of night or day on each of these typical 
days. It must be remembered that the 
ancients always divided the night and day 
into twelve equal hours each, which in- 
volved a variation in the length of the hours 
corresponding to the varying length of the 
day and night. 

Cleruchla (Gr. Klcrouchia). A kind of 
Greek colony, which differed from the ordi- 
nary colonial settlement in the fact that 
the settlers remained in close connection with 
their mother-city. The Athenian ehrlichia- 
are the only ones of which we have any 
detailed knowledge. A conquered territory 
was divided into lots of land, which were 
assigned to the poorer citizens as clcruchl, 
or "holders of lots." The original inhabi- 
tants would be differently treated according 
to circumstances. In many cases they were 
compelled to emigrate ; sometimes the men 
were killed, and the women and children 
enslaved ; but ordinarily the old inhabitants 
would become the tenants of the settlers, 
and take, generally, a less privileged posi- 
tion. The settlers formed a separate com- 
munity, elected their own officials, and 
managed their local affairs ; but they con- 
tinued to be Athenian citizens, with all the 
rights and duties of their position. The}- 
remained under the authority of Athens, 
and had to repair to the Athenian courts 
for justice in all important matters. 

Clibanus (Gr. Kllbanos). See Bakers. 



Clientes. This was the name for such 
inhabitants of Rome as had lost, or given 
up, the citizenship of their own cities, and 
had settled in Roman territory. Here, 
having no legal rights, they were compelled, 
in order to secure their personal freedom, to 
seek the protection of some Roman citizen, 
a term which, in ancient times, could only 
mean a patrician. The relation thus set on 
foot was called clientela, and was inherited 
by the descendants of both parties. Accord- 
ingly the client entered into the family of 
his patron (patronus), took his gentile 
name, and was admitted to take part in the 
family sacrifices. The patron made over to 
him a piece of land as a means of support, 
protected him from violence, represented 
him at law, and buried him after his death. 
The client, on his part, accompanied his 
patron abroad and on military service, gave 
his advice in legal and domestic matters, 
and made a contribution from his property 
if his patron were endowing a daughter, or 
had to be ransomed in war, or to pay a fine. 
The relation between patron and client is 
also illustrated by the fact that neither 
party could bring an action against the 
other in a court of law, or bear witness 
against him, or vote against him, or appear 
against him as advocate. A man's duty to 
his client was more binding than his duty 
to his blood relations ; and any violation of 
it was regarded as a capital offence. 

When Serving Tullius extended the rights 
of citizenship to the clients as well as to the 
plebeians, the bond between patron and 
client still continued in force, although it 
gradually relaxed with the course of time. 
At the end of the republic age, the status 
of client, in the proper sense of the word, 
had ceased to exist. Under the Empire 
the clientela was a mere external relation 
between the rich and the poor, the great 
and the obscure. It involved no moral 
obligation on either side, but was based 
merely on the vanity of the one party, 
and the necessity of the other. It was 
no unusual thing to find people who had 
no settled means of subsistence trying, 
by flattery and servile behaviour, to win 
the favour of the great. Even philosophers 
and poets, like Statius and Martial, are 
found in this position. The client performs 
certain services, calls on his patron in the 
morning, accompanies him on public occa- 
sions, and is in turn invited to his table, 
receives presents from him, and (if he can 
get it) a settled provision. Instead of 
inviting their numerous clients, the rich 

would often present them with a small sum 
of money called sportula. The relation was 
entirely a free one, and could be dissolved 
at pleasure by either party. 

In the republican age whole communities, 
and even provinces, when they had sub- 
mitted to the Roman yoke, would sometimes 
become clients of a single patronus. In 
this case the patronus would usually be 
the conquering general. Marcellus, for 
instance, the conqueror of Syracuse, and his 
descendants, were patrons of Sicily. The 
practical advantages which were secured 
to a foreign community by this permanent 
representation at Rome are obvious. Ac- 
cordingly we find that, imder the Empire, 
even cities which stood to Rome in no 
relation of dependence, such as colonies and 
miinicipla; sometimes selected a patronus. 
The patronus was, in such cases, always 
chosen from among the senators or e quite s. 

Cline (Gt. Kline). See Meals. 

Clio (G-r. Eleio). See Muses. 

Clipeus. See Shield. 

Clitarchus (Gr. Eleitarchos). A Greek 
historian, son of the historian Dinon. He 
flourished about 300 B.C., and was the author 
of a great work, in at least twelve books, 
upon Alexander the Great. He was no- 
toriously untrustworthy, and inclined to 
believe in the marvellous ; his style was 
turgid and highly rhetorical ; but his 
narrative was so interesting that he was 
the most popular of all the writers on 
Alexander. The Romans were very fond 
of his book, which was indeed the main 
authority for the narratives of Diodorus, 
Trogus Pompeius, and Curtius. A number 
of fragments of it still survive. 

Clitus (Kleitos) (in Greek mythology). 
Son of Mantius, and grandson of Melampus : 
loved and carried off by Eos. See Eos. 

Cloaca. A vaulted subterranean channel 
for carrying off drainage of every kind. As 
early as the 6th century B.C. Rome had 
an extensive system of sewers for draining 
the marshy ground lying between the hills 
of the city. By this the sewage was carried 
into a main drain (Cloaca Maxima) which 
emptied itself into the Tiber. Part of this 
sewer, in length quite 1,020 feet, is still in 
existence, and after a lapse of 2,500 years, 
goes on fulfilling its original purpose. The 
sewer, which is nearly twenty feet wide, 
is covered by a vaulted roof of massive 
squares of tufa, in which an arch of tra- 
vertine is inserted at intervals of 12 feet 
2 inches. The original height was 10 feet 
8 inches, but has been reduced to 6 feet 


I l I 

>'• in' 1h i i>v tii.- aoonmnlatl >\ filth and 

rubbish. The drainage ivitem "i Borne 
w m ooo iii " i iblj extended, i peoiallj by 
ippa in i in' Mgoitu u^o. 

The 'iniv .'i keeping the Nwtn "i R 

in repair fall originally i" the oensors, I'm 
hag tin' imperial in:" il was transferred t" 
.i apeoiaJ board, the curaton's doacdi nm. 
as « in. wished t" eatabliab i ooo 
a between their property and the city 
draina had to pay a special tax t" the State, 
• ailed doac&riwn. 

Clocks were known to the anoients only 
tinder the form of aon-diala (see Gnomon) 

and uatcr-ilorks < ( 'i.i-.|'s\ in; \ . 

Clothing. The drosses of the Greeks and 
Unmans consisted of under garments or 
.shirts, and apper garments or mantles. The 
Greek chiton and the Latin tunica, common 
to both men and women, belong to the first 
.lass; so does the stdla of the Roman 
luatron, worn over the tunica. The htiud- 
was an upper garment, worn in Greece 
both by men and women. The Greek 
chh'uitys and Irlbon and pgplds were upper 
garments, the chlamys and tril/on confined 
to men, and the pcplos to women. The 
upper dress worn in public life by a Roman 
citizen was the tot/a : the pallet was peculiar 
to married ladies. There were other dresses 
of the same kind commonly in use among 
the Romans, for instance the Idcerna, Icena, 
jwnftla, and synthesis: the schjiun and 
(tdluddnu ntum were confined to military 
service. (See, for further details, the 
articles on the words in question.) Trousers 
t Latin brScm, Greek anaxyride's) were 
only known as worn by the Orientals and 
by the barbarians of the North. Among the 
Romans no one wore them but the soldiers 
stationed in the northern districts. In 
works of art, accordingly, trousers and the 
long-sleeved chiton are an indication of 
barbarian costume. The custom of wrapping 
up the calf and thigh as a protection against 
the cold was deemed excusable in sickly 
and elderly people, but was thought effemi- 
nate in others. The wool of the sheep was 
at all times the staple material for cloth 
stuffs. Linen, though known to the Greeks 
of the Homeric age, was worn chiefly by 
the Ionians, and less so by the inhabitants 
of Greece Proper. Among the Romans, the 
use of linen was mostly confined to the 
girdle, though common among the Italian 
tribes. Both sexes wore a linen girdle 
tsubligdcuhnn) and women a linen breast- 
band. Women were the first to exchange 
wool for linen, and this during the re- 

publioas age. I.inen garments lor men 
appeal until later, when the fine 
Egyptian and Spanish linen 

Levi hi ii \t oi luxury. The toga 
always made of wool. Cot' 

i.nnw n t'l tin- ■ is v. . 11 as the 

81 if, 1, t matt rial made wholly "i partly oi 
silk; inn these were ani commonly used 

until the imperial times (m. \\ KA\ !'.'■ 

Country folk in Qreeoe, and especially 
shepherds, clothe thei in tin* skins of 

animals. Iviisses, apparently', did notcome 
into fashion until tho Empire. 

The colour of dresses among the Greeks 
and [tomans was mostly, but by no means 
exclusively, white. For practical reasons 
the working classes used to wear stuffs of 
dark colour, either natural or artificial. 
Dark clothes were worn among the 1 
classes in Rome only in time of mourning, 
or by a person accused before the com 
law. Coloured dresses were put on by men 
in Greece mainly on festal occasions, ami 
by the Romans not at all. Gay-coloured 
materials were at all times worn by Greek 
ladies, and often, too, by Roman ladies as 
earl}- as the 1st century B.C. Strong 
colours do not appear to have been liked by 
the ancients. They were familiar with 
stripes, plaids, and other patterns, as well 
as with ornaments of needlework and all 
kinds of embroidery. With regard to the 
fitting of dresses, it should be observed that 
it was mostly the custom to weave them 
according to measure, and there was there- 
fore no necessity, as in modern times, for 
artistic cutting. The art of sewing was 
quite subordinate, and confined mostly to 
stitching leaves together for garlands ; 
though sleeved garments, no doubt, required 
rather more care. Hence the fact that there 
was no such thing in antiquity as a separate 
tailoring trade. The necessary sewing was 
done by the ladies of the house, or by their 
slaves, and sometimes by the fullers, whose 
business it was to measure the pieces of 
cloth, to sell ready-made garments, and to 
clean clothes. (Sec Fullers.) 

Shoes. The Greeks usually went bare- 
foot, except when out of the house ; but 
they did not think it necessary to wear 
shoes, even in the street. On entering a 
house, whether one's own or not, it was 
customarv to uncover the feet. The 
simplest form of covering for the feet was 
a sole fastened by straps (hyjjodema.) This 
is to be distinguished from the sandal 
(sanddlon, sanddlion), which was worn 
originally by men and afterwards by women. 



This was a more complicated set of straps, 
reaching as far as over the ankle, where 
they were fastened. They sometimes had 
leather added at the sides and heel, so as to 
resemble a shoe. Close shoes of various 
kinds, fastened over the foot, were also 
worn by men and women. There were, 
besides, several kinds of boots, among which 
may be mentioned the endrdmis and 
cothurnus (see Endeomis, Cothurnus). 

Among the Romans, men and women 
when at home, and generally in private 
life, wore a sandal (solea), which was only 
taken off at meals ; but a respectable 
Roman would hardly show himself bare- 
footed out of doors. With the toga went 
the shoe called calceus, of which there 
were differents kinds, varying according 
to rank (see Calceus). Ladies usually, 
when out of doors, wore shoes of white or 
coloured leather, which formed an impor- 
tant part of their toilette, especially under 
the Empire, when the sexes rivalled each 
other in the splendour of their shoes, the 
men appearing in white and red leather, 
the emperor and great personages wearing 
shoes adorned with gold and even with 
jewels. Among the Romans generally, a 
great variety of shoes was in use, many of 
them borrowed from other countries (see 
Crepida, Soccus). Wooden shoes (scuJpo- 
nece) were worn by slaves and peasants. 
For the military boot in use under the 
Empire, see Caliga. 

Coverings for the head. The upper 
classes in Greece and Italy generally went 
bareheaded. It was only when long in 
the open air, as on journeys, or while hunt- 
ing, or in the theatre, that they used the 
caps and hats worn by artisans, country 
folk, and fishermen (see Petasus, Pilleus, 
Causia). In Rome, for protection against 
sun and storm, they adopted from the nor- 
thern countries the cucullus or cucullw, a 
hood fastened to the pamula or laccrna. 
The head was often protected, in the case 
both of men and women, by drawing the 
top of the garment over the head. Besides 
kerchiefs and caps, women also wore veils, 
which in some cases, as at Thebes (and as 
dow in the East), covered the face as far 
as the eyes. Roman ladies would seldom 
appear in the street uncovered. A common 
covering was the riclnium, which also 
served as a wrapper. This was, in later 
times, only worn at religious ceremonials. 
It was a square cloth fastened to the head, 
which ladies folded round them, throwing 
it over the left arm and left shoulder. For 

protection against the sun ladies carried 
umbrellas (Gr. skiadcion, Lat. umbracii- 
hnii. umbella I, or made their servants carry 
them. Fans (Gr. rhTpos, Lat. fltibeUum) 
were likewise in common use. These 
were made of gaily-painted bits of wood, 
and the feathers of peacocks or other birds, 
and were generally in the shape of leaves. 

Ornaments. Rings were in fashion both 
among men and women. The only other 
metal ornaments which men would have 
any opportunity for wearing in ordinary 
life were the clasps or brooches (ftbirta 
used for fastening dresses or girdles. These 
were of bronze, silver, or gold, and often 
adorned with costly jewels. Besides rings 
and clasps, women wore needles in their 
hair, and ear-rings, necklaces, and bracelets 
■ on their wrists and arms, sometimes even 
I on their ankles. The trinkets that have 
been preserved from antiquity exhibit the 
greatest conceivable variety of form. One 
of the commonest forms for a bracelet is 
that of a snake, surrounding the arm once, 
or in several spirals. An equal variety is 
observable in the ornamentations of pearls, 
precious stones, and the like. 

Clotho (Gr. Klotho). See M(ER.e. 

Cljrmene (Gr. Klymene) (in Greek myth- 
ology). (1) Daughter of Catreus, wife of 
Nauplius, and mother of Palamedes. (See 

(2) Daughter of Oceanus, and mother of 
Phaethon by Helios. (See Phaethox.) 

Clytaemnestra (Gr. Klytaimnestra : more 
correctly Elytaimestra). Daughter of Tyn- 
dareus, and wife of Agamemnon. With 
the aid of her lover, ^Egisthus, she mur- 
dered her husband, and was, in turn, put 
to death by her son, Orestes. (See Aga- 
memxox, jEgisthus, and Orestes.) 

Clytia (Klytiai. In Greek mythology 
an ocean nymph, beloved by the Sun-god, 
who deserted her. She was changed into 
the heliotrope, a flower which is supposed 
always to turn its head in the direction of 
the sun's movement. 

Cocalus (Kokalos). In Greek mytho- 
logy, the king of Camlcus in Sicily, who 
gave Daedalus a friendly welcome when 
flying from the pursuit of Minos. Cocalus 
(or his daughters, according to another 
account) suffocated Minos in a hot bath. 

Cock-fighting. See Yexatioxes. at end. 

Cocytus (Gr. Kokytos). See Hades, 
Realm of. 

Coemptio. Properly " a joint taking," so 
" a joint purchase." One of the three forms 
of marriage among the Romans. It was so 


1 15 

i from t!i" !ii'ti"n of a purchase sup- 
ike place "ii I bi k i n. In the 
11.'.' oi live witnesses mi. I a liin i /a ns, 
.■l holder oi the balance, the bi 
■truck the balance with a bronie coin, which 
lu> handed to the father or guardian oi the 
bride. A< the same time he asked her 
whether she would be his wife, and nho, in 
turn, asked him whether he would bo her 

Cognatlo. TheLatin word for relation- 
ship. Cognatio included relationship on 
both the father's and mother's side, while 
(T<l>i<itlf~i implied relationship on the lather's 
side only (see AQKATIO). Agnalio in- 
volved legal duties and rights, while cog- 
militi, originally at least, brought with it 
only moral obligations. Cogn&tl to the 
sixth degree ha<l the right of kissing each 
other (((7s 08cMt) t and also the right of 
refusing to appear as witnesses against each 
other in a court of law. On the other hand, 
eognati were forbidden by custom, at least 
in the earlier times, to intermarry, or to 
appear in court against each other as ac- 
cusers. When a man died, his eognati were 
expected to put on mourning for him. In 
course of time the eognati gradually ac- 
quired the rights proper to agnati. But 
natural relationship did not win full recog- 
nition until the time of Justinian, by whose 
legislation the rights of agnati were abol- 

Cognomen. Bee Names. 

Conors. A division of the Roman army. 
In the republican age the word was 
specially applied to the divisions con- 
tributed by the Italian allies. Down to 
89 B.C., when the Italians obtained the 
Roman citizenship, they were bound to 
supply an infantry contingent to each of 
the two consular armies, which consisted of 
two legions apiece. This contingent num- 
bered in all 10,000 infantry, divided into : 
(a) 20 cohortes of 420 men each, called 
cohortes Glares, because, in time of battle, 
they formed the wings (aloe) of the two 
combined legions : (b) four cohortes extra- 
ordlndria, or select cohorts of 400 men 

From about the beginning of the 1st 
century B.C., the Roman legion, averaging 
4,000 men, was also divided into ten 
cohortes, each containing three manipiill or 
six eentilriai. In the imperial times, the 
auxiliary troops assigned to the legions 
stationed in the provinces were also divided 
into cohorts (cohortes auxilldrtoe). These 
cohorts contained either 500 men ( = 5 cen- 

D. C. A. 

tin m . -I I." ' » ii 10 ( • nliiii.i I, Tic y 

t entirely of infantry, or 
of . -:i\ alrj 88 1 infantry I L2 

16 fantry I 2 1' • oavah 'Im- oom- 

i of th hoi ta, ■""•' e Pa ei b i db. 

The troops stati I in ELome were nlno 

cumbered according to cohortei. 1 1 | The 
cohortes pratOrXae, originally cine, but 
afterwards ten in number, which formed 
the imperial body-guard. Bach oohorl con- 
sisted of 1,000 men, including infantry and 
cavalry (see Prxtobj mi). Thi 
t [on "i a body guard « as due to \ 
and was a development of the cohurs prce- 
turitt, or bndy-guarii of the republican 
generals. Its title shows that it was as 
old as the time when the consuls bore the 
name of prcetOrSs, This cohort prcetoria 
was originally formed exclusively of cavalry, 
mainly of equestrian rank. But towards 
the end of the republican age, when every 
independent commander had his own enhnrs 
preetoria, it was made up partly of infantry, 
who were mainly veterans, partly of picked 
cavalry of the allies, and partly of Roman 
I't/iiVr*, who usually served their tiro- 
<~tnunn,or first year, in this way. (2) Three 
and in later times four, cohortes urbdnir. 
consisting each of 1,000 men, were placed 
under the command of the pratfectus tirbi. 
They had separate barracks, but ranked 
below the body-guard, and above the 
legionaries. (3) Seven cohortes vigllum, 
of 1,0011 men each, were under the command 
of the pratfectus vigilum. These formed 
the night police and tire-brigade, and were 
distributed throughout the city, one to every 
two of the fourteen regiones. 

Coinage. (1) Greek. As late as the 
Homeric age, cattle, especially oxen, served 
as a medium of exchange, as well as a 
standard of price [It. xi 211, xxi 385]. We 
find, however, that the metals were put to the 
same use, their value being decided by their 
weight as determined by a balance. The 
weight, as well as the balance, was called 
tt'danton. [It is probable that the gold 
talanton of Homer weighed two drachma?, 
and was equivalent in value to an ox ; see 
Ridgeway, in Journal Hell. Studies viii 
133.] The idea of giving the metal used 
in exchange a form corresponding to its re- 
quirements is no doubt an early one. The 
date of the introduction of a coinage in the 
proper sense, with an official stamp to 
denote its value and obviate the necessity 
of weighing the metal, cannot now be deter- 
mined. But as early as the 6th century 
B.C. we find a highly developed and artistic 



system of coining money in existence. The 
various Greek standards of value were all 
developed — in several gradations, it is true 
— from the gold and silver standard of Asia 
Minor. It was not until a later time that 
the standard of the Persian gold money 
was in some cities transferred 10 the silver 
coinage. The proportion of gold to silver 
was commonly reckoned among the Greeks 
as 10:1, so that a gold piece weighing 2 
drachmce was = 20 silver drachma. But 
in commerce the proportion assumed was 
12 : 1, and this was the average generally 
observed in the Roman empire. The 
measure of weight moat commonly current 
was the talent, which contained 60 mince. 
Like the talent, the mina was not a real 
coin, but a standard of measurement. The 
unit of coinage was the drachma, 100 
drachmas being reckoned to the mina. The 
drachma, again, contained 6 obols. In an- 
cient times the commonly accepted standard 
was that of /Egina. The coins of the island 
of iEgina were stamped on one side with 
the figure of a tortoise, on the other side 

(B.C. 700-550.) 

with a roughly executed incuse square. 
The largest silver coin was the stater or 
didrachmon (fig. 1), ( = about 2s. 2d., the 
JEginetan drachma being =ls. Id.). Solon 
abolished this standard in Attica, and in- 
troduced a lighter drachma equal to about 
8d. The Attic talent (=6,000 drachma') 
was thus worth about £200, the mina about 
£3 6s. 8d. The silver coins of Attica bore 
on the front the head of Pallas, and on the 

Archaic head of Athene. Owl. 


(Time of Persian wars.) 

reverse the figure of an owl. The principal 
coin was the tetradrachindn or 4 drachma 

(fig. 2), the largest (which was only issued 
occasionally) the dekadrachm5n or 10 
drachmas. The didrachmon (2 drachma*) 
was in like manner issued rarely. The tri- 
obdldn (3 obols), the obolos, and the heml- 
obullon (jj obol) were small silver coins; 
the tStartem6ri6n {\ obol) the smallest of 
all. The Greek states always adopted a 
silver currency, gold being rarely issued. 
The largest gold piece was the didrach- 
mon or golden stater ( = 20 silver drachma). 
Besides this we find drachmas, triobols, 
obols, half-obols, quarter-obols, and even 
eighth obols in gold. The gold money most 
commonly current in Greece was, down to 
the Macedonian age, the royal Persian coin 

(3) DABIC. 

called Ddreikos, or Daric (fig. 3). It was 
stamped on one side with a crowned archer, 
on the other with an oblong incuse. This 
corresponded with the gold stater of Attica 
and of the cities of Asia Minor. Among 
these should be especially mentioned the sta- 
ter of Cyzicus or the Cyzicenus = 28 silver 
drachma'. The earliest copper coin issued 
at Athens was the Chalkus =^ of a silver 
obol (440 B.C.). In the time of Alexander 
the Great the silver coinage stopped at the 

Head of Apollo. Victorious higa. 


triobolos, and it therefore became necessary 
to represent the smaller fractions in copper. 
The silver money of Attica was in very 
general use, but the Attic standard was 
not adopted in Greece Proper. It spread 
westward, however, in quite early times. 
In the greater part of Sicily, and in Taren- 
tum and Etruria, the coinage was from the 
first regulated in accordance with the Attic 
standard. But the wide diffusion of this 
standard was mainly due to the action of 
Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the 
Great. The former adopted it when intro- 
ducing his gold coinage (Philippus, fig. 4), 

COIN \'.h 


iIm' hit i.t for bis silver in 13 ti 1 5 1 

bvsu after Alexander's death this standard 
bald 1 1 h ground in the kingdom! of the 

11 it ..f Hi<raclo». Zimim. 


Macedonian empire, except in Egypt, where 
the Ptolemies maintained the oTd coinage 
of the country Macedonian inflnenoe ex- 
tended the Attic currency into 
many other states, e.g. Kpirus, the 
coasts of the Black Sea, and even 
Part hia. Tho largest Greek gold 
Ksoirj is the 20stater piece of the 
Grsoo-Bactrian king Kucratldes, 
now preserved in Paris; the largest 
silver coins are the 10-drarlnini 
3 of Athens, Syracuse (fig. 6) 
ami Alexander the Great. 

Hellenic coins are important as 
giving a grand and complete idea 
of the development of plastic art 
among the Greeks, In the Greek 
•cities of Italy and Sicily, in par- 
ticular, the art of stamping coins 
had attained considerable importance as 
earlj- as the 5th century B.C., and in the 
4th century with its life-like characterisa- 

2 1 Roman Aj in Gr in Rome, 

oxen and sheep wei finally the medium 

oi ex ban I pecuniary 

were exa< ted in oattle, and the Latin word 
for money, p&Onfa, is derived from /■ 
In later times iiiiu 1 1 <"'' 

given in pieces according to weight, took 
the place of oxen. Bars of coal copper 

marked on Imth si'h'S with Some ligm 

of an ox, j>i^r, or fowl) an> said 

been introduced l>y king 8ervius Tullius, 

when he took in hand tin' regulation of 
weights and measures. The first demon- 
strable example of a coin is from th< 
of the ilciTinvirs (about 450 B.C.). Tho unit 
was the as of cast copper, carry- 
ing the nominal weight of the Roman pound 
\lihra — VI nnr'ir. see fig. 7). The «> 

Female Head (Persephone or Quadriga and armour (prizes of 

Arathau . victory). 

(about 400 B.C.) 

grave*) bore the image of Janus ; the coins 
representing its fractions were all stamped 
on the reverse side with the figure of a 

Head of Janus. Prow of Ship. 


tions, and with the rich variety and noble 
perfection of its forms, it reached the 
highest degree of finish. 

ship's prow. These were, semis, with the 
head of Jupiter = 4 as or 6 unciae • triens 
with the head of Minerva, \ of an as = 



uncias ; quadrans, with the head of Her- 
cules, \ as = 3 uncice • sextans, with the head 
of Mercury, ±as = 2 uncice ; uncia, with the 
head of Roma, T \r as. As in the course of 
time the copper money became lighter, the 
smaller fractional coins were first struck, 
and afterwards all the fractions. This 
copper currency was calculated exclusively 
for the home trade, so that it was easily 
allowed to suffer a continuous depreciation, 
at first to 4, then to 2, after 217 B.C. to 1 
ounce, after B.C. 89 to \ an ounce, and under 
the Empire even to j an ounce. In 269 
B.C. a silver currency was introduced, and 
a mint for it set up on the Capitoline Hill 
in the temple of Juno Moneta. The silver 
fractional coins struck according to the 
Athenian and Sicilian standard were the 
denarius, somewhat higher iu value than the 


Castor and Pollux. 



Attic drachma (about 9§d, figs. 8 and 9) = 
10 asses of 4 ounces; the qnlnarius = 5 
asses ; and the sestertius = 2| asses. These 
coins were denoted by the marks X. V. and 
II. S. (or 2|) respectively (fig. 10). They all 

Roma, Castor and Polio:;. 


bore, on the upper side, the head of the god- 
dess Roma with her winged helmet, and on 
the reverse the two Dioscuri on horseback. 
In later times Diana Victoria in her two- 
horse chariot, and Jupiter in his four-horse 
chariot, successively took the place of the 
Dioscuri. From the middle of the 1st 
century there was no fixed device for the 
reverse side. The sestertius was the equiva- 
lent of the old heavy as, which although 

long disused, survived as the standard of 
reckoning. Payments were generally made 
in denarii, but the account made up in 
sestertii, whence the word nummus (coin) 
was applied par excellence to the sestertius. 
The reduction of the copper as to 1 uncia 
in 217 B.C. degraded the copper money to 
the position of small coin, and a silver 
currency drove out the copper. The 
denarius sank at the same time to the value 
of about Shi., which it maintained till the 
time of Nero. The denarius was reckoned 
as = 15 asses, the quinarhis as 8, and the 
scstc7-tius (about 2d.) =4. At about the 
same period a temporary effort was made 
to introduce gold coinage. This movement 
was not taken up again till towards the 
end of the Republic, when Caesar struck a 
large number of gold coins (aw-eus) equal 
in weight to J- 5 of the Roman pound, and 
in value 25 denarii or 100 sestertii (nearly 
23 shillings). No regular coinage was 
carried on in the time of the Republic, but 
the necessary money was minted as occasion 
required. This was done in Rome at the 
commission of the senate under the super- 
intendence of certain officials entrusted with 
the duty. A permanent board of three 
persons (tres viri monetdles) was at last 
appointed for the purpose. In the provinces 
money was coined by the Roman generals 
and governors. From the time of Augustus 
the emperor retained the exclusive privilege 
of coining gold and silver money, the 
copper coinage being left to the senate. 
The standard of the imperial coinage was 
the aureus of Caesar, the weight of which 
sank (with many variations) lower and 
lower as time went on, till in 312 a.d. Con- 
stantino fixed it at -^ of a lb. ( = between 


12 and 13 shillings, fig. 11). The aureus 
was now called sdlldus, and was stamped 
at first with the Latin mark LXXII, after- 
wards with the Greek OB (=72). It con- 
tinued in use until the fall of the Byzantine 
empire. Of the silver coins of the Republic 
the denarius and quinarhis alone held 
their ground under the Empire, the rest 
being stamped in copper. The denarius 
retained the value fixed 217 B.C. (about 8|rf.) 



until ill" time oi tfero, under whom it Ml 

in Wright mill purity till it* nine fii 
only sixpence. During the 2nd oenturj it 
Hunk in aid,, Mow tin' half of its former 
mine, end the silver ooinage •■• 

d into •in. ill mom \ . I lioole- 
: i:m u .is i he tiist to ] tier to 

ourrenoy. After 292 ah. he issued a 

argentius) of pure silver, and equal 

in weight to the Neronian denarius, The 

argentetu maintained its ground till B60 

\.i>., wlii'ii it made way fore new sysi. m oi 

nage on the standard of the gold 

solidus. 'I'll upper cuius bore the mark 

S.C. (Scnfltus Consulta), because issue, I by 
the senate Uii'ler the Kmpiro tho following 
small coins were minted; the sestertius 
=4 asses, dupondiUs =2 asses, both of 

i ; the semis | .'. an as), awl the quad- 
runs = [ as, both of copper. These last 
were the smallest change. Thequadrans 
went out of uso as earh i I .. an, at the 
beginning of the '2nd century a.d., the 
dupondius, as, and semis, in the middle, 
and the sestertius in the last half of the 
3rd century, when Diocletian issued two 
new copper coins, one of which was called 
ColacretsB (Gr. EalakrStai). A financial 

I at Athens, whose duty it was to 
administer the fund accruing from the fines 
taken in the courts of justice. It was this 
fund from which the cost of the public 
meals in the Prytiineum, and the salary of 
the HSlIastse, was defrayed. The name 
properly means "collectors of hams," and 
probably points to the fact that the hams 
of the victims sacrificed on certain occasions 
were given to the Cdlacreta as contribu- 
tions to the meals in question. 

Collegium. The general term in Latin for 
an association. The word was applied in a 
different sense to express the mutual rela- 
tion of such magistrates as were college. 
Besides the collegia of the great priest- 
hoods, and of the magistrates' attendants 
(see Apparitores), there were numerous 

iations, which, although not united by 
any specifically religious objects, had a 
religious centre in the worship of some deity 
or other. Such were the numerous collegia 
of artisans (ojnf'icum or arttficum), and 
the societies existing among the poor for 
providing funerals, which first appear under 
the Empire. The political clubs (collegia 
sOdaTHcXa) were associated in the worship 
of the Lares CompUGlis, and were, indeed, 
properly speaking, collegia compittilJria, or 
"societies of the cross-ways." The religious 

• re. iu some ii. 
by the State for the performance oi ■ 
public religion 

other oases they were formed by pi 
individuals, who made it their b 
keep ii 1 1 t in- shrines of pai titular di 
(often foreign deities) at then- own ez] 

Colluthus i Or KollUthOs), AG 
native of LycOpolis, in Upper Egypt, who 
flourished at the beginning of the 8th 

century A.D. Be WTOte an uuiinp I] 

epic i m in 885 verses, on the rape of 

lb Ii in, in which ho followed the cyclic 

Coloni ("cultivators"). During tho later 
imperial age the coloni were serfs, who, 
on payment of a certain rent, cultivated a 
piece of land, belonging to their masters, for 
their own profit. They were so far free 
that they could not be sold, could contract 
legal marriages, and could own property. 
But they were absolutely bound to tho 
estate, and if this was sold, passed with the 
rest of what was upon it to the new owner. 
The coloni were probably the descendants 
of barbarians, who were settled in the pro- 
vinces for agricultural purposes. 

Colonies. (1) Greek. In Greece, colo- 
nies were sometimes founded by vanquished 
peoples, who left their homes to escape sub- 
jection at tho hand of a detested enemy ; 
sometimes as a sequel to civil disorders ; 
sometimes to get rid of surplus population, 
and thereby to avoid internal convulsions. 
But in most cases the object was to estab- 
lish and facilitate relations of trade with 
foreign countries. If a Greek city was send- 
ing out a colony, an oracle (before all others 
that of Delphi) was almost invariably con- 
sulted. Sometimes certain classes of citi- 
zens were called upon to take part in the 
enterprises; sometimes one son was chosen 
by lot from every house where there were 
several sons ; and strangers expressing a 
desire to join were admitted. A person of 
distinction was selected to guide the emi- 
grants and make the necessary arrange- 
ments. It was usual to honour these 
founders of colonies, after their death, as 
heroes. Some of the sacred fire was taken 
from the public hearth in the Prytdnei&n, 
and the fire on the public hearth of the new 
city was kindled thereat. And, just as each 
individual had his private shrines, so the 
new community maintained the worship of 
its chief domestic deities, the colony send- 
ing embassies and votive gifts to their prin- 
cipal festivals. 

The relation between colony and mother- 



city was viewed as one of mutual affection. 
Any differences that arose were made up, 
if possible, by peaceful means, war being 
deemed excusable only in cases of extreme 
necessity. The charter of foundation con- 
tained general provisions for the arrange- 
ment of the affairs of the colony, and also 
some special enactments. The constitution 
of the mother-city was usually adopted by 
the colony, but the new city remained poli- 
tically independent. If the colony sent out 
a fresh colony on its own account, the 
mother-city was generally consulted, or was 
at least requested to furnish a leader. The 
ClCruchl formed a special class of Greek 
colonists (see Cleruchi). The trade fac- 
tories set up in foreign countries (in Egypt, 
for instance) were somewhat different from 
the ordinary colonies, the members retain- 
ing the right of domicile in their own 

(2) Ro?nan. It was an old custom in 
Italy to send out colonies for the purpose of 
securing new conquests. The Romans, ac- 
cordingly, having no standing ariny, used 
to plant bodies of their own citizens in 
conquered towns as a kind of garrison. 
These bodies would consist partly of Roman 
citizens, usually to the number of three 
hundred, partly of members of the Latin 
confederacy, in larger numbers. The third 
part of the conquered territory was handed 
over to the settlers. The colonics 
clvlum Romanorum (colonies of 
Roman citizens) were specially in- 
tended to secure the two sea-coasts 
of Italy, and were hence called 
colonic? maritime?. The colonice 
Latinos, of which there was a far 
greater number, served the same 
purpose for the mainland. 

The duty of leading the colonists 
and founding the settlement was 
entrusted to a commission usually jfjpi 
consisting of three members, and I 
elected by the people. These men lAMA^ 
continued to stand in the relation "-''^i 
of patrons (jpatronl) to the colony -**v l /T.- 
after its foundation. The colonists *jjtf' 
entered the conquered city in mili- j 
tary array, preceded by banners, and 
the foundation was celebrated with 
special solemnities. The coUmia 
were free from taxes, and had their 
own constitution, a copy of the Ro- 
man, electing from their own body 
their senate and other officers of state. To 
this constitution the original inhabitants 
had to submit. The colonice civium Ro- 

manorum retained the Roman citizenship,, 
and were free from military service, their 
position as out-posts being regarded as an 
equivalent. The members of the colonice 
Latince served among the socii, and pos- 
sessed the so-called ius Latinum (nee 
Latini). This secured to them the right of 
acquiring property (commercium) and settle- 
ment in Rome, and, under certain conditions, 
the power of becoming Roman citizens ; 
though in course of time these rights under- 
went many limitations. 

From the time of the Gracchi the colonies- 
lost their militar\- character. Colonization 
came to be regarded as a means of providing 
for the poorest class of the Roman populace. 
After the time of Sulla it was adopted as a 
way of granting land to veteran soldiers. 
The right of founding colonies was taken 
away from the people by Caesar, and passed 
into the hands of the emperors, who used it 
(mainly in the provinces) for the exclusive 
purpose of establishing military settlements. 
partly with the old idea of securing con- 
quered territory. It was only in excep- 
tional cases that the provincial colonies 
enjoyed the immunity from taxation which, 
was granted to those in Italy. 

Colosseum. See Amphitheatre. 

Colossus of Rhodes. See Chares. 

Columbarium. Properly a dove-cote. The 
word was metaphorically applied to a sub- 


(Xenr the Porta Latino, Rome.) 

terranean vault provided with rows of small 
niches, l3"ing one above the other, and in- 
tended for the reception of the urns contain- 



ing the ashes of the dead, These large 
burial places were buill by rich people 
freedmen van too numerous to bi 
interred in the family burial place. They 
were also erected by the Cessans for their 
slaves and freedmen. Several of these Btill 
r\ist, for instance, thai of Livia, the oonsorl 
i Augustus, who buill one for ker freed 
men on the Appianroad. Common burial- 

I laces, in which :i nil he could i>e bespoken 
leforehand, were sometimes constructed by 
private individuals on speculation for people 
who were too poor to have a grave i>f their 
own. Columbaria were usually buill by re- 
us or mercantile societies, or by burial 
oluba for their own members. In such 
cases the members contributed a single 
capital payment nml yearly subscriptions, 
which gave them the right to a decent 
burial and a niche in the vault. The nanus 
of the dead were inscribed on marble tablets 
over eaob niche. {See out.) 

Cdlumella {Lucius Iunlus MSdSratUB). 
A Latin writer on agriculture. He was a 
native of Glides, iu Spain, and a contem- 
porary of his countryman, the philosopher 
SfinSca. He was the author of a thorough 
and exhaustive work on agriculture (De Re 
Rustled), which he founded partly upon a 
study of all previous works on the subject, 
partly on his own experience, gathered in 
Spain, Italy, and Asia. The work was 
written about GO A. D., and consists of twelve 
books, arranged as follows : I-II, on crops 
and pastures : III-V, on trees and vine- 
yards ; VI-1X, on cattle, birds, fishes, and 
bees; X, on horticulture; XI-XII, on the 
duties and occupations of the farmer. The 
tenth book is written in polished hexameters, 
as a supplement to Vergil's fourth Georgic. 
This Columella did at the request of Publius 
Silviinus, to whom the whole work is dedi- 
cated. Besides this, his great work, 
Columella had previously written a shorter 
treatise, of which the second book, on trees 
(De Arboribus), still survives. Columella's 
exposition is clear and easy, and his language 
(if we pass over the rhetorical ornaments 
added after the fashion of his time) correct. 
The tenth book, though written in verse, 
has, it must be said, little poetical merit. 

Cdlumna Rostrata. See Architecture, 
Orders of. 

Comaetho (Gr. EomaithO). In Greek 
mythology, the daughter of Pterelaiis, king 
of the Teleboi. Her father had a golden 
lock in his hair, given him by Poseidon, 
and conferring immortality. Of this he 
was deprived by his daughter, who was 

shun for hei treachery bj Amphitryon, the 

enemy of h.i la. e Si I \ MI'III'I lt\ I I 

Comedy. 1 1 1 Qra X , 'I b< I iedy, 

like the Greek tragedy and atyric drama, 
bad its origin in the festivals of I ifsus. 

As its name, IcOmOdla, "i the song "i the 
, implies, ii arose from the nnre- 

.1 1 aiiied .singing and jesting common in the 
komos, or merry procession of Dionysus. 
According to the tradition, it was the D 
inhabitants of Meg&ra, well known for their 

love of fun, who lii st worked up tie ie 
into a kind of farce. The inhabitants of 
Bfegara accordingly boasted that they were 
the founders of Greek comedy. From 
Megara, it was supposed, the popular farce 
found its way to the other Dorian com- 
munities, and one Susarlon was said to 
have transplanted it to the Attic deme of 
Icaria about 580 B.C. No further informa- 
tion is in existence as to the nature of the 
Megarian or Dorian popular comedy. The 
local Doric farce was developed into literary 
form in Sicily by Epicharmus of Cos (about 
540-450 B.C.). This writer gave a comic 
treatment not only to mythology, but to 
subjects taken from real life. The con- 
temporary of Epicharmus, Phormus or 
Phormis, and his pupil Dinolochus, may 
also be named as representatives of the 
Dorian comedy. 

The beginnings of the Attic comedy, like 
those of the Attic tragedy, are associated 
with the deme of Icaria, known to have been 
the chief seat of the worship of Dionysus 
in Attica. Not only Thespis, the father of 
tragedy, but also Chionides and Magnes 
(about 550 B.C.), who, if the story may be 
trusted, first gave a more artistic form 
to the Megarian comedy introduced by 
Susarion, were natives of Icaria. Comedy 
did not become, in the proper sense, a part 
of literature until it had found welcome 
and consideration at Athens in the time of 
the Persian wars ; until its form had been 
moulded on the finished outlines of tragedy ; 
and until, finally, it had received from the 
State the same recognition as tragedy. The 
Old Comedy, as it was called, had its origin 
in personal abuse. It was Crates who first 
gave it its peculiar political character, and 
his younger contemporary Cratlnus who 
turned it mainly or exclusively in this 
direction. The masters of the Old Comedy- 
are usually held to be Cratinus and his 
younger contemporaries, Eupolis and Aris- 
tophanes. It attained its youth in the 
time of Pericles and the Peloponnesian war ; 
the period when the Athenian democracy 



had reached its highest development. These 
three masters had many rivals, who fell, 
however, on the whole beneath their level, 
among others Pherecrates, Hermippus, 
Teleclides, Phrynichus, Ameipsias, Plato 
and Theopompus. 

A good idea of the characteristics of the 
Old Comedy may be formed from the eleven 
surviving plays of Aristophanes.* The 
Greek tragedy has a meaning for all time ; 
but the Old Comedy, the most brilliant 
and striking production of all Athenian 
literature, has its roots in Athenian life, 
and addressed the Athenian public only. 

Dealing from the very first with the 
grotesque and absurd side of things, it 
was the scourge of all vice, folly, and 
weakness. The social life of Athens, so 
restless, and yet so open, offered an in- 
exhaustible store of material ; and the 
comedian was always sure of a witty, 
laughter-loving public, on whom no allusion 
was lost. The first aim of the Athenian 
comedy was, no doubt, to make men laugh, 
but this was not all. Beneath it there lay a 
serious and patriotic motive. The poet, who 
was secured by the license of the stage, 
wished to bring to light and turn to ridicule 
the abuses and degeneracy of his time. 
The Attic comedians are all admirers of 
the good old times, and, accordingly, the 
declared enemies of the social innovations 
which were beginning to make their way, 
the signs in many cases, no doubt, of ap- 
proaching decline. It was not, however, 
the actual phenomena of life which were 
sketched in the Old Comedy. The latter 
is really a grotesque and fantastic carica- 
ture ; the colours are laid on thick, and 
propriety, as we moderns understand it, is 
thrown to the winds. These plays abound 
in coarseness and obscenity of the broadest 
kind, the natural survival of the rude 
license allowed at the Dionysiac festival. 
The choice and treatment of the subjects 
show the same tendency to the grotesque 
and fantastic. Fancy and caprice revel at 
their will, unchecked by any regard either 
for the laws of poetical probability or for 
adequacy of occasion. The action is gene- 
rally quite simple, sketched out in a few 
broad strokes, and carried out in a motley 
series of loosely connected scenes. The 
language is always choice and fine, never 
leaving the forms of the purest Atticism. 
The metres admit a greater freedom and 
movement than those of the tragedy. 

* Only eleven have come down to us complete : 
the rest are in fragments. 

A comedy, like a tragedy, consisted of 
the dramatic dialogue, written mostly in 
iambic senGrii, and the lyrical chorus. The 
division of the dialogue into prdlogOs, 
epeisddion, and exodds, and of the chorus 
into parodus and staaima, are the same as 
in tragedy (see Tragedy). But, while the 
tragic chorus consisted of fifteen singers, 
there were twenty-four in the comic. A 
peculiarit} 7 of the comic chorus is the pdra- 
basis, a series of lines entirely unconnected 
with the plot, in which the poet, through 
the^ mouth of the chorus, addresses the 
public directly about his own concerns, or 
upon burning questions of the day (see 
Parabasis). Like the tragedies, the come- 
dies were performed at the great festivals 
of Dionysus, the Dionysia and Lensea. On 
each occasion five poets competed for the 
prize, each with one play. 

For a short time, but a short time only, 
a limitation had been put upon the absolute 
freedom with which the poets of the Old 
Comedy lashed the shortcomings of the 
government and its chief men. The down- 
fall of the democracy, however, deprived 
them of this liberty. The disastrous issue 
of the Peloponnesian war had, moreover, 
ruined the Athenian finances, and made it 
necessary to give up the expensive chorus, 
and with it the p>arabasis. Thus deprived 
of the means of existence, the Old Comedy 
was doomed to extinction. In its place came 
what was called the Middle Comedy, from 
about 400-338 B.C. This was a modification 
of the Old Comedy, with a character corre- 
sponding to the altered circumstance of the 
time. The Middle Comedy was in no sense 
political ; it avoided all open attack on in- 
dividuals, and confined itself to treating the 
typical faults and weaknesses of mankind. 
Its main line was burlesque and parody, of 
which the objects were the tragedies and 
the mythology in general. It was also 
severe upon the lives of the philosophers. 
It dealt in typical characters, such as 
bullies, parasites, and courtesans. The 
writers of the Middle Comedy were very 
prolific, more than eight hundred of their 
plays having survived as late as the 2nd 
century a.d. The most celebrated of them 
were Antiphanes of Athens and Alexis of 
Thurii ; next to these came Eubulus, and 
Anaxandridas of Rhodes. 

A new departure is signalized by the 
dramas of what is called the New Comedy. 
In these, as in the modern society drama, 
life was represented in its minutest details. 
The New Comedy offered a play regularly 



truoted like ilmt of tragedj , i 
teriied bj fine humour, and bui seldom 
toaohing on public life, The language was 
thai of ordinarj society, and the plot was 
worked out in a connected form from the 
nin^ i" the ii' 'mint an ut. The chief 
hi of the ; the New I omedy la] in 

i he development of i he plot and the faith- 
ful portraiture of oharaoter. The stock 

i ota are illicit love affaire ; for h 
women lived in retirement, and stories of 
honourable love, therefore, were practically 
excluded from the Btage. The ordinary 
characters are young men in love, fathers 
i the good-natured or the scolding type, 
cunning slaves, panders, parasites, and brag- 
ging officers. Besides tho dialogue proper, 
we find traces of parts written in lyric 
metres for the higher style of singing. 
These were, in all probability, like the dia- 
logue, performed by the actors. 

The fate of the New resembles that of 
the Middle Comedy, only a few fragments 
of its numerous pieces having survived. 
Of some of them, however, we have Latin 
adaptations by Plautus and Terence. Its 
greatest master was Menander, besides 
whom should be mentioned Dlphllus, Phile- 
mon, Philippides, Posldippus, and Apollo- 
dorns of Carystus. The New Comedy 
flourished from 330 B.C. till far into the 
3rd century a.d. 

In about 300 B.C. the old Dorian farce 
WBS revived in a literary form in Southern 
Italy by Rhinthon, the creator of the 
Hildrdtrdgcedia. The Hilavotragcedia was 
for the most part a parody of the tragic 

(2) Roman. Like the Greeks, the Italian 
people had their popular dramatic pieces; 
the versus Fescennini, for instance, which 
were at first associated with the mimic 
drama, first introduced in 390 B.C. from 
Etruria in consequence of a plague, to 
appease the wrath of heaven (sec Fescen- 
nixi Versus). From this combination 
sprang the sdtiira, a performance consisting 
of flute-playing, mimic dance, songs, and 
dialogue. The AteUana q.v.) was a second 
species of popular Italian corned}-, dis- 
tinguished from others by having certain 
fixed or stock characters. The creator 
of the regular Italian comedy and traged}- 
was a Greek named Living Andronicus, 
about 240 B.C. Like the Italian tragedy, 
the Italian comedy was, in form and con- 
tents, an imitation, executed with more or 
less freedom, of the Greek. It was the New 
Greek Comedy which the Romans took as 

their model. I which i 

k life, was called 
pallidta, 'i i' i • he Qi ek pallium, 
i dramatic tatura, and the Atellana, 
which aft< i i applauted the tatt i 

a icluding farco, oontinui I 

by side. The Latin comedy was brought to 
perfection by Plautus and Ten noe, the only 
from whose hand* we 
still |i , b, We should also 

mention Neeviusand Bnnius (both of whom 
wrote tragedies as well as comedies), 

CsBCllinS. and Turpilins, with whom, to- 
wards tho end of the 3nd century u.c, 
i vie of composition died out. 

About the middle of the 2nd century 
B.C. a new kind of comedy, the t 
from tdga) made its appearance. The form 
of it was still Greek, but the life and the 
characters Italian. The togata was re- 
presented by Titinius, Atta, and Afranius, 
who was accounted the master in this kind 
of writing. At the beginning of the 1st 
century B.C. the AteUana assumed an 
artistic form in the hands of Pomponios 
and Ndvius; and some fifty years later the 
mimus, also an old form of popular farce, 
was similarly handled by Laberius and 
Publilius Syrns. The mimus drove all the 
other varieties of corned}- from the field, 
and held its ground until late in the im- 
perial period. 

The Roman comedy, like its model, the 
New Comedy of the Greeks, had no chorus, 
the intervals being filled up by perfor- 
mances on the flute. The play consisted, 
like the Roman tragedy, partly of passages 
of spoken dialogue in iambic trimeters, 
partly of musical scenes called cantba. 
(See Caxticoi. 

Comissatio. See Meals. 

Comitia. The popular assemblies of the 
Romans, summoned and presided over by a 
mcigistrdtiis. In the comitia the Roman 
people appeared as distributed into its 
political sections, for the purpose of de- 
ciding, in the exercise of its sovereign rights, 
upon the business brought before it by the 
presiding magistrate. The comitia must be 
distinguished from the contiones. The 
contiones were also summoned and presided 
over by a magistrate, but they did not 
assemble in their divisions, and they had 
nothing to do but to receive the commu- 
nications of the magistrate. In all its 
assemblies at Rome, the people remained 
standing. The original place of meeting 
was the comitium, a part of the forum. 
There were three kinds of comitia. viz. : 



(1) The Comitia Curiata. This was the 
assembly of the patricians in their thirty 
curice, who, until the change of the con- 
stitution under Servius Tullius, constituted 
the whole pupulus Bomantis. During the 
regal period they were summoned by the 
rex or interrex, who brought before them 
questions to be decided Aye or No. The 
voting was taken first in each curia by 
heads, and then according to curice, in an 
order determined by lot. The business 
within the competence of this assembly 
was : (a) to elect a king proposed by the 
interrex ; (b) to confer upon the king the 
imperlum, by virtue of the lex curiata de 
imperio ; (c) to decide on declarations of war, 
appeals, arrogatlones (see Adoption), and 
the reception of foreign families into the 
body of the patricians. The Servian con- 
stitution transferred the right of declaring 
aggressive war, and the right of deciding 
appeals, to the Comitia Centuriata, which, 
from this time onward, represented the 
people, now composed of both patricians 
and plebeians. After the establishment of 
the Republic, the Comitia Curiata retained 
the right (a) of conferring, on the proposal 
of the senate, the imperium on the magis- 
trates elected by the Comitia Centuriata, 
and on the dictator elected by the consuls ; 
(b) of confirming, likewise on the proposal 
of the senate, the alterations in the consti- 
tution decided upon by the Comitia Cen- 
turiata, and Trlbuta. 

The extinction of the political difference 
between Patricians and Plebeians destroyed 
the political position of the Comitia 
Curiata, and the mere shadow of their 
rights survived. The assembly itself be- 
came an unreality, so much so that, in the 
end, the presence of the thirty lictores 
c unfit l, and three augurs, was sufficient to 
enable legal resolutions to be passed (see 
Lictors). But the Comitia Curiata re- 
tained the powers affecting the reception of 
a non-patrician into the patrician order, 
and the powers affecting the proceeding of 
arrogedio, especially in cases where the 
transition of a patrician into a plebeian 
family was concerned. Evidence of the 
exercise of these functions on their part 
may be traced down the imperial period. 

The Comitia Cc'data were also an 
assembly of the patrician curio?. They 
were so called because publicly summoned 
(caldre). The ponfiflees presided, and the 
functions of the assembly were : (a) to in- 
augurate the Jldmines, the rex sacrorum, 
and indeed the king himself during the 

regal period, (b) The detestdtlO sac,rOrum y 
previous to an act of arrogatio. This was 
the formal release of a person passing by 
adoption into another family from the sacra 
of his former family (see Adoption), (c) 
The ratification of wills twice a year ; but 
this applies only to an early period. 
(d) The announcement of the calendar of 
festivals on the first day of every month. 

(2) Comitia Centuriata. The assembly 
of the whole people, patrician as well as 
plebeian, arranged according to the centuries 
established by Servius Tullius. The 
original founder of the comitia centuriata 
transferred to them certain political rights 
which had previously been exercised by 
the comitia curiata. It was not, however, 
until the foundation of the Republic, when 
the sovereign power in the state was trans- 
ferred to the body of citizens, that the}' 
attained their real political importance. 
They then became the assembly in which 
the people, collectively, expressed its will. 
The right of summoning the comitia cen- 
turiata originally belonged to the king. 
During the republican period it belonged, 
in its full extent, to the consuls and the 
dictator alone. The other magistrates 
possessed it only within certain limits. 
The interrex, for instance, could, in case of 
there being no consuls, summon the comitia 
centuriata to hold an election, but he could 
summon them for this purpose only. The 
censors could call them together only for 
the holding of the census and the lustrum ; 
the praetors, it va&y be conjectured, only 
in the case of capital trials. In all other 
instances the consent of the consuls, or 
their authorisation, was indispensable. 

The duties of the comitia centuriata 
during the republican period were as 
follows : (a) To elect the higher magis- 
trates, consuls, censors, and praetors, (b) To 
give judgment in all the capital trials in 
which appeal to the people was permitted 
from the sentence of the magistrate sitting 
in judgment. This popular jurisdiction 
was gradually limited to political trials, 
common offences being dealt with by the 
ordinary commissions. And in the later 
republican age the judicial assemblies of 
the comitia centuriata became, in general, 
rarer, especially after the formation of special 
standing commissions (qua'stldncs perpe- 
tual) for the trial of a number of offences 
regarded as political. (c) To decide on 
declaring a war of aggression ; this on the 
proposal of the consuls, with the approval 
of the senate, (d) To pass laws proposed. 


ii\ the higher magistrate!, with the appi 

of ill. 'This right lost iiiurii of it* 

villus after 281 B.O., mien the legislative 
powera of the eomitia tributa were mode 

equal to il f the eomitia centuriata, 

• this time the legislative activity of 
the latter assembly gradually diminished. 

The eomitia centuriata wer iginolly a 

military assembly, and the citizens ao 
ingly, in anoieni times, attended then in 
urtiis. On the night before the meeting, the 
magistrate summoning the assembly took 
the auspices on the plane oi meeting, the 
Campus Minims. If the auspices were 
favourable, signals were given, before day- 
break, from the walls and the citadel by the 
blowing of horns, summoning the citizens to 
a contilO. The presiding magistrate offered 
a aaorifice, aud repeated a solemn prayer, 
and tin* assembly proceeded to consider the 
business which required its decision. Private 
individuals wero not allowed to speak, except 
with tho consent of the presiding magistrate. 
At his command the armed people divided 
themselves into their centuria 1 , and marched 
in t liis order to the Campus Martins, pre- 
ceded by banners, and headed by the 
cavalry. Arrived at the Campus, they pro- 
ceeded to the voting, the president having 
again put the proposal to the people in the 
form of a question ( 1: Do you wish?" "Do 
you command ? ") While the voting was 
eoing on, a red flag stood on the Jdnlcidum. 
The Cqultcs, who in ancient times used to be- 
gin the battles in war, opened the voting, and 
theireighteen centuries were therefore called 
prcerdg&tlva. The result of their vote was 
immediately published, and, being taken as 
an omen for the voters who were to follow, 
was usually decisive. Then came the 175 
centuries, 170 of which composed the five 
classes of infantry in their order. Each cen- 
turia counted as casting one vote; this vote 
was decided by a previous voting within the 
ccnturia, which was at first open, but in 
later times was taken by ballot. If the 18 
centuries of equites, and the 80 centuries of 
the first class, with whom went the two cen- 
turies of mechanics (centuricc fabntm), were 
unanimous, the question was decided, as there 
would be a majority of 100 centuries to 93. 
If not, the voting went on until one side 
secured the votes of at least 97 centuries. 
The lower classes only voted in the rare 
cases where the votes of the higher classes 
were not united. The proceedings con- 
cluded with a formal announcement of the 
result on the part of the presiding magis- 
trate, and the dismissal of the host. If no 

1 See, however, Cic. pro Plantio, 4U, nemo umq 
•jntn rtnuncialu* sit consul. 

.ii i ived at by ran at, "i if u> 
Eavourabli lui ing the i ■<•• 

oeedings, oi while the voting was going on, 

iiei until the next 
convenient oooa sion, 

This form of voting gave the wealthier 
oitizens a decided advantage over the n 
and lent an aristocratic oharaoter to the 
eomitia centuriata. In th< ntury 

b.i ■ change was introduced in the in! 
of the lower liitssis. Bach oi the ti 
live trihiis. or districts, into which thi 
man territory was divided, included ten 
(■intuitu, five Of IUnlOrCS and five of 
■i iimn s. i For the iWirlassi s,si i ( 'i;n 1 1 kia. , 
Thus each of the five classis included 70 
Ct ntiiriir, making 860 cintn riir in all. To 
this number add the eighteen centuria 
ri/nitnni, and the five n ntn riu; not in- 
cluded in the propertied classes; namely, 
two ,,f fabri (mechanics), two of titbit 
(musicians), and one of prOlStdril and 
lilit rti (the very poor and the freedmen), 
and the whole number of centuriae amounts 
to 373. The ccnturiir, it must be remem- 
bered, had by this time quite lost their 
military character. Under this arrange- 
ment the 88 votes of the equites and the 
first classis were confronted with the 285 
votes of the rest. Besides this, the right 
of voting first was taken from the equites 
and given to the centuria prcerogativa 
chosen by lot from the first classis. The 
voting, it is true, was still taken in the 
order of the classes, but the classes were 
seldom unanimous as in former times ; for 
the interests of the tribus, which were re- 
presented in each classis by two centuria 
respectively, were generally divergent, and 
the centuries voted in the sense of their 
tribe. The consequence was that it was 
often necessary — indeed, perhaps that it 
became the rule, at least at elections— to 
take the votes of all the classes* 

In old times the military arrangement 
was sufficient to secure the maintenance of 
order. But, after its disappearance, the 
classes were separated, and the centuria- 
kept apart by wooden barriers (sapta . 
from which the centuria' passed over 
bridges into an open inner space called 
ov'tli i' sheep-fold i. On the position of the 
eomitia centuriata during the imperial 
age, see below. 

(3) Comitia Tributa. This was the 
collective assembly of the people arranged 
according to the local distribution of tribes 
(sec Tribcs). It must be distinguished 
from the concilium [ilcbis, which was an 

nam jjrior turn. ^=c. ceiuuriam pratrogativam) tuierit 



assembly of the tribes under the presidency 
of plebeian magistrates, i.e., the tribuni and 
the irdiles plebeii. As these magistrates 
had no right to summon patricians, the re- 
solutions passed by a concilium plcbis 
were (strictly speaking) only plebi sctta. 
It was a lex centuriata of some earlier date 
than 462 B.C. that probably first made 
these resolutions binding on all the citizens, 
provided they received the approval of the 
senate. This approval was rendered un- 
necessary by the lex Hortensia of 287 B.C., 
and from that date onward the concilia 
plcbis became the principal organ of legisla- 
tion. The method of voting resembled that 
in the comitia curiata, and the regular place 
of meeting was the Comitium. No auspices 
were taken. From 471 B.C. the concilia 
plebis elected the tribuni and the crdiles 
plebeii. Among the other functions of the 
concilia jylebis were the following : 

(a) To give judicial decisions in all suits 
instituted by the tribunes and sediles of the 
plebs, for offences against the plebs or its 
representatives. In later times these suits 
were mostly instituted on the ground of bad 
or illegal administration. The tribunes and 
sediles had, in these cases, the power of in- 
flicting pecuniary fines ranging up to a 
large amount. (6) To pass resolutions on 
proposals made by the tribunes of the plebs 
and the higher magistrates on foreign and 
domestic affairs, on the conclusion of peace, 
for instance, or the making of treaties. 
Their power was almost unlimited, and the 
more important because, strictly speaking, 
it was only the higher magistrates who re- 
quired the authorization of the senate. Nor 
had the senate more than the right of 
quashing a measure passed without due 

The comitia tribitta, as distinguished 
from the concilia plebis, were presided over 
by the consuls, the praetors, and (in judicial 
cases) the curule sediles. Until the latter 
years of the Republic, the assembly usually 
met upon the Capitol, and afterwards on the 
Campus Martius. The functions of the 
comitia tributa, gradually acquired, were 
as follows : (a) The election of all the lower 
magistrates, ordinary (as the tribuni plebis, 
tribuni mtlttnm, aedlles pilebis, o?dilcs 
eiirides) and extraordinary, under the pre- 
sidency partly of the tribunes, partly of the 
consuls or praetors, (b) The nomination of 
the pontifcx maximus, and of the co-opted 
members of the religious collegia of the 
pontifices, augurSs, and decemviri sacio- 
rum. This nomination was carried out by a 

committee of seventeen tribes chosen by 
lot. (c) The fines judicially inflicted by 
the concilia jjlebis required in all graver 
cases the sanction of the tribes. 

The comitia tributa were summoned at 
least seventeen days before the meeting, by 
the simple proclamation of a herald. As in 
the case of the comitia centuriata, business 
could neither be begun nor continued in 
the face of adverse auspices. Like the 
comitia centuriata too, the tribal assembly 
met at daybreak, and conld not sit beyond 
sunset. If summoned by the tribunes, the 
comitia tributa could only meet in the city, 
or within the radius of a mile from it. The 
usual place of assembly was the Forum or 
the comitium (q.v.). If summoned by other 
authorities, the assembly met outside the 
city, most commonly in the Campus Martius. 
The proceedings opened with a prayer, un- 
accompanied by sacrifice. The business in 
hand was then discussed in a contio {see 
above, p. 155 a); and the proposal having 
been read out, the meeting was requested 
to arrange itself according to its thirty-five 
tribes in the sapta or wooden fences. Lots 
were drawn to decide which tribe should 
vote first. The tribe on which this duty fell 
was called principium. The result of this 
first vote was proclaimed, and the other 
tribes then proceeded to vote simultane- 
ously, not successively. The votes given 
by each tribe were then announced in an 
order determined by lot. Finally, the 
general result of the voting was made 

The proposer of a measure was bound to 
put his proposal into due form, and publish 
it beforehand. When a measure came to 
the vote, it was accepted or rejected as a 
whole. It became law when the presiding 
magistrate announced that it had been 

The character of the comitia had begun 
to decline even in the later period of the 
Republic. Even the citizens of Rome took 
but little part in them, and this is still more 
true of the population of Italy, who had 
received the Roman citizenship in 89 B.C. 
The comitia tributa, in particular, sank 
gradually into a mere gathering of the city 
mob, strengthened on all sides by the influx 
of corrupt elements. The results of the 
voting came more and more to represent 
not the public interest, but the effects of 
direct or indirect corruption. Under the 
Empire the comitia centuriata and tributa 
continued to exist, in a shadowy form, it is 

com hum 



h -in-, .|..« n to the 8rd oentun i.v Joliua 

ii had deprived them oi thi 
deciding "ii w u and peace. Undi r \ a,- 
gustus ilu'v lost ill" powei oi jurisdiction, 
and, praotio&lly, the power of legislation, 
The impel iaJ mi osures w ere indeed laid 
before tne comitia tributa for ratifii 
inn this was all; and under the buooi 
oi Augustus even this proceeding beci 

tin' time nf V'i'S|i;isiiiii the 

emperors, at their accession, received their 
lative and other powers from the 
comitia tributa, but this, like the rest, 
was a mere formality. The powor of elec- 
tion was that which, in appearance at least. 
survived longest. Augustus, like .lulins 
Csesar, allowed the comitia centuriata to 
confirm the nomination of two candidates 
for the consulship. He also loft to the 
comitia centuriata ami tributa the power 
of free election to half the other magis- 
tracies; the oilier half being tilled by 
nominees of his own. Tiberius transferred 
the last remnant of free elective power to 
the senate, whoso proposals, originating 
under imperial influence, were laid before 
the comitia for ratification. The formali- 
ties, the auspices, prayer, sacrifice, and 
proclamation, were now the important thing, 
and the measures proposed were carried, 
not by regular voting, but by acclama- 

Conritlum. The name of a small space in 
Home, bounded on the north by the senate- 
house (sec Cukia), and on the south by 
the rostra (sec Rostra). Down to the 2nd 
century B.C. it was used for the meetings 
the assemblies and of the courts of law. 
After the removal of the rostra it became 
part of the Forum. Sec Plan under Forum, 
No. 18. 

Commerce. Greece. In the Homeric poems 
the Greeks are not represented as a people 
with a spontaneous inclination to com- 
merce. Indeed, the position of the oldest 
Greek cities, far away from the sea. suffici- 
ently shows that their founders can have 
had no idea of trade as a means of getting 
wealth. Greek navigation in ancient times 
was almost exclusively subservient to war 
and piracy, to which, for a long time, no 
stigma was attached in public opinion. And 
the trade carried on with Greece by the 
Asiatics, especially the Phoenicians, who 
then ruled the Greek seas, can hardly have 
been very active. The Greeks, having no 
agricultural or industrial produce to offer, 
could not have tempted many foreigners to 
deal with them. But in the centuries suc- 

ceeding the Homi i ic age, I be i mmi 

we 1 1 yoim ionii 

i bi island >,eep( oiallj £glna ai I 

in commercial undertake 

the only continental town which 

at all successful in ihis way being 

('oriuth, which WS la v<. ill ed I". 

para ble position. Ii was i bi m of 

i he Bellenic colonies in A is M i 
first occasioned the free development of 
le. Tho exertions of the I >nians 

mainly instrumental in creating two 
things indispensalili 9, namely, 

c • rcial activity, excited by contact 

tho ancient industries of tho East, and a 
maritime power in the proper sense, which 
made it possible to oust the Phoenicians 
from the naval supremacy which they had 
so long maintained. This new commercial 
aotivity necessitated a larger use of the 
precious metals, and the establishment of a 
gold and silver coinage, which the Ioniaus 
were the first among the Greeks to adopt. 
This proved a powerful stimulus to the 
development of commerce, or rather it was 
the very condition of its existence. Miletus 
took the first place among the trading 
colonies. The influence of these cities upon 
their mother country was so strong that 
even the Dorians gradually lost their 
national and characteristic dislike of trade 
and commerce, and threw themselves ac- 
tively into their pursuit. Down to the 6th 
century B.C., Greek commerce had extended 
itself to the coasts of the Mediterranean 
and the inland seas connected with it, 
especially towards the East. It was not 
until a later time that Athens joined the 
circle of commercial cities. Even in Solon's 
time the Athenians had lived mainly 
by agriculture and cattle-breeding, and it 
was only with the growth of the democratic 
constitution that their commercial inter- 
course with the other cities became at all 
considerable. The Persian wars, and her 
position as head of the naval confederacy, 
raised Athens to the position of the first 
maritime power in Greece. Under the ad- 
ministration of Pericles she became the 
centre of all Hellenic activity, not only in 
art and science, but in trade. It was only 
Corinth and Corcyra whose western trade 
enabled them to maintain a prominent 
position by the side of Athens. The Greeks 
of Asia Minor completely lost their com- 
mercial position after their conquest by the 
Persians. The naval supremacy of Athens, 
and with it its commerce, was completely 
annihilated by the Peloponnesian war. It 



was a long time before the Athenians suc- 
ceeded in breaking down the maritime 
power of Sparta which that war had estab- 
lished. Having done so, they recovered, but 
■only for a short time, a position of promin- 
ence not at all equal to their former 
supremacy by sea. The victory of the 
Macedonian power entirely destroyed the 
political and commercial importance of 
Athens, whose trade now fell behind that 
of other cities. The place of Athens, as 
the first maritime and commercial power, 
was taken by the city of Rhodes, founded 
in 408 B.C. By the second half of the 4th 
century B.C. the trade of Rhodes had ex- 
tended itself over the whole known world, 
and its maritime law was universally ob- 
served until a much later period. After 
the destruction of Corinth in the middle of 
the 2nd century B.C. the island of Delos 
enjoyed a brief but brilliant period of pros- 
perity. Among the commercial cities of the 
Grseco-Macedonian empire, Alexandria in 
Egypt took the first place, and rose indeed 
to be the centre of European and Eastern 
trade. It was mainly through Alexandria 
that intercourse was kept up between 
Greece and the Eastern countries opened up 
by the campaigns of Alexander the Great. 

One of the most important routes followed 
by Grecian traffic was that leading to the 
Black Sea, the coasts of which were fringed 
with Greek colonies. Besides Byzantium 
and Sinope, the chief commercial centres 
in this region were Olbia, Panticapseum, 
Phanagoria, and Phasis, from which trade- 
routes penetrated far into the barbarian 
countries of the interior. Other main 
routes led by Chios and Lesbos to the 
coasts of Asia Minor and by the Cyclades 
to that part of the Asiatic coast where lay 
the great cities of Samos, Ephesus, and 
Miletus. Hence they continued to Egypt 
and Cyrene, by Rhodes and Cyprus and the 
coast of Phoenicia. But in travelling to 
these parts from the Peloponnesus, they 
generally sailed by way of Crete, which had 
been long celebrated for its maritime enter- 
prise. Round the promontory of Malea, the 
southernmost point of the Peloponnese, and 
by Corcyra, they sailed northwards to the 
coasts of the Adriatic, or westward to Italy 
and Sicily. Regular traffic beyond Sicily 
was rendered impossible by the jealousy of 
the Carthaginians and Etruscans, who were 
masters of the commerce in this region, and 
whose place was afterwards taken there by 
the Romans. A considerable land-traffic 
was carried on by the colonies with bar- 

barians of the interior. But in Greece 
Proper the mountainous nature of the 
country and the absence of navigable rivers 
were unfavourable to communication by 
land, and the land-traffic accordingly was 
entirely thrown into the shade by the mari- 
time trade. The only opportunity for com- 
merce by land on a large scale was afforded 
by the great national festivals, which 
brought together great crowds of people 
from every part of Greece, and secured 
them a safe conduct (see Ekecheieia). 
In this way these festivals exactly corre- 
sponded to our trade fairs. 

The exports of Greece consisted mainly 
in wine, oil, and manufactured goods, espe- 
cially pottery and metal wares. The im- 
ports included the necessaries of life, of 
which Greece itself, with its dense popula- 
tion, artificially increased by slavery, did 
not produce a sufficient quantity. The 
staple was wheat, which was imported in 
large quantities from the coasts of the 
Black Sea, Egypt, and Sicily. Next came 
wood for houses and for ships, and raw 
materials of all kind for manufacture. The 
foreign manufactures imported were mostly 
objects of luxury. Finally we should men- 
tion the large number of imported slaves. 

Comparing the circumstances of the an- 
cient Greek maritime commerce with those 
of modern trade, we may observe that the 
ancients were much hampered by having 
no commission agencies and no system of 
exchange. The proprietor of the cargo 
sailed with it, or sent a representative with 
full powers. No transaction was carried 
on without payment in ready money, which 
was often rendered difficult by the exist- 
ence of different systems of coinage. With 
uncivilized tribes, notably those on the 
Black Sea, a system of barter long main- 
tained itself. As no goods could be bought 
without cash payments, and men of pro- 
perty generally preferred to lend out their 
capital to borrowers at high interest, a sys- 
tem of bottomry was extensively developed 
in Greek maritime trade. The creditor 
usually took care in lending the capital 
necessary for loading the ship, to secure 
a lien on the ship, or the cargo, or both. 
With this he undertook the risks of the 
business, charging interest at a very high 
rate, generally 20 to 30 per cent. The writ- 
ten contract contained other specifications 
as to the ship and the rate of interest, for 
the breach of which certain customary 
penalties were fixed. These had reference 
to the destination of the ship, and, gener- 


nllv speaking, to 'in' route and 1 1 a • < tiiM to 
i ooupied, to the ftharaflter and value of 
tin' were*, and to tin' ri'|Ki\iui'iit .if the 
l". m; tin' latter to determine whether it 
should ix> made on the ahip'i arriving at 
its destination, or on its retnrn home, [n 
the Brstoase the creditor would oftei 
with the ship, it In' had no r e pres e ntative 
<>n the spot or at the porl tor which she 
woa hound. 

At Athens, and no doubt in other oi 
the interests of the creditor were protected 
by a Btriot oode of laws. Fraudulent :t| . j >i-' •- 
priation of a deposit was punishable with 
death : <lilatoriness in payment with im- 
minent. The creditor was allowed to 
seize not only the security, but the whole 
property of the debtor. In other respects 
Athenian legislation secured several a<l- 
vonta lers. Commercial cases only 

came before the law courts in winter, when 
navigation was impossible, and they had to be 
decided within a month. In ordinary cases 
of debt the creditor could only seize on the 
debtor's property ; but in commercial cases 
he was liable to be imprisoned if condemned 
to payment. In other matters aliens had 
to be represented in court by a citizen : in 
commercial cases they could appear in per- 
son. It was the duty of the Thesmothette 
to see to the preparation of these cases. The 
trial was carried on and the verdict given 
by a special tribunal, the XautOdlcce (see 
Nautodic.E). Merchants could easily ob- 
tain the considerable privilege of exemption 
from military service, though, they were not 
legally entitled to it. 

In general it may be said that the Greek 
states, in consideration of the importance 
of trade, went very far in providing for its 
interests. They did their best to secure 
its safety and independence by force of 
arms, and concluded treaties with the same 
end in view. This is especially true of those 
agreements which regulated the legal rela- 
tions of the citizens of the two states in 
their intercourse with each other, and pre- 
scribed the forms to be observed by the 
citizens of one state when bringing suits 
against those of another. The institution 
of proxSni, corresponding to that of the 
modern consuls, was of immense benefit to 
the trading community. The Greek gov- 
ernments did a great deal in the way of 
constructing harbours, warehouses, and 
buildings for exchange in the neighbour- 
hood of the harbours. The superintendence 
of the harbour traffic, like that of the mar- 
ket traffic, was entrusted to special govern- 

ment offioiols; in Athene, for in 

the '■ be Emporium 

A i\\"Mi . The Athenians fa 

special board, called mBtrOn&mi, to tee that 
the weights and mi I 

only in except • 
dom "f trade was Interfered with l>y i 
. nor was il asual to lay prohibi 
npon imports. Prohibit ions of export 
were, however, mnoh commoner. In many 
/. in U " • donia, it was forbidden 
to export building m especially wood 

far ship-building; and no grain might be 
exported from At I tea. Again, no At hi 
merchant was permitted to carry coin to 
any harbour but that of Athens ; no citizen 
or resident alien could lend money on the 
Security of ships carrying corn to any place 
but Athens. Even foreigners who came 
with corn into the harbour of Athens were 
compelled to deposit two-thirds of it for 
sale there. To prevent excessive profits 
being realized in the corn trade, it was made 
a capital offence for any private citizen to 
buy up more than 50 bushels at a time, or 
sell it at a profit of more than an 5b6l68 a 
bushel. The corn trade was under the 
superintendence of a board called sitdphy- 
l&kSs. In the prevailing activity of com- 
merce, the tolls on exports and imports were 
a plentiful source of revenue to the Greek 

In Greek society petty trading was 
thought a vulgar and sordid pursuit, and 
was left to the poorer citizens and resident 
aliens. In Athens the class of resident 
aliens included a great number of the larger 
dealers ; for the wealthier and more respect- 
able citizens liked lending their capital to 
others engaged in trade better than engag- 
ing in trade themselves. 

Italy. In Italy an active commerce was 
early carried on at sea by the Etruscans, 
the other Italian peoples taking only a 
passive part in it. But Rome, from a very 
early time, became the commercial centre of 
Middle Italy. It was situated on a river 
deep enough to admit large vessels, the 
upper course and tributaries of which were 
also navigable. Its position was much im- 
proved by the harbour at the colony of 
Ostla, said to have been constructed under 
king Ancus Martins. So long as the 
Etruscans and Carthaginians and (as in 
later times) the Greek cities of Southern 
Italy and Sicily, like Tarentum and Syra- 
cuse, ruled the sea, the maritime power and 
commerce of Rome were restricted within 
very narrow limits. Even as late as the 



middle of the 4th century B.C. the traffic 
of Rome was confined to Sardinia, Sicily 
and Africa. But, with the extension of the 
Roman power, Roman commerce assumed 
wider dimensions. At the end of the re- 
publican period Roman ships were on every 
sea, and there was a flourishing interior 
trade in Italy and all the provinces. Wher- 
ever there was a navigable river it was 
used for communication with the happiest 
results. After the second Punic War, Rome 
gradually acquired the character of a great 
commercial city, where the products of the 
whole world, natural and industrial, found 
a market. The most considerable import 
was corn, and this at all periods of Roman 
history (see Annona). The chief exports 
of Italy were wine and oil, to which we 
must add, after the development of Italian 
industry, manufactured goods. The trading 
harbour of Rome was Puteoli (Pozzuoli), 
on the Bay of Naples, while Ostia was used 
mainly by corn-ships. Petty dealing was 
regarded unfavourably by the Romans as 
by the Greeks ; but trade on a large scale 
was thought quite respectable, though in 
older times members of the senate were not 
allowed to engage in it. Most of the larger 
undertakings at Rome were in the hands of 
joint-stock companies (sec Publicani), the 
existence of which made it possible for 
small capitalists to share in the profits and 
risks of commerce. It was indeed an old 
maxim of business men at Rome that it was 
better to have small shares in a number of 
speculations than to speculate indepen- 
dently. The corn trade, in particular, was 
in the hands of these companies. The gov- 
ernment allowed them to transport corn 
from Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, Africa, and 
Egypt to Rome ; whole fleets of vessels, con- 
structed for the purpose, being appointed to 
this service. Foreign trade was subjected 
to a number of restrictions. The exporta- 
tion of certain products was absolutely 
prohibited ; for instance, iron, whether un- 
wrought or manufactured, arms, coin, salt, 
and gold ; and duties were levied on all im- 
ports. There were also numerous restric- 
tions on trade in the interior, as each 
province formed a unit of taxation, in 
which toll had to be paid on entering or 
leaving it. Among the state monopolies, 
the most important was that of salt. 

Commercium. A legal relation existing 
between two Italian states, according to 
which the citizens of each had the same 
right of acquiring property, especially landed 
property, in the territory of the other. 

Commercium also included the powers of 
inheriting legacies and contracting obliga- 

Comperendinatio. [The Latin name for 
the postponement of a trial for a definite 
time by consent of both parties, each being 
bound to appear. To be distinguished from 
ampliutio, which seems to have meant an 
indefinite postponement, in consequence of 
uncertainty on the part of the jury.] 

Compitalia. See Lares. 

Compluvium. See House. 

Concordia. The Latin personification of 
concord or harmony, especially among 
Roman citizens. Shrines were repeatedly 
erected to Concordia during the republican 
period after the cessation of civil dissensions. 
The earliest was dedicated by Camillus in 
367 B.C. The goddess Concordia was also 
invoked, together with Janus, S&lus, and 
Pax, at the family festival of the Caristia, 
on the 30th March, and, with Venus and 
Fortuna, by married women on the 1st of 
April (see Manes). During the imperial 
period Concordia Augusta was worshipped 
as the protectress of harmony, especially of 
matrimonial agreement, in the emperor's 

Confarreatio. See Marriage, 2. 

Congiarium. The Latin word for a pre- 
sent of oil and wine, given to the people in 
addition to the regular distribution of corn 
by magistrates and candidates for office 
(see Annona). The custom began iu repub- 
lican times. Under the Empire the word 
was further applied to the presents of oil, 
wine, and salt, and later of ready money, 
which the emperor made regularly to the 
people on certain festive occasions, as on 
his accession and on his birthday. (See 

Consecratio. The act of the Roman 
pontlfices, in virtue of which a thing was 
proclaimed as sdcer, i.e. belonging to, or 
forfeited to, the gods. (On the rite of 
consecratio associated with the solemn dedi- 
cation of a sanctuary, see Dedicatio; on 
consecratio as the apotheosis of the emperor, 
see Apotheosis.) In case of certain offences, 
sentjnce of consecratio capitis et bdnorum 
was pronounced upon the offender, whose 
person and property were then made over 
as a sacrifice to some deit}-. A married 
man who sold his wife was devoted to the 
gods below ; a son who beat his father, to 
the household gods ; one who removed his 
neighbour's landmark to Terminus ; a 
patronus who betrayed his client, or a client 
who betrayed his patronus, to Jupiter : 



inn' who stole oom In the ear, to Ceres. To 
lull .1 hOmd (doer mi ool aooounted »* 
murder, bat »s the fulfilment "I t i i « - divine 


i mi .Hi inn. The Latin word for a council, 
U oi edvieere. Snob oounoila were 
oalled in, according to ancient ouatom, 
by the presiding magistrate in oiviJ and 
1 1 1 in inn I oases. Even in the family tribunal . 
whioh deoided oases affeotins the members 
of the (/ins, n consilium "i kinsfolk was 
thought aeoesaary. The ouatom was thai 
tha presiding judge bound himself by t lit" 
deoision of his freely chosen consilium, IhiI 
took tho responsibility himself. The ex | in s- 
sion consilium was afterwards transferred 
to the regular juries of the courts which 
deoided civil and criminal cases (see 
( i \ tumviki, .Iuhu'ksV The emperors, too, 
made u practice of inviting a consilium of 
friends to assist them in their judicial 
decisions. After the time of Hadrian, the 
members of the imperial consilium appear 
as regularly appointed and salaried officers, 
the Consilient! August/. These were gene- 
rally, though not exclusively, selected from 
the body of professional jurists. After the 
-1th century A.D. the word consistOriunt 
was substituted for consilium ; meaning, 
originally, the council-chamber in the im- 
perial palace. 

Consualla. See Consus. 

Consules (originally called PnvtorCs). 
The Roman consuls were the magistrates 
to whom the supreme authority was trans- 
ferred from the kings, after the expulsion 
of the latter in 510 B.C. The consuls gave 
their name to the year. They were elected 
by the comitia ccntuviata, and, down to 
B.C. 36(i, from the Patricians only. The 
legal age at which a man might be elected 
was. in the time of Cicero, forty-three. 
The time of entering on the office varied 
in the early periods : in 222 B.C. it was fixed 
to March 15th, in 153 to the 1st of January. 
The accession of the new consuls was at- 
tended with the performance of certain cere- 
monies, among which may be mentioned a 
procession of the consuls to the Capitol, with 
the senate, equites, and other citizens of 
position, as escort; an offering of w T hite 
bulls to Jupiter, and the utterance of solemn 

The consuls were the representatives of 
the royal authority, and consequently all 
other magistrates were bound to obey them, 
with the exception of the tribunes of the 
piths and the dictator. During a dictator- 
ship their powers fell into abeyance. In 

D. C. A. 

the ''it v i heir ant h"i it v wm limited b 

■ •f appeal to the ] pie, and tbe 1 1 to 

■ ■I i be • i ibum >. Bui in the army, and ovei 

their subordinates, thej bad full 

life and death. Some oi their original 

fii lift e pa ed from them in com 

t ime, Tims in III it. i'. i be bo in< .f the 
census was made over to I bi i 
866 i he civil jurisdiction within I hi 
so Ear as it inoluded the right of p erform ing 
the acts of adoption, emancipation, and 
liberation of slaves, was transferred to tho 
praetors, In the field, however, having the 

criminal jurisdiction in their hands, they 
had also tho right of deciding in civil cases 
affecting the soldiers. In the general 
administration of public business the con- 
suls, although formally recognised as the 
su promo authority, gradually became, in 
practice, dependent upon the senate and 
the comitia, as they had only the power 
of preparing the resolutions proposed, and 
carrying them out if accepted. Within the 
city, their powers were virtually confined 
to summoning the senate and comitia, and 
presiding over their meetings. They also 
nominated the dictators, and conducted the 
elections' and legislation in the comitia, and 
the levies of soldiers. After the office of 
dictator fell into abeyance, the power of 
the consuls was, in cases of great danger, 
increased to dictatorial authority by a 
special decree of the senate. 

An essential characteristic of the consular 
office was that it was collegial ; and there- 
fore, if one consul died, another (called 
consul suffictus) w T as immediately elected. 
This consul suffectus had absolutely the 
same authority as his colleague, but he had 
to lay down his office with him at the end 
of the year for which the two had been 
originally elected. 

The power of the two consuls being equal, 
the business was divided between them. 
In the administration of the city they 
changed duties every month, the senior 
taking the initiative. With regard to their 
insignia, namely, the toga prcetexta, sella 
cHi-Cdis, and twelve lictors, the original ar- 
rangement was that the lictors walked in 
front of the officiating consul, while the 
other was only attended by an accensus. 
In later times the custom was for the lictors 
to walk before the officiating consul, and 
behind the other. 

In the field, each consul commanded two 
legions with their allied troops ; if they 
were in the same locality, the command 
changed from day to day. The question of 



the administration of the provinces they 
either settled by consent, or left it to be 
decided by lot. With the extension of the 
empire the consuls became unable to under- 
take the whole burden of warfare, and the 
praetors were called in to assist. The pro- 
vinces were then divided into consular and 
praetorian ; the business of assignment 
being left to the senate, which, after the 
year 122, was bound to make it before the 
elections. In the last century B.C. a law of 
Sulla deprived the consuls of an essential 
element of their authority, the military 
imperium ; for it enacted that the consuls 
should spend their year of office in Rome, 
and only repair to the provinces and assume 
the imperiwm after its conclusion. 

In the civil wars the consular office 
completely lost its old position, and though 
it continued to exist under the Empire, it 
became, practically, no more than an empty 
title. The emperors, who often held the 
office themselves, and sometimes, like Caesar, 
for several years in succession, had the 
right of nominating the candidates, and 
therefore, in practice, had the election in 
their own hands. It became usual to 
nominate several pairs of consuls for one 
year, so as to confer the distinction on as 
many persons as possible. In such cases, 
the consuls who came in on January 1st, 
after whom the year was named, were called 
consules ordlnaru, the consules suffecti 
counting as mlnores. Until the middle of the 
1st century A.D., it was a special distinction 
to hold the consulship for a whole year ; but 
after that no cases of this tenure occur. In 
time the insignia, or ornamentaconsular'ta, 
or honorary distinctions of the office, were 
given, in certain degrees, even to men who 
had not been consuls at all. The chief 
duties of the consuls now were to preside 
in the senate, and conduct the criminal 
trials in which it had to give judgment. 
But, besides this, certain functions of civil 
jurisdiction were in their hands ; notably 
the liberation of slaves, the provision for the 
costly games which occurred during their 
term of office, the festal celebrations in 
honour of the emperor, and the like. After 
the seat of empire was transferred to Con- 
stantinople, the consulate was, towards the 
end of the 4th century, divided between 
the two capital cities. The consulate of the 
western capital came to an end in 534 A.D., 
that of the eastern in 541. From that time 
the Emperor of the East bore the title of 
consul perpetuus. 

Consus. An ancient Italian god, probably 

a god of the earth or of crops. His altar 
on the Circus Maximus at Rome was covered 
with earth, apparently as a sign of the 
deity's activity in the bosom of the earth. 
Three times in the year only was it un- 
covered, on the occasion of sacrifices or 
festivities. The festival of Consus, the Con- 
sualia, was held twice a year ; on the 21st 
August, after the harvest, and the 15th 
December, after the sowing was ended. 
Its establishment was attributed to Romu- 
lus, and it was at the first celebration that 
the rape of the Sabine women was sup- 
posed to have taken place. At this fes- 
tival the sacrifice was superintended by 
the Flammes of Quirlnus with the Vestal 
Virgins, and was followed by a chariot race 
in the circus, under the direction of the 
pontifices. The horses and mules, their 
heads crowned with flowers, had their share 
in the holiday. In consequence of these 
games the god Consus was afterwards iden- 
tified with Poseidon Hippios, or Neptunus 

Contio. The Latin name for any as- 
sembly summoned and presided over by 
a magistrate. A contio differed from the 
comitia in the following points : (1) The 
people were not divided into centuries or 
tribes. (2) The people did not vote, but 
were only there to receive communications 
made by the presiding magistrate or some 
other official or private individual, whom 
he allowed to address the meeting. All 
magistrates had the right of summoning 
contiones, but the tribunes took precedence 
of all others, and a higher magistrate took 
precedence of a lower. Contiones were 
usually summoned by public heralds [prce- 
cones) and generally met in the Forum. 
The comitia were immediately preceded 
by a contio, that the people might be pre- 
pared for the questions to come before 
them. If the comitia were to exercise 
judicial functions, it was a fixed rule that 
three contiones must be held previously for 
the purpose of investigation. 

Contubernium. A Latin word properly 
meaning tent companionship, or companion- 
ship in military service. The word signi- 
fied (1) the relation of young Roman 
nobles to the general officer to whom they 
had voluntarily attached themselves for the 
sake of military training, and in whose 
company they took their meals in the tent. 
It meant (2) the marriage of slaves, which 
was not legally accounted marriage, though 
under the Empire it was considered, as a 
rule, indissoluble if contracted by members 



..i i i,i- Mint honaehold. (8) The marriage 
between Eras paraoni and slaves, whioh n/aa 
imi considered legal. 
Conifmuicia The Latin barm for dis- 

obedienoe to the a lands of a magiatrate 

or judge, especially absenoe from a trial 
w 1 1 1 m ■ 1 1 t Bnffioienl ezouae. If I be aoi d i 
were absent, he w 'as considered aa dropping 
his oharge {tee Teboivkbbutio), which he 

whs not allowed to renew. Tin 1 absence 

of the aoouaed was taken aa an admission 

of guilt. In ii I'ivil trial the consequence 

mi immediate condemnation; ami the 
Like was the oaae in criminal trials it the 
aooosed failed to appear at the appointed 

time, "l" "11 til" lust ilny of the trinl. If the 
aOOOSed saw that his condemnation was cer- 
tain, it was quite common fur him to retire, 
and in capital cases to go into voluntary 
exile; a proceeding which in no way influ- 
enced the further course of the proceedings. 
Coniiblum (Latin). The contracting of a 
matrimOntum iustum, or valid marriage, 
with all its legal consequences. As such 
a marriage could only take place between 
persons of equal status, the Patricians and 
Plebeians had each for a long time a separate 
conubium, until 445 B.O., when the two 

Orders Were equalised ill this respect. 

Convivlum. See Meals. 

Cobptatlo (Latin). The election of a new 
member by the members of a corporation 
to supply a vacant place. Among corpora- 
tions which filled their vacancies in this 
way may be mentioned the college of 
Pontiftces and Augurs. The election was 
preceded by the nomination of a proper 
candidate by one of the members, and fol- 
lowed by his inauguration. 

Cordax (Kordax). The licentious dance 
of the ancient Greek comedy. To perform 
it off the stage was regarded as a sign of 
intoxication or profligacy. 

Core (Kdre). See Persephone. 

Corinna (Korinna). A Greek lyric 
poetess, born at Tanagra in Boeotia, and 
surnamed Myia, or " the Fly." She flour- 
ished about 510 B.C. She was the instructress 
of Pindar, and is said to have beaten him 
five times in musical contests. Only a few 
fragments of her poems, of which there 
were five books, remain. They were written 
in the Boeotian dialect, and treated subjects 
of local mythology, as, for instance, the tale 
of the " Seven against Thebes." 

Corippus (Flavins Cresconlus). An 
African scholar, who in the second half 
of the 6th century a.d. composed two 
historical epics, one in seven books, in 

celebration of the Libyan wai of Joh 

■IN l. It, nun, ift , ,i, bellu LI6J 

and the other on the exploits ol Jnal inn 
665 578), in four book i i I >• Laudtbu 
liistJni). The last is iii the (poraj manner 
of Byaantine (lattery. bul is written in 
a flowing style and m imitation of good 
models, inch as Vergil and Clandian. 

Cornelius. (1) ('unit litis NgpO$. A 
Roman historian, a native of Upper Italy, 
who lived between 94 and 24ii.c lie was a 
contemporary of Cicero, Atticus, and Catul- 
lus, with whom he lived in friendly inter- 
course at Rome. The most comprehensive 
of his many writings was a collection of 
biographies of celebrated men (De Vtrln 
III list rihus) in at least sixteen books. This 
was dedicated to Atticus, and must there- 
fore have been published before B.C. 32, the 
year of his doath. The biographies were 
arranged in departments, and in each depart- 
ment the Greek and Roman celebrities were 
treated separately. Thus the still surviving 
book upon distinguished foreign generals 
(De ExceUenttiniS Diicihus Extvrdrum Gen- 
tium is followed by one on Roman generals, 
while a book devoted to the Greek histo- 
rians had one on the Roman historians cor- 
responding to it, from which the lives of 
the elder Cato and of Atticus are preserved. 
The lives of celebrated generals were in 
former times (in consequence of an ancient 
error in the MSS. 1 ) erroneously ascribed to a 
certain "Emllius Probus of the 4th century 
a.d. Nepos' manner is easy and pleasant, 
but suffers from many weaknesses of matter 
and form. A superficial use of his authori- 
ties has led him into many errors, and the 
style is not seldom careless and incorrect. 

(2) Gaius Cornelius Gallus. A Latin 
poet, born 69 B.C. in the Gaulish town of 
Forum Iillii. Though of low birth, he was 
promoted by Octavian to the orclo equester in 
the year 30 B.C., and made governor (-prcefec- 
tus) of the new province of Egypt, in con- 
sideration of his great services in the war 
against Antonius. Through his cruelty and 
presumption he drew upon himself the dis- 
pleasure of his former patron ; in conse- 
quence of which he committed suicide in 
26 B.C. He was one of the oldest friends 
of Vergil, who dedicated to him his tenth 
Eclogue, as well as an episode at the end of 
the fourth Georgic, which he, after Gallus' 
fall, suppressed at the wish of Augustus. 
The Romans regarded him as the founder 
of the Latin elegy. He wrote four books of 
elegies to his mistress, the actress Cytheris 
(or Lycoris, as he called her). They are in 




the obscure and learned style of the Alex- 
andrian poet Euphorion. His poems are 
lost, but a collection of erotic myths made 
for his use by the Greek Parthenios has 
survived. [A few lines in Vergil's tenth 
Eclogue were borrowed from Gallus.] 

Cornicen. A horn-blower in the Roman 
army, who gave the signal for attack, on an 
ox or bison-horn (cornu) set in silver. 

Cornificlus. The supposed author of an 
anonymous treatise on rhetoric in four books, 
dedicated to a certain Herennius (RhctOrica 
ad Herennium.) This is the oldest Latin 
treatise of the sort that we possess. It was 
written in the time of Sulla, about 85 B.C., 
by a partisan of the Marian faction, who, 
though not a professed rhetorician, was an 
educated man, as is shown by his accom- 
plishments and his correct style. Though 

philosophical works one remains, an essay 
on the Nature of the Gods, written in Greek. 
This is perhaps only an extract from a 
larger work. Casslodorus (q. v.) has pre- 
served part of a grammatical treatise by 
Cornutus, entitled De Orthogrdphla "On 
Orthography "). 

Corollarium (Latin). A present consist- 
ing of a garland of gold or silver leaves, 
given to successful actors and performers 
in addition to other honoraria. It thus 
became a term for any free gift whatever. 

Corona ^Latin). A crown ; among the 
Romans the highest distinction awarded for 
service in war. The most coveted were 
the corona triumphalls (fig. 1) or laurel 
crown of a general in triumph ; and the 
coroiia obsidionalis (fig. 2), presented to a 
general by the army which he had saved 

(1) Corona triomphalis. 

(2) Corona obsidionalis. 

(4) Corona muralie. 

(5) Corona vallaris. 

(6) Corona navalis. 

he followed Greek models, he endeavours to 
treat his subject from a Roman or national 
point of view, and therefore gives Latin 
equivalents for the Greek technical terms. 
His examples, too, he takes from older 
Roman writings, or makes them himself. 
Cicero, who passed for the author in late 
antiquity, used the same Greek original in 
his De inventions. 

Cornutus (Lucius Annams). A native of 
Leptis, in Africa. A professor of the Stoic 
philosophy, who lived in Rome in the middle 
of the 1st century a.d. He was a friend of 
the poets Lucan and Persius, especially of 
the latter, whose posthumous satires he pre- 
pared for publication. He was banished 
by Nero, in a.d. 68, for his uprightness and 
courage. He was the author of works on 
rhetoric, grammar and philosophy. Of his 

from a siege, or from a shameful capitula- 
tion. This was woven of grass growing on 
the spot, and called corona graminia. The 
corona myrtea, or oralis, was the crown 
of bav worn by the general who celebrated 
the lesser triumph (ovatio). 

The corona ctvicd (fig. 3) was of oak leaves, 
and was awarded for saving a citizen's life 
in battle. This secured for its possessor 
certain privileges, as freedom from taxes 
for himself, his father and paternal grand- 
father. The golden corona muralis (fig. 
4), with embattled ornaments, was given 
for the storming of a wall ; the corona cas- 
trensis or vallaris (fig. 5), also of gold, and 
ornamented in imitation of palisades, to 
the soldier who first climbed the wall of an 
enemy's camp; the corona navalis (fig. 6), 
with ornaments representing the beak of a 

CORONIS i mi i\i:i 


be Helm who tii il boat dad a ihip, 
Undoi the Empire the garland oi baj via 
ved exi lu iivi ly t"i i be emperor, and 
thus oama t" be > agai ded as a ci own. 

Tli rayed i rov< a, the intigru of I be 
deified emperors, wee noi umn by the em- 
perors "t the 1st and 2nd century a.i>. 
tJ. •Men orowna were originally 1 1 1* ■ (roe 
offerings oi provinoiala and allies to \i<- 
toi ions generals for the oelehration of their 
triumphs. Hut from this onstom there 
even in republican times, the babil oi 

compelling a contribution of money {minim 
cOrOnOrium) to the governor nt' the pro- 
vince, During the imperial ago this 
contribution was on exceptional occasions 
offered as a present to the emperors, but it 
was often also made compulsory. 

Among the Greeks a crown {sti'/ihd 
was often an emblem of office. At Athens, 
for instance, B crown of bay was worn by 
the arohons in office, the senators (boiiU u- 
tui'. and the orators while speaking. It 
was also the emblem of victory at the 
games, and a token of distinction for citi- 
zens 01 merit (see Theatre). Such crowns 
of honour were made originally of olive 
branches, but later of gold. The honour of 
a crown could be conferred by the people or 
the senate, or by corporations and foreign 
states. The latter would often present a 
crown to the whole commonwealth. If the 
people or senate presented the crown, the 
station took place in the great assem- 
bly, or in the senate house, but not in the 
theatre, except by special decree. 

Since crowns played a considerable part 
as ornaments at religious rites and as well 
at festivals and banquets, the trade of 
crown-making (mostly in women's hands) 
was naturally extensive. The art of mak- 
ing what were called winter crowns of 
dry flowers was also understood. Artificial 
flowers, made of thin strips of painted wood, 
were also used. 

Coronis (Koronis). See Ascleptos. 

Corpus Iuris Civills. The name of the 
great collection of authorities on Roman 
law, made by the lawyer Tribonianus, of 
Side in Pamphylia, at the instance of the 
Eastern Emperor Justinian (527-565 a.d.). 
To this collection we owe the preservation 
of the treasures of the ancient jurispru- 
dence, which must certainly otherwise have 
been lost. The Corpus Iuris consists of 
four parts : 

(Vi Coder lustJiiidncus, called rSpetttee 
prniretidms. as being the revised edition of 
a code now lost, but which had appeared in 

529. Tins was published in 584. and oon- 

iii twelve book • the imperial Ian 
print IpOlt , "i thi t the 

empei I iadj tan, 

(a Fandecta, or Digetta. The law oi 
the jurists ins vi ins . The e, pub! 
A.i>. ■<■''■'<. are extracts from the works of 

thirty-nine ancient jurists, arranged in fifty 

according to Bubjects. 

."> lusttt s. A handbook of juris- 
prudence, founded mostly upon Quint 
published in the same vear. 

(4) Novella (constitutionea), or supple- 
mentary ordinances of Justinian, mostly in 
'.. These are preserved only in private 
collections of various compass, one of which, 
the Autlii ntiriim or Liber AuthenticOrum, 
was recognised as the authorized text, 
gives the Greek rescripts in a Latin version. 

Cfirybantfis {EHrybantis). The mythical 
attendants of the Phrygian goddess Rhea 
(vlele, who were supposed to accompany 
the goddess with wild dances and intoxi- 
cating music, while she wandered by torch- 
light over the forest-clad mountains. The 
name was further given in Phrygia to the 
eunuch priests of' the goddess. (See Rhea.) 

Corycus (Gr. KorykCs). See Ball, Games 

Cosmi (Kosmoi). See Gerusia. 

Cothurnus, or more correctly Coturnus 
i Gr. Kothornds). A Greek name for a high 
shoe or buskin with several soles. It 
covered the whole foot, and rose as high 
as the middle of the leg. It was made 
so as to fit either foot, and was generally 
fastened in front with red straps. The 
cothurnus was properly a hunting boot, but 
.Eschylus made it part of the costume of 
his tragic actors to give them a stature 
above the average. At the same time the 
hair was dressed high in order to maintain 
the proportion of the figure. The cothur- 
nus was also used in the Roman tragedy. 
(See Soccus.) 

Cottabus (Kottdbos). A Greek game very 
popular at drinking bouts. The player lay 
on the couch, and in that position tried to 
throw a few drops of wine in as high a 
curve as possible, at a mark, without spill- 
ing any of the wine. The mark was called 
kottdbeion, and was a bronze goblet or saucer, 
and it was a point to make a noise when 
hitting it. On the kottdbeion was fastened 
a little image or a bust of Hermes, which 
was called Manes, and which the player had 
to hit first with the wine. The wine was 
supposed to make a sound both in hitting 
the figure and in falling afterwards into the 



saucer. This of course greatly increased 
the difficulty of the game. 

There was another form of the game in 
which the point was to make the wine hit 
the saucer while swimming in a large 
vessel of water, and sink it. The game 
was played in a round chamber made for 
the purpose. The form of the room was 
circular, to give every player an equal 
chance of hitting the mark, which was 
placed in the centre. The victor generally 
received a prize agreed upon beforehand. 
The players also used the game to discover 

C6tys (Gr. Kutytto). A Thracian goddess, 
originally, it would seem, connected with 
Rhea Cybele. Her worship was diffused 
over Greece and Italy, and was especially 
popular in Athens and Corinth. The licen- 
tious orgies associated with it, called 
Cotyttut, gave it a bad name. 

Crater. See Vessels. 

Crates {Krdtes). (1) A Greek comedian, 
who lived at Athens about 470 B.C. He 
was regarded as the founder of the Attic 
Comedy in the proper sense of the term, as 
his pieces were not, like those of his pre- 

(Vase from Corueto ; Annali d Inst. 1876 tav. M.) 

their chances of success in love. They 
uttered the name of their beloved while 
throwing the wine. A successful throw 
gave a good omen, an unsuccessful one a bad 
omen. A good player leaned upon his left 
elbow, remained quite quiet, and only used 
his right hand to throw with. The game 
came originally from Sicily, but became 
popular through the whole of Greece, and 
specially at Athens, where to play well was 
a mark of good breeding. It did not go out 
of fashion till the 4th century after Christ. 
[The cut represents one of the several 
methods of playing the game.] 

decessors, mere lampoons on individuals, 
but presented subjects of a more general 
character. Only a few fragments of his 
plays have come down to us. 

(2) Crates of Mallds in Cilicia. A Greek 
scholar, and adherent of the Stoic philo- 
sophy. He founded a school of interpreta- 
tion at Pergamon. His principles were in 
direct opposition to those of Aristarchus ; 
not only did he take an essentially different 
view of the Homeric text, but he favoured 
the allegorical method of exposition, to 
which the Stoics were so partial, and which 
was so disliked by the school of Aristarchus. 

oh \tiws i uo 


1 1 1 ■ ohiel work mi ■ oompi ehenan i 
mental y, cril ical and exi on Homer. 

In ii.i i,i in- w .1 . i m bj i. I Ian "ii 

nn embassy i" Koine Here he broke Ins lr^, 
end was tlms [brood t" make ■ Long 

Hi- liis I'lifni'i'i'.l Icisnri' iii : m\ in 

tares, which gave the Oral impulse to the 

study of philology end literary ci iti 

among the Romans, Only ■ t « • w rragmenta 
■ ■I lus wmks have survived. 

Cratinus [KrdtlnOa) was, with Enp&lls 
ami Aiisti.|'li.iin is, a chief representative of 
the <>l'l Comedy al Athena. He was born 
in 620 B.O., and died in 428, thus flourishing 
in the age of PSrlcles, who was the speoiaJ 
t of his attacks. He wrote twenty-one 

S, and gained the |irize nine times. The 
last occasion on which he was victor was 
shortly before his death, and the defeated 
<lv was The Clouds of Aristophanes. 
Cratinus' play was the Pytlni or "Wine- 
flask," iu which the poet courted the ridi- 
cule, of the public by confessing himself a 
haul drinker. His wit was brilliant, but 
more caustic than humorous. He may be 
regarded as the founder of political comedy. 
Only the titles and a few fragments of his 
plays have survived. 

Creon (ErgOn). (1) King of Corinth, and 
father of Olauce : seeABGONADTS(conclusion). 

(2) Son of Menceceus, great-grandson of 
Pentheus, brother of Ioeaste, and father 
of Hcemon and Menceceus (sec articles under 
these names). He governed Thebes after 
LaXus' death until the coming of (Edlpus : 
and again after the fall of Eteocles until the 
latter's son, La<5- 
damas, came of 
age. (See ANTI- 

(3) See Amphi- 
tryon and Hera- 


Creplda (Greek 
krcpls). A kind 
of sandal, bor- 
rowed by the 
Romans from the 
Greeks, and used 
originally by the 
Roman soldiers. 
It had a thick 
sole, was of the 
same shape for 
each foot, and 
had low leather 
sides with straps 
for fastening. 

Cresilas (Kresllds), a Greek artist, born 


(British Museum). 

donla in Crete, who floni 
Athena in the second half oi the 5tb 

tiny Ii.i . Among his iln.-f WOrks n 

in ioned - 1 1 1 a stal ae of Peril 11 , pre- 

inul of lli 

Btataes of the great statesman (2) s itatue 
of s man mortally wounded, in which the 
straggle between death and fife was vividly 
porl raj ed ; i '■'< > the Wound* d Ama 
Ephesus, a work in which he had 
pete wnli Phidias and Polyclltus. Ti. 
generally supposed to be the original of one 
of the seven] types of Wounded .!»"< 

wliirh have Mil vivid. I'l'isilas si-.n 

have followed the tradition of Myron. 
Cretheusi Kn th* us .. [n Greek mythol 

the son of JS&lus and Enarete, the founder of 
[olefis, and by Tyro father of .Eson, Phi 
and Amytliaon. 8ee .Km. us 1 , and Nki.ECS.) 

Creusa (KrBouea). (1) s, , JSneas. 2) 
N" Gladce. (3) iSeeloNl. 

Crltlas ( Kiitids). An Athenian, a dis- 
ciple of Socrates and Gorglas of Leontini. 
He was one of the most accomplished 
of his time, and was distinguished as a poel 
and an orator. But he is best known as 
the chief of the Thirty Tyrants, in defence 
of whose cause against the Liberators he 
fell in 403 B.C. He was the author of 
several tragedies. Some fragments of his 
poems have survived, the largest being from 
his political elegies. He seems to have had 
the gift of expression, but to have written 
in a harsh style of composition. 

Cronus (KrdnSs). In Greek mythology, 
the youngest son of Uranus and Gaea, who 
mutilated and overthrew his father, and, 
with the assistance of his kinsfolk the 
Titans, made himself sovereign of the 
world. He took his sister Rhea to wife, 
and became by her father of Hestia, Deme- 
ter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. But 
his mother prophesied that one of his chil- 
dren would overthrow him He accordingly 
swallowed them all except Zeus, whom 
Rhea saved by a stratagem. Zeus, when 
grown up, obtained the assistance of the 
Ocean-nymph Thetis in making Cronus dis- 
gorge his children, and then, with the help 
of his kinsfolk, overpowered Cronus and the 
Titans. According to one version of the 
fable, Cronus was imprisoned in Tartarus 
with the Titans ; according to another, he 
was reconciled with Zeus, and reigned with 
Rhadanianthys on the Islands of the Blessed. 
Cronus seems originally to have been a god 
of the harvest ; whence it happens that in 
many parts of Greece the harvest month 
was called Cronion. His name being easily 



confused with that of Chronos ("Time"), 
he was afterwards erroneously regarded as 
the god of time. In works of art he was 
represented as an old man with a mantle 
drawn over the back of his head, and hold- 
ing a sickle in his hand. The Romans 
identified him with Saturnus, their god of 
sowing (see Saturnus). 

Crypteia (Krypteia). A kind of police 
maintained at Sparta, with the principal 
object of watching the Helots. The service 
was manned by young Spartans appointed 
annually for the purpose by the Ephors, 
and their duty was to put dangerous or 
apparently dangerous Helots out of the way 
without more ado. A later and erroneous 
idea represented the Crypteia as a mur- 
derous chase of the Helots, annually con- 
ducted by the Spartan youth. 

Cteatus (Etedtos). See Molionid.£. 

Ctesias (Etesids). A Greek historian, 
born in Cnidus in Caria, and a contemporary 
of Xenophon. He belonged to the family of 
the Asclepiadse at Cnidus. In 416 B.C. he 
came to the Persian court, and became pri- 
vate physician to King Artaxerxes Mnemon. 
In this capacity he accompanied the king 
on his expedition against his brother Cyrus, 
and cured him of the wound which he re- 
ceived in the battle of Cunaxa, B.C. 401. 
In 399 he returned to his native city, and 
worked up the valuable material which he 
had collected during his residence in Persia, 
partly from his own observation, and partly 
from his study of the royal archives, into a 
History of Persia (Persica) in twenty-three 
books. The work was written in the Ionic 
dialect. The first six books treated the 
history of Assyria, the remaining ones that 
of Persia, from the earliest times to events 
within his own experience. Ctesias' work 
was much used by the ancient historians, 
though he was censured as untrustworthy 
and indifferent to truth ; a charge which 
may be due to the fact that he followed 
Persian authorities, and thus often differed, 
to the disadvantage of the Greeks, from the 
version of facts current among his country- 
men. Only fragments and extracts of the 
book survive. The same is true of his 
Indica, or notices of the observations which 
he had made in Persia on the geography 
and productions of India. 

Cubicularlus (Latin). A chamberlain. 
See Slaves. 

Cublculum (Latin). A bed-chamber. 
See House. 

Cucullus (Latin). A hood. See Cloth- 

Cuneus. See Theatre. 

Cupido (" Desire "). The Latin personi- 
fication of Eros, or the god of Love. 

Cura. The Latin term for the superin- 
tendence of a special department of business, 
such as the distribution of corn (annona), 
making of roads, regulation of watercourses, 
aqueducts and the like. The officers en- 
trusted with these special duties were . 
termed curdtdres. In the republican age 
they were extra ordincm. In the civil law 
cura denotes the guardianship of a madman 
(furlosus) or a spendthrift (prodigus). The 
curator who managed his property and re- 
presented him at law was originally the 
next dgndtus, but afterwards he was always 
appointed by the authorities. Since 200 
B.C. it was also customary to appoint cura- 
tores for young persons under twenty-five, 
under certain conditions, to protect them 
against being overreached in legal proceed- 
ings. From the time of Marcus Aurellus, 
who made the legality of certain trans- 
actions dependent on the co-operation of a 
curator, the cura minorum became a stand- 
ing institution. 

Curetes (Eow-etes). In Cretan mythology 
the Curetes were demi-gods armed, with 
weapons of brass, to whom the new-born 
child Zeus was committed by his mother 
Rhea for protection against the wiles of 
Cronus. They drowned the cries of the 
child by striking their spears against their 
shields. They gave their name to the priests 
of the Cretan goddess Rhea and of the 
Idsean Zeus, who performed noisy war- 
dances at the festivals of those deities. 

Curia (Latin). The name of the thirty 
divisions into which the three trib&s of the 
Roman patricians were divided for political 
and religious objects. Every curia contained 
a number of gentes, supposed to be exactly 
ten, and a president, curid, whose duty it 
was to look after its secular and religious 
business. At the head of all the curia 
stood the Curio Maximus, who was charged 
with the notification of the common festivals 
Fordieidia and Forndcdlid(see these words). 
The separate curiones were chosen by their 
respective curiae, and the Curio Maximus 
was elected by the people in special comitm 
out of the number of curiones. For its 
special sacrifices every curia had its place 
of meeting, bearing the same name, with a 
hearth and dining-hall where the members 
met to feast and sacrifice. The plebeians 
seem to have been admitted to the sacrifices, 
which were offered on behalf of the whole 
people, and were paid for at the expense 

cruio CYCNl 


,.f ill. rut iii. it, Oourru < 'i w n t 

The icrin iiiiin ni also applied to certain 

intended foi holding mei 
lor Instance, the official 1 8 lidenos of the 
Ball i "ii the Pali ini . end especially i be 
sen. iii ■ lion ie, ( 'iirin ll'fiilui, IhiiIi by king 
ini. .mi the cOtnlHum, and burnt down 
52 B.C. In its place Faustus Sulla, thi 
of the Diotator, erected the( 'uria < 'orni lid. 
M interrupted the progress of this work 
to soi np the < 'iirin lul hi in u 
Then the senate mei in the Cv/ria PompSX, 
in the entrance hall of Pompey's t hi 
where Otesar was murdered, The Curia 
Inliu was not begun till -ll b.o., shortly 
before Cesar's death, and was consecrated 
in 29 by Augustus. [See plan of Roman 
Fora, under Fobum.) 

Curio. See CUBIA, 

Curdtrfiphos ((ir. KourdtrSphOe); "nurse 
of children." The title of several Greek 
goddesses, tor instance Gaea, who were re- 
garded as protectresses of youth. 

Curtius Rufus (Quintus). A Roman 
historian, who probably lived and practised 
as a rhetorician about the middle of the 
1st century A.D., and wrote a history of 
Alexander the GTeat, in ten books, in the 
reign of Claudius (a.d. 14 54). The first 
two books are lost, and the fifth muti- 
lated at the end, the sixth at the begin- 
ning. He seems to aim more at rhetorical 
effect than at historical accuracy. In 
the use of his authorities he is uncriti- 
cal, as he follows untrustworthy writers 
like Clitarchus, knowing them to be un- 
t rust worth}'. His work contains many 
errors in geography and chronology, and his 
accounts of the battles show that he had no 
military knowledge. But he understands 
the art of interesting his readers by a 
pleasant narrative and lifelike drawing, and 
there is a certain charm in the numerous 
speeches which he has inserted in his text, 
in spite of their strong rhetorical colour- 
ing. His language reminds us of Livy. 
It is curious that he is never mentioned 
in antiquity. 

Cyathus (Kydthds). See Vessels. 

Cybebe, Cybele. See Rhea. 

Cyclic Poets. See Epos. 

Cyclopfis [KyklSpSs). In Greek my- 
thology, the round-eyed ones. According 
to Hesiod the Cyclopes are the gigantic 
sons of Uranus and Gaea, named Argos, 
Steropes, and Brontes. For the rest, they 
resemble the gods, except that they have 
only a single eye in their forehead. Their 
father threw them into Tartarus, and they 

assisted OrOnus to the sovereignty. Oi 
however, pat then again In prison, where 

I In \ i . ■in. i no I mil ll /.. 01 in li • • . 

|.'..r this they gave him the thunder, and 

i 1 1 1 iii the lightning. Apollo slew 

i hem \\ hen Zens struck hi ■ pins 


In Homer the Cyclopes, like the gi 
and the Phssaoians, axe thi kinsfolk of the 
inn in other respects they have no- 
thing in common with I be I \ clop 
Hesiod bul their gigantio sixe and strength. 
They live a pastoral Life in the far West, 
without knowledge of agriculture, law, 
morals, or social order. Each dwells 
Separately With his family in caverns at 
the mountain tops, without troubling him- 
self about tho gods, to whom, indeed, the 
Cyclopes deem themselves easily superior 
in strength. The Phaeaeians used to live 
in their neighbourhood, but were driven 
by their violent dealing to emigrate. The 
figure of P6lj'phemus, well known from his 
. in .miter with Odysseus, gives a typical 
notion of their rudeness and savagery. 
[Set also Galatea). The Homeric Cyclo- 
pes were in a later age localized in Sicily, 
and came to be identified with the Cyclopes 
of Hesiod. They were imagined as assis'- 
ants of Hephaestus, and as helping him to 
forge lightnings for Zeus and arms for 
heroes in the bowels of .lEtna or on the 
jEolian islands. A third variety of Cyclo- 
pes were the giants with arms to their 
belly as well as to their shoulders, whom 
Prcetus was supposed to have brought 
from Lycia to Argos. It was they who 
were supposed to have built the so-called 
Cyclopean walls at Mycenae and Tiryns 
(see Architecture). In works of art the 
Cyclopes are represented as giants with one 
eye in their forehead, though there is 
generally an indication of a pair of eyes 
in the usual place. 

Cycnus (Kyknds) or " Swan." (1) The 
son of Ares and Pelopla, who threw him- 
self in the way of Heracles in Trachis, 
when the hero was on his way to Ceyx. 
According to another story Heracles was 
sent against Cycnus by Apollo, because he 
lay in wait for the processions on their road 
to Delphi. In the contest between them, 
as described by Hesiod in his Shield of 
Heracles, Ares stood at the side of his son, 
while Heracles was supported by Athene 
and his faithful Idlaus. Heracles slew 
Cycnus, and even wounded Ares, when the 
latter attempted to avenge the fall of his 
son. Cycnus was buried with all due 



honours by his father-in-law Ceyx, but 
Apollo destroyed the tomb by an inunda- 
tion of the river Anaurus. There was a 
son of Ares and Pyrene who bore the same 
name, and he too was said to have fallen in 
combat against Heracles. Ares attempted 
to avenge his son, when Zeus, by a flash of 
lightning, separated his angry children. 
After his death, said the story, Cycnus was 
changed by his father into a swan. 

(2) The son of Poseidon and Calyce. He 
was exposed by his mother on the sea-shore 
and found by some fishermen, who named 
him Cycnus because they saw a swan flying 
round him. He was invulnerable, and of 
gigantic strength and stature ; his head 
(or, according to another account, his whole 
body) was as white as snow. He became 
king of Colonae in the Troad, and was twice 
married. A slanderous utterance of his 
second wife stung him to fury against the 
children of his first wife, whom he threw 
into the sea in a chest. They were cast 
up alive on the island of Tenedos, where 
Tenes was king. At a later time Cycnus 
repented of his deed, sought for his son, 
and marched with him to the aid of the 
Trojans against the Greeks. They pre- 
vented the Greeks from landing ; but both 
were at last slain by Achilles, who stran- 
gled the invulnerable Cycnus with his own 
helmet strap. He was changed by Poseidon 
into a swan. 

Cydippe (Kydippe). The heroine of a 
very popular Greek love-story, which was 
treated by Callimachus in a poem now un- 
fortunately lost. The later Greek prose 
romances were founded upon this version. 
Cydippe was the daughter of a well-born 
Athenian. It happened that she and 
Acontius, a youth from the island of Ceos, 
who was in love with her, had come at the 
same time to a festival of Artemis at Delos. 

Cydippe was sitting in the temple of Arte- 
mis, when Acontius threw at her feet an 
apple, on which was written, " I swear by 
the sanctuary of Artemis that I will wed 
Acontius." Cydippe took up the apple and 
read the words aloud, then threw it from 
her, and took no notice of Acontius and his 
addresses. After this her father wished 
on several occasions to give her in marriage, 
but she always fell ill before the wedding. 
The father consulted the Delphic oracle, 
which revealed to him that the illness of 
his daughter was due to the wrath of Arte- 
mis, by whose shrine she had sworn and 
broken her oath. He accordingly gave 
her to Acontius to wife. 

Cymbium (Kymlndn). See Vessels. 

Cynics. See Antisthenes. 

Cynophontis (Kynophontis). See Linus. 

Cyprianns. (1) Thascus Ccecllim. A 
Latin ecclesiastical writer, born in Africa 
at the beginning of the 3rd centur}', of a 
respectable pagan family. Originally a 
teacher of rhetoric, he was converted and 
made Bishop of Carthage in 248 A.D. He 
was beheaded during the persecution under 
Valerian, in 257. In his numerous writ- 
ings and exhortations he not only imitates 
Tertullian (whom he acknowledges as his 
master), but makes great use of his works. 
Besides these we have a large collection of 
his letters addressed to individuals and to 

[(2) Cyprian of Toulon. A bishop of 
Toulon, who lived during the last quarter 
of the 5th and first half of the 6th cen- 
turies A.D. He was in all probability the 
author of a metrical Latin Heptateuch, 
edited piecemeal by Morel, Martene, and 
Pitra ; critically reviewed by J. E. B. 
Mayor, Cambridge, 1889.] 

Cyrene (Kyrene). Sec Aristjeus. 

Cyncus (Kyzikos). See Argonauts. 

Daedala (" wooden images "). A peculiar 
festival held by the Boeotians in honour of 
Hera. The goddess had, according to the 
story, once quarrelled with Zeus, and hidden 
herself on Mount Cithaeron. Her husband 
then spread the report that he was going 
to marry another wife, and had an image 
of oak-wood decked out in bridal attire and 
carried over Cithaeron on a chariot with a 
numerous train amid the singing of mar- 
riage hymns. Hera, in her jealousy, threw 
herself upon her supposed rival, but. on dis- 

covering the trick, reconciled herself with 
laughter to Zeus, took her seat on the 
chariot, and founded the festival in memory 
of the incident. The feast was celebrated 
every seven years by the Plataeans alone, 
and called the little Daedala. But every 
sixtieth year all the cities of the Boeotian 
federation kept it as the great Daedala. At 
the little Daedala, guided by the note of a 
bird, they fixed on a tree in a grove of oaks, 
and cut a figure out of it, which they 
dressed in bridal attire and took, as in 



in. u i iaga proi . ion, to the top "i • iithmon. 
Here they offered a goat to Zens ud a cow 
i" Sent, an. I inirnt tin [mage with the 
"ii. ring \i ' be nwl I toadala 1 1 1 * - in 
made at tin' little Dadala were distributed 
by lot among tin' cities of tin' BoBOtian 

loi in \ , mid tln» sami' pi urir 

than repeated. 

Dasdalidn. Brother of Ceyx(»ei Ceyx), 
threw himself down from a ruck on Par- 
as for grief at the death of his daugh- 
ter Chlone, and was tinned by the gods 
into a hawk. 

Drodillus (i.e. "cunning artificer"), The 
mythical Ghreeh representative of all handi- 
work, especially of Attic ami Cretan 
art, As such he was worshipped 
bj the artiste' goilds, especially in 
Attica. He was said to be t ho son 
of the Athenian Motion, son of 
Eupalumus v tlu> ready-handed) and 
grandson of Erechtheus. He was 
supposed to have been the first 
artist who represented the human 
figure with open eyes, and feet and 
arms in motion. Besides being 
an excellent architect, he was said 
to have invented many imple- 
ments, the axe for instance, the 
awl, and the bevel. His nephew 
and pupil (son of his sister Perdix) 
appeared likely to surpass him in 
readiness and originality. The in- 
vention of the saw, which he copied 
from the chinbone of a snake, of 
the potter's wheel, of the turning 
lathe, and of other things of the 
kind, was attributed to him. Da?da- 
lus was so jealous of him that 
he threw him from the Acropolis ; 
and being detected in the act of 
burying the body, was condemned 
by the Areopagus, and fled to Crete 
to king Minos. Here, among other 
things, he made the labyrinth at 
Gnosus for the Minotaur. He and 
his son Icarus were themselves 
confined in it, because he had 
given Ariadne the clue with which she 
guided Theseus through the maze. But 
the father and son succeeded in escaping, 
and fled over the sea upon wings of wax 
feathers made by Dsedalus. Icarus, however, 
approached too near to the sun, so that the 
wax melted, and he fell into the sea and was 
drowned. The sea was called after him the 
Icarian, and the island on which his bodv 
was thrown up and buried by Heracles, was 
called Icaria. Dsedalus came to Camicus 

in Sicily, t" Idng t '. . aln -, R 

loved bun fai his ai t, and si who 

ciime in pursuit of him. lie wio* sii|>| 

to have died in Sicily, where buildings 
attributed to him wen bown in many 
places, ai also in Sardinia, Egypt and l 

ularly ai < mmsa. [n< ■ number 

of ancient wooden imagei wore iupj 
'" be his work, in particular ■ statue of 
Heracles at Thebes, which Daadahi 
■aid to have made in gratitude foi 

burial of learns. 
Dactyli (Daktfjloi). Set Ini V* DaOTYU. 
Daduchus (Gr. DaidoucMt), 8a ESlei 


(Rome, Villa Albani.) 

Damastes. A monster living at Eleusis, 
in Attica, also called Procrustes, or the 
Stretcher. His custom was to lay his guests 
upon his bed, and if they were too short 
for it, to rack them to death, if too long, to 
cut off as much of their limbs as would 
make them short enough. He was slain by 

Dsmon (Gr. Daimon). Originally a term 
applied to deity in general, manifested in 
its active relation to human life, with- 



out special reference to any single divine 
personality. But as early as Hesiod the 
dcemones appear as subordinates or servants 
of the higher gods. He gives the name 
specially to the spirits of the past age 
of gold, who are appointed to watch over 
men and guard them. In later times, 
too, the da>mone° were regarded as beings 
intermediate between the gods and man- 
kind, forming as it were the retinue of 
the gods, representing their powers in 
activity, and entrusted with the fulfilment 
of their various functions. This was the 
relation, to take an instance, which the 
Satyrs and Silenl bore to Dionysus. But 
the popular belief varied with regard to 
man}' of these deities. Eros, e.g., was by 
manj T expressly designated a daemon, while 
bv others he was worshipped as a powerful 
and independent deity. Another kind of 
dcemones are those who were attached to 
individual men, attending them, like the 
Roman genius, from their birth onwards 
through their whole life. In later times 
two dcem(»tks, a good and bad, were some- 
times assumed for every one. This belief 
was, however, not universal, the prevalent 
idea being that good and bad alike pro- 
ceeded at different times from the daemon 
of each individual ; and that one person had 
a powerful and benevolent, another a weak 
and malevolent daemon. Agdtho-daemon 
(good daemon) was the name of the good 
spirit of rural prosperity and of vineyards. 

Danae. The daughter of Acrisius of 
Argos, who was shut up in a brazen tower 
by her father in consequence of an oracle 
which predicted that death would come 
to him from his daughter's son. Never- 
theless, she bore to Zeus a son, Perseus, 
the god having visited her in the form of 
a shower of gold. She was then shut up 
with her son in a chest and thrown into 
the sea. Driven by the waves on to the 
island of Seriphos, she was kindly received 
by a fisherman named Dictys. His brother, 
Polydectes, the king of the island, wished 
to force her to marry him, but her son 
Perseus delivered her from him, and took 
her back to Greece. (See Perseus.) 

Danai. Properly the name of the inhabit- 
ants of Argos, from their old king Danaos, 
afterwards applied to the Greeks in general, 
especially the besiegers of Troy. 

Danaldes. The fifty daughters of Danaus. 
See Daxaus. 

Danaus. The son of Belus. king of Egypt, 
and Anchirrhoe, and twin brother of iEgyp- 
tus. iEgyptus and his fifty sons drove 

Danaus and his fifty daughters from their 
home in the Egyptian Chemuis through 
Rhodes to Argos, the home of his ancestress 
Io (see Io). Here he took over the kingdom 
from Pelasgus or Gelanor, and after him the 
Achaeans of Argos bore the name of Danai. 
Danaus built the acropolis of Larissa and 
the temple of the Lycian Apollo, and taught 
the inhabitants of the waterless territory 
how to dig wells. His daughters also con- 
ferred benefits on the land by finding 
springs, especially Amymone, the beloved 
of Poseidon, who, for love of her, created 
the inexhaustible fountain of Lerna. For 
this they were worshipped in Argos. The 
sons of JEgyptus at length appeared and 
forced Danaus to give them his daughters 
in marriage. At their father's command 
they stabbed their husbands at night, and 
buried their heads in the valley of Lerna. 
One only, Hypermnestra, disregarding her 
father's threats, spared her beloved Lynceus, 
and helped him to escape. Danaus accord- 
ingly set on foot a fighting match, and bes- 
towed his remaining daughter on the victor. 
Afterwards, though against his will, he 
gave Lynceus his daughter and his king- 
dom. According to another story, Lynceus 
conquered his wife and throne for himself, 
and took vengeance for his brothers by 
killing Danaus and his daughters. The 
Danaldes (or daughters of Danaus) atoned 
for their bloody deed in the regions below 
by being condemned to pour water for ever 
into a vessel with holes in its bottom. This 
fable is generally explained by the hypo- 
thesis that the Danaides were nymphs of 
the springs and rivers of the land of Argos, 
which are filled to overflowing in the wet 
season, but dry up in summer. The tomb- 
stone of Danaus stood in the market at 
Argos. He was also worshipped in Rhodes 
as the founder of the temple of Athene in 
Lindos, and as the builder of the first fifty- 
oared ship, in which he fled from Egypt. 
The story of Danaus and his daughters is 
treated by ^schylus in his Supptfces. 
Lynceus and Hypermnestra had also a 
common shrine in Argos ; their son was 
Abas, father of Acrisius and Proetus. The 
son of Amymone and Poseidon was Nauplius, 
founder of Nauplia, and father of Palamedes, 
CEax, and Nausimedon. 

Dancing (Gr. orchesls, Lat. saltatio). 
As early as the Homeric age we find danc- 
ing an object of artistic cultivation among 
the Greeks. The sons and daughters of 
princes and nobles do not disdain to join in 
it, whether in religious festivals or at social 




gathering!, The Ghreeh orchl$tlkt t 

of dancing, differed much from the modern. 
Its .Mm u us in ennoble bodily strength end 

activity with grace and beauty, Joi I 

with music end poetry, denoing among the 
Qreeka embodied the very spirit of the arl 

of music, mainly because the imitative ele 

in. 'Hi predominated in it. B"or its main aim 
was in make gesture represent Feeling, 

l> i ion anil net ion ; ami c piently I lio 

lireek .lance was an exercise not only for 

tin. feet, imt for the arms, hands and t he 
whole body. The art at first observed the 
limits of a lmlilo simplicity, but was per- 
fected, ns time went on, in many direct!. ms. 
At the same time it inevitably tended to 
become more artificial. As in athletics, so 
in imitntive dancing, mechanical execution 
was largely developed. This was to a 
great extent displayed in exhibitions of 
scenes from the mythology, which formed 
a favourite entertainment at banquets. On 
the other hand, a prejudice arose against 
dancing on the part of any one but pro- 
fessionals. For a grown-up person to per- 
form a dance, even at social entertainments, 
was regarded as an impropriety. The reli- 
gious performances, especially, as bound up 
with the worship of Apollo and Dionysus, 
consisted mainly in choral dances, whose 
movement varied according to the character 
of the god and of the festival. Sometimes it 
was a solemn march round the altar, some- 
times a livelier measure, in which there was 
a strong dash of imitation. This was espe- 
cially the case at the festivals of Dionysus. 
It was from these, as is well known, that 
the Greek drama was developed, and accord- 
ingly the dances formed a part of all dramas, 
varying according to the character of the 
piece (see Chorus). Indeed, there was an 
infinite variety in the forms of the Greek 
dance. Not only had almost every country 
district its own, but foreign ones were in 
course of time adopted. 

It must be noticed that in Greek society 
grown-up men and women were not allowed 
to dance together, but there were some 
dances which were performed together by 
the youth of both sexes. Among these 
was the Hormos, or chain-dance, performed 
by youths and maidens, holding their hands 
in a changing line, the youths moving in 
warlike measure, the girls with grace and 
softness. Another was the G&rdnos, or 
Crane. This dance was peculiar to Delos, 
and was said to have been first performed 
by Theseus after his deliverance from the 
Labyrinth, with the boys and girls whom 

he had re wned I ta elaborate i omplii a* 

... .-I.' mppo led to i epre ten! the i 
..I the Labyrinth At Sparta .lane, were 
practised, as ■ means "i bodily training, 
by boys and ^irls. Among them two may 
be particularly mentioned: the CdryCUU, 
performed in tumour oi Artemis of Caryas, 
i.\ the riches! and noblest Spartan maidens; 

and the dances .if Imys, youths and men, 
at tho festival of the OymtldpcedUt 

sisting in an imitation of various gyiiie 
exercises (see I ' AKYATIDE8). 

Among the Greek country dances was 
the Ejul' urns, or dance of the win. | 
which imitated the actions of gathering 
and pressing the grape. There were also 
warlike dances, which were specially impu- 
lse with the Dorians, and, like others, were 
partly connected with religious worship. 
One of the most celebrated of these was the 
Pyrrhiche (see Pyrhhic Dance). 

Roman. Dancing never played such a 
part in the national life of the Romans as 
it did in that of the Greeks. It is true that 
the ancient Roman worship included dances 
of the priests (see Saliu, and that the lower 
orders in the country were fond of dancing 
on festive occasions. But respectable 
Romans regarded it as inconsistent with 
their dignity. After the second Punic War. 
as Greek habits made their way into Italy, 
it became the fashion for young men and 
girls of the upper class to take lessons in 
dancing and singing. But dancing was 
never adopted in Rome as a necessary and 
effective instrument of education, nor was 
there any time when public dancing was 
allowed in society. Performances by pro- 
fessional artists, however (the longer the 
better), were a favourite entertainment, 
especially during the imperial period, when 
the art of mimic dancing attained an aston- 
ishing degree of perfection. 

Daphne. A nymph, daughter of the 
Thessalian river-god Peneius, or according 
to another story, the Arcadian Ladon, was 
beloved both by Apollo and by Leucippus, 
the son of CEnomaus. The latter followed 
her in a woman's dress, but was discovered 
and killed by the nymphs at the instance of 
his rival. Pursued again by Apollo, the 
chaste maiden was, at her own entreaty, 
changed into a bay tree, the tree consecrated 
to Apollo. 

Daphnis. A hero of the Sicilian shep- 
herds, son of Hermes and of a nymph, A 
beautiful child, he was exposed by his mother 
in a grove of bay trees, brought up by 
nymphs and Pan, and taught by Pan to play 




the shepherd's flute. He had plighted his 
troth to a nymph, but breaking his word, 
he was punished by her with blindness, or 
(according to another story) turned into a 
stone. According to another fable, Aphro- 
dite inflicted upon him a hopeless and fatal 
passion for a woman, because he had des- 
pised the love of a girl whom she had wished 
him to wed. Hermes took him up to heaven 
and created a fountain at the spot where he 
was taken. At this fountain the Sicilians 
offered yearly sacrifices. Daphnis was re- 
garded as the inventor of bucolic poetry, 
and his fate was a favourite subject with 
bucolic poets. [See Theocritus, Idyll i.] 

Dardanus. Son of Zeus and the Pleiad 
Electra, the father of the regal house of 
Troy. He left Arcadia, his mother's home, 
and went to the island of Samothrace. 
Here he set up the worship of the great 
gods, whose shrines, with the Palladium, 
his first wife Chryse had received as a gift 
from Athene at her marriage. Samothrace 
having been visited by a great flood, Dar- 
danus sailed away with his shrines to 
Phrygia, where King Teucer gave him his 
daughter Bateia to wife, and land enough 
on Mount Ida to found the town of Dardama. 
His son by Bateia was Erichthonius, whom 
Homer describes as the wealthiest of mor- 
tals, and the possessor of horses of the 
noblest breed and most splendid training. 
The son of Erichthonius was Tros, father of 
Uos, Assaracus and Ganj'medes. Prom Ilos, 
the founder of Ilion or Troy, was des- 
cended Laomedon, father of Priam. From 
Assaracus sprang Capys, father of Anchises, 
and grandfather of jEneas. Another story 
made Dardanus the native prince who wel- 
comed Teucer on his arrival from Crete 
see Teucer). 

Daricus (Gr. Dareikos). A gold Persian 
coin, bearing the stamp of a crowned archer, 
current in Greece down to the Macedonian 
period. It was equal in value to the Attic 
gold stater, i.e. according to the present 
value of gold, 24 shillings. [See Coinage, 
fig. 3.] 

Dares of Phrygia. In Homer the priest 
of Hephsestus in Troy, supposed to have 
been the author of a pre-Homeric Iliad. 
It is doubtful whether there ever was any 
Greek work bearing this title, but a Latin 
piece of the 5th centur}- a.d. (Daretis 
Phrygu De Exctdid Troiw Historia), 
bearing a supposed dedication by Cornelius 
Nepos to Sallust, professes to be a transla- 
tion of one. This absurd production, and 
the work of Dictys, was the chief source 

followed by the mediaeval poets in their 
stories of the Trojan war (sec Dictys). 

Dea Dia. A Roman goddess, probably 
identical with Acca Larentia, the ancient 
Roman goddess of the country. Her wor- 
ship was provided for by the priestly colle- 
gium of the Frdtres AriulCs. 

Death (Gr. Thdndtos). In the Homeric 
poems Death is called the twin brother of 
Sleep. In Hesiod he is born of Night with- 
out a father, with Ker (the goddess of 
mortal destiny), Mdrds (the fatal stroke of 
death), HypuSs, (sleep) and the Dreams. 
Hesiod represents Death, the hard-hearted 
one, hated by the immortal gods, as dwell- 
ing with his brother Sleep in the darkness 
of the West, whither the sun never pene- 
trates either at his rising or his setting. 
On the chest of Cypselus at Olympla is a 
representation of Night, holding in each 
hand a sleeping boy ; the one in the right 
hand being white, and symbolizing Sleep; 
the other in the left hand, black, and 
svmbolizing Death. Euripides introduces 
Death on the stage in his Alcestis. He 
has a black garment and black wings, and 
a knife to cut off a lock of hair as an offer- 
ing to the gods below. In works of art he 
appears as a beautiful boy or youth, some- 
times with, sometimes without, wings, and 
often with his brother Sleep. He is usually 
in slumber, and holds a torch, either lowered, 
or reversed and extinguished. 

Decemviri (Latin). A collegium of ten 
officers or commissioners. Such were the 
commissioners named for making a com- 
prehensive code of laws in 451 B.C., Decem- 
viri Legibus Scribundis. The Decemviri 
SaerTs Fdclundis were a standing colle- 
gium of priests appointed to read and 
expound the Sibylline books. The De- 
cemviri Lltibiis Iudicandls were also a 
standing collegium of indices appointed 
for certain trials. Commissions of ten 
(decemviri agris dlvtdundis and cdlonils 
deducendis) were frequently, though not 
always, appointed for assignations of public 
land and the foundation of colonies. 

DScuma. A tithe. This name was ap- 
plied by the Romans to the tribute in kind, 
which Sicily, and at one time Asia Minor 
had to pay out of the 3*early produce of 
wheat, wine, oil and legumes, instead of the 
stipendium usual in other provinces. It 
was a burden on the land, called after it 
dger deciimanus, and was exacted from 
the persons occupying at the time. Every 
year the number of cultivators, of acres 
under cultivation, and the produce of the 



Inmost, wu ascertained, end 1 1 • . - right "f 
ii ■ the ill cuma oi the « hole terri 
torj "i a citj sold i" tli" highest bidder, 

In tin' i .i i s i . - i i % i in ^ k place ii 

Syraouse ; in the out <>t Asia, in Rome. 
The puroha ei "i the decuma bound him- 
self to delfc '•! :i certain quant iu ol oorn in 

Rome; if tin' harvest we ; I, he found 

in the surplus, Such farmers 
of the decuma wen called dec&m&nl (tee 

i'i Kiirwi s). [f the mi delivered were 

insufficient for 1 1 1 teds of the city, a 

second amount could be exact™] by decree 
of tlu> Benate or people, which was paid for 

by die State \srr Anmin \ 
Decurla (Latin). Originally a division 

consisting of ten persons, as, for example, 
the three subdivisions of the turma of 
cavalry. Afterwards the word w:is applied 
to any division of a large whole, whether 
the number ten was implied or not. The 
indices for instance, and most cottScfla were 
divided into decurice (see Apparitor). 

D6cilrld. (1) The president of a decuria, 
or the cavalry officers bearing the name 
(see Turma). (2) The members of the 
senate in municipal towns were also called 
deeuriOnSs (see Municipium). 

Dedlcatlo (Latin). The consecration of 
a public sanctury. The pontiflces had to 
draw up the deed of foundation. When 
they had signified that they deemed the 
act permissible, and the consent of the 
people (in later times of the emperor) had 
been obtained, the rite was performed in 
the presence of the whole collegium ponti- 
ficum. The Pontifex Maximus, whose head 
was veiled, and with him the representa- 
tive of the people, took hold of the door- 
post with one hand, the former dictating, 
and the latter repeating after him, the 
formula of dedication. The people was 
represented usually by one of the two 
consuls, or a person, or a commission (gene- 
rally of two persons) elected by the people 
on the recommendation of the senate. One 
of the persons forming the commission was 
generally the man who had vowed the 
dedication. The day on which the shrine 
was dedicated was regarded as the day of 
its foundation, and was inscribed in the 
calendar as a festival. 

Deianira. Daughter of (Eneus king of 
Calydon, and Althsea. She was the wife 
of Heracles, whose death was brought about 
by her jealousy (sec Heracles). 

Deidamia. Daughter of Lycomedes, king 
of Scyr6s, and mother of Neoptolemus by 

Deimoa and PhObos. §et iBI I, and 
oomp. Pallob an I Pavob, 

DelphobuH. Son of Priam and Becaba, 

and ol f the ohief Trojan heroes, o< 

Elector .after whose death he « as the li idei 
oi i he Trojan armi . I' a b i he and Paris 
who were said to hnvo slam Aohillei In 
the later story he is the husband oi Helen, 
after Paris' death, and is betrayed by her 

to Menelaus on the taking of Troy. \. 

cording to Homer's account he was 

prised by OdyBSeUS and Menelans in bis 
own house, and overcome only at'tei a hard 

si niggle. 

Delia. The festival of Apollo held every 
five years at the. island of Delos, and visited 
by ceremonial embassies from all the Greek 

Delphlca Mensa. See Tables. 

Delphinla. A festival held at Athens 
in honour of Apollo as the god of spring. 
The lhljiliin'inn was a sanctuary of the 
Delphian Apollo at Athens. (See Ephkt.i;. i 

Delphic Oracle. A very ancient seat 
of prophecy at Delphi, originally called 
Pytho, and situated on the south-western 
spur of Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. 
In historical times the oracle appears in 
possession of Apollo ; but the original pos- 
sessor, according to the story, was Gaia 
(the Earth). Then it was shared by her 
wifh Poseidon, who gave up his part in 
it to Apollo in exchange for the island of 
Calauria, Themis, the daughter and suc- 
cessor of Gaia, having already given Apollo 
her share. According to the Homeric 
hymn to the Pythian Apollo, the god took 
forcible possession of the oracle soon after 
his birth, slaying with his earliest bow-shot 
the serpent Pytho, the son of Gaia, who 
guarded the spot. To atone for his murder, 
Apollo was forced to fly and spend eight 
years in menial service before he could 
return forgiven. A festival, the Septeria, 
was held every year, at which the whole 
story was represented : the slaying of the 
serpent, and the flight, atonement, and re- 
turn of the god. Apollo was represented 
b}' a boy, both of whose parents were 
living. The dragon was symbolically slain, 
and his house, decked out in costly fashion, 
was burnt. Then the boy's followers 
hastily dispersed, and the boy was taken 
in procession to Tempe, along the road 
formerly followed by the god. Here he 
was purified and brought back by the same 
road, accompanied by a chorus of maidens 
singing songs of joy. The oracle proper 
was a cleft in the ground in the innermost 



sanctuary, from which arose cold vapours, 
which had the power of inducing ecstasy. 
Over the cleft stood a lofty gilded tripod 
of wood. On this was a circular slab, 
upon which the seat of the prophetess was 
placed. The prophetess, called Pythia, 
was a maiden of honourable birth ; in 
earlier times a young girl, but in a later 
age a woman of over fifty, still wearing a 
girl's dress, in memory of the earlier cus- 
tom. In the prosperous times of the oracle 
two Pythias acted alternately, with a third 
to assist them. In the earliest times the 
Pythia ascended the tripod only once a 
year, on the birthday of Apollo, the seventh 
of the Delphian spring month Byslos. But 
in later years she prophesied every day, if 
the day itself and the sacrifices were not 
unfavourable. These sacrifices were offered 
by the supplicants, adorned with laurel 
crowns and fillets of wool. Having pre- 
pared herself by washing and purification, 
the Pythia entered the sanctuary, with 
gold ornaments in her hair, and flowing 
robes upon her ; she drank of the water of 
the fountain Cassotis, which flowed into the 
shrine, tasted the fruit of the old bay tree 
standing in the chamber, and took her seat. 
No one was present but a priest, called the 
PriiphetSS, who explained the words she 
uttered in her ecstasy, and put them into 
metrical form, generally hexameters. In 
later times the votaries were contented 
with answers in prose. The responses 
were often obscure and enigmatical, and 
couched in ambiguous and metaphorical 
expressions, which themselves needed ex- 
planation. The order in which the appli- 
cants approached the oracle was determined 
by lot, but certain cities, as Sparta, had 
the right of priority. 

The reputation of the oracle stood very 
high throughout Greece until the time of the 
Persian wars, especially among the Dorian 
tribes, and among them pre-eminently 
the Spartans, who had stood from of old in 
intimate relation with it. On all important 
occasions, as the sending out of colonies, 
the framing of internal legislation or reli- 
gious ordinances, the god of Delphi was 
consulted, and that not only by Greeks 
but by foreigners, especially the people of 
Asia and Italy. After the Persian wars 
the influence of the oracle declined, partly 
in consequence of the growth of unbelief, 
partly from the mistrust excited by the 
partiality and venality of the priesthood. 
But it never fell completely into discredit, 
and from time to time its position rose 

again. In the first half of the 2nd century 
a.d. it had a revival, the result of the 
newly awakened interest in the old reli- 
gion. It was abolished at the end of 
the 4th century A.D. by Theodosius the 
Great. The oldest stone temple of Apollo 
was attributed to the mythical architects, 
Trophonius and Agamedes. It was burnt 
down in 548 B.C., when the Alcmseonidae, at 
that time in exile from Athens, undertook 
to rebuild it for the sum of 300 talents, 
partly taken from the treasure of the 
temple, and partly contributed by all 
countries inhabited by Greeks and stand- 
ing in connexion with the oracle. They 
put the restoration into the hands of the 
Corinthian architect Spintharus, and carried 
it out in a more splendid st}'le than was 
originally agreed upon, building the front 
of Parian marble instead of limestone. 
The groups of sculpture in the pediments 
represented, on the eastern side, Apollo 
with Artemis, Leto, and the Muses ; on the 
western side, Dionysus with the Thyiades 
and the setting sun ; for Dionysus was 
worshipped here in winter during the 
imagined absence of Apollo. These were 
all the work of Praxlas and Androsthenes, 
and were finished about 430 B.C. The 
temple was, on account of its vast extent, a 
hypsethral building ; that is, there was no 
roof over the space occupied by the temple 
proper. The architecture of the exterior 
was Doric, of the interior Ionic, as may 
still be observed in the surviving ruins. 
On the walls of the entrance-hall were short 
texts written in gold, attributed to the 
Seven Wise Men. One of these was the 
celebrated " Know Thyself." In the temple 
proper stood the golden statue of Apollo, 
and in front of it the sacrificial hearth with 
the eternal fire. Near this was a globe of 
marble covered with fillets, the Omphalds, 
or centre of the earth. In earlier times 
two eagles stood at its side, representing 
the two eagles which fable said had been 
sent out by Zeus at the same moment from 
the eastern and western ends of the world. 
These eagles were carried off in the Phocian 
war, and their place filled by two eagles in 
mosaic on the floor. Behind this space 
was the inner shrine, lying lower, in the 
form of a cavern over the cleft in the earth. 
Within the spacious precincts (pSrlbolds) 
stood a great number of chapels, statues, 
votive offerings and treasure-houses of the 
various Greek states, in which they de- 
posited their gifts to the sanctuary, es- 
pecially the tithes of the booty taken in 

I 'I M UICH08 I 'l MET] l: 


lid.', tOO, m t In- round! rhiiuiber 

of ill,' Delphiane, Before the antranoe to 

tlio temple whs llic great altar Tin- hiirut- 

. itli'i in"-), hikI the golden tripod, dedioated 
h\ i in' ( hreeki after the battle "i Platasa, on 
u pedeataJ of braaa, representing a 
in three roils. [The greater pari of ibis 
pedestal n"u standi in tli" Hippodrome, or 

\luienlan, nl Constantinople. | It.sidi'S tlie 

treasures aooumnlated in the course of time, 
the temple had considerable property in 
land, with a population consisting mainly 
• ■I sla\"s (hiirOdouloi), bound to pay con- 
tributions and to render Bervioe to the 

sanctuary. The management of the pro- 
party was in the hands of priests chosen 
from the noble Delphian families, at their 
head the live H6sioi or consecrated ones. 
Since the first spoliation of the temple by 
the Phocians in 355 B.C., it was several 
times plundered on a grand scale. Nero, 
for instance, is saiil to have carried off 500 
bronze statues. Yet some 3,000 statues 
were to be seen there in the time of the 
elder Pliny. [Sfe an article on the Delphic 
temple by Professor Middleton, Journal of 
Hdlenic Studies, ix 282-322.] 

Demarchds. Bee Demos. 

Demeter (in Greek mythology). Daughter 
of CrSnus and Rhea. Her name signifies 


(Relief found at Eleusie, 1859.) 

Mother Earth, the meaning being that she 
was goddess of agriculture and the civili- 
zation based upon it. Her children are, by 

D. C. A. 

1 .1 [On, a s,. >u I'luiiiH, the 
by bar brother Zeus, a daughtei P 
phOm . Bound I tometer and 'his dan 
rem i" bar worship and the fa bli i • ■ 
inn bai . I full's oarriea ofl Pei i phone, 

ami Demeter wanders nine di i 'lie 

•/. * >. //. 


(British Museum.) 

earth seeking her, till on the tenth day she 
learns the truth from the all-seeing sun. 
She is wrath with Zeus for permitting the 
act of violence, and she visits Olympus and 
wanders about among men in the form of 
an old woman under the name of Deo or 
the Seeker, till at length, at Eleusis, in 
Attica, she is kindly received at the house 
of king Celeus, and finds comfort in tend- 
ing his newly born son Demophoon. Sur- 
prised by his mother in, the act of trying 
to make the child immortal by putting it 
in the fire, she reveals her deity, and causes 
a temple to be built to her, in which she 
gives herself up to her grief. In her wrath 
she makes the earth barren, so that man- 
kind are threatened with destruction by 
famine, as she does not allow the fruit of 
the earth to spring up again until her 
daughter is allowed to spend two-thirds of 
the year with her. On her return to 
Olympus she leaves the gift of corn, of 



agriculture, and of her holy mysteries with 
her hn^t, as a token of grateful recollection. 
She sends Triptolemus the Eleusinian round 
the world on her chariot, drawn by ser- 
pents, to diffuse the knowledge of agricul- 
ture and other blessings accompanying it, 
the settlement of fixed places of abode, 
civil order, and wedlock. Thus Demeter 
was worshipped as the goddess of agricul- 
ture and foundress of law, order, and es- 
pecially of marriage, in all places where 
Greeks dwelt, her daughter being usually 
associated with her. (See Thesmophoria.) 
The most ancient seat of her worship was 
Athens and Eleusis, where the Rharian 


(Mural painting from Pompeii.) 

plain was solemnly ploughed every year in 
memory of the first sowing of wheat. She 
was also much worshipped in Sicily, which 
from its fertility was accounted one of her 
favourite places of abode (see Elecsinia). 
As the goddess of fertility, Demeter was 
in many regions associated with Poseidon, 
the god of fertilizing water. This was 
particularly the case in Arcadia, where 
Poseidon was regarded as the father of 
Persephone. She was also joined with 
Dionysus, the god of wine, and, as mother 
of Persephone and goddess of the earth, to 
which not only the seed, but the dead are 
committed, she is connected with the lower 
world under the name of Chthonia. In 

later times she was often confused with 
Graia and Rhea, or Cybtde. Besides fruit 
and honeycombs, the cow and the sow were 
offered to her, both as emblems of pro- 
ductivity. Her attributes are poppies and 
ears of corn (also a symbol of fruitfulness), 
a basket of fruit and a little pig. Other 
emblems had a mystic significance, as the 
torch and the serpent, as living in the 
earth, and as symbolizing a renewal of life 
by shedding its skin. The Romans identi- 
fied her with their own Ceres. 

Demetrius Phalereus iof Phalerum, on 
the coast S.W. of Athens). He was born 
about 345 B.C., was a pupil of Theophrastus, 
and an adherent of the Peripatetic school. 
He was distinguished as a statesman, orator 
and scholar. His reputation induced Cas- 
sander to put him at the head of the 
Athenian state in 317 B.C. For ten years he 
administered its aifairs, and so thoroughly 
won the affection of his fellow-citizens that 
they erected numerous statues to him, as 
many as 360, according to the accounts. 
On the approach of Demetrius Poliorcetes 
in 307 B.C., he was deposed, and through the 
efforts of his opponents condemned to death 
by the fickle populace. On this he fled to 
Egypt, to the court of Ptolemy the First, 
who received him kindly and availed him- 
self of his counsel. Thus Demetrius is 
credited with having suggested the founda- 
tion of the celebrated Alexandrian library. 
But Ptolemy withdrew his favour from 
him and banished him to Upper Egypt, 
where he died in 283 B.C. from the bite of 
a venomous snake. He was very active as 
a writer, and his stay in Egypt gave him 
plenty of leisure to indulge his taste ; but 
only a few fragments of his works have 
survived. An essay On Rhetorical Ex- 
pression, formerly attributed to him, was 
in reality from the hand of a Demetrius 
who lived in the 1st century a.d. As 
an orator Demetrius is said to have been 
attractive rather than powerful. He was 
supposed to have been the first speaker 
who gave rhetorical expression an artificial 
character, and also the first who introduced 
into the rhetorical schools the habit of 
practising speaking upon fictitious themes, 
juristic or political. 

Deminutio capitis (diminution of civil 
rights and legal capacity). This was the 
term by which the Romans denoted de- 
gradation into an inferior civil condition, 
through the loss of the rights of freedom, 
citizenship or family. The extreme form of 
it, deminutio capitis 7naxima, was entailed 


M- M<>l'll<><>\. 


i.\ tii.- Iom oi freedom, which involved the 

oi all oi bet rights. Thli would 

ii u Roman riii.-.. n were taken prisoner En 
war, oi given up i" the » • i n ■ in \- for having 
\ iolated the senotitj ■>! an ambs uloi oi 
oonoluding a treatj uol approved "i by 
ih, people. Or again ii be was told into 
\. whether bj the State for refusing 
military servioe, or declining to state the 
amount of bis property at the census! or 
by Ins oreditora for debt. It a prisoner of 
wai returned home, or ii the enemy refused 
n accept him when given up to them, liis 
former civil rights were restored. The inter- 
mediate Btage, deminutio capitis mSdia or 
minor, oonsisted in Loss of civil rights cou- 
Bequent on becoming oitiaen of another 
or on a decree of exile confirmed by 
the people, or (in imperial times) on dopor- 
tation. Restoration of the civil status was 
possible if the foreign citizenship were 
given up, or if the decree of exile were 
cancelled. The lowest grade {deminutio 
capitis minima) was the loss of hitherto 
existing family rights by emancipation 
(which involved leaving the family), adop- 
tion, or (in the case of a girl) by marriage. 

Demlurgi (DSmlowgoi, workers for the 
people). A general term among the Greeks 
tor tradesmen, among whom they included 
artists and physicians. In old times they 
formed, at Athens, the third order, the other 
two being the Eupatrldw and Giumurl 
(sec these names). In some states demiurgi 
was the name of the public officials; in 
the Achaean League, for instance, the ten 
di miv/rgi were among the highest officers 
of the confederacy. 

Democratla (Demokrdtla, sovereignty of 
the people). The Greek term for the form 
of constitution in which all citizens had 
the right of taking part in the government. 
This right was not always absolutely equal. 
Sometimes classes were formed on a pro- 
perty qualification, and civil rights con- 
ferred accordingly {see Timocratta) ; but no 
class in this case was absolutely excluded 
from a share in the government, and it was 
possible to rise from one class to another. 
Sometimes provision was made by law to 
prevent any person taking part in the ad- 
ministration but such as had proved then- 
worth and capacity. In the absence of 
such limitations the democracy, as Plato 
in his Repiiblic and Aristotle in his Politics 
observed, soon degenerated into a mob- 
government (dcMocratla), or developed into 
a despotism. 

Democritus (Derndkritos), A Greek 

philoaophei born at Abdtrs [n Thraos about 
480 B.O. Hi- father, who bad entertained 
king Xerxes foi some time daring Ihh 
expedition against Qreeoe, left aim a vary 
considerable property, whiob be spent In 
making l"ng journeys into Egypt and A ia, 
• in his return be held aloof from all public 
business, and devoted him sell entirely to 
liis studies, lb- was more than a hundred 
years old at Ins death, and left behind him 
a number "f works on ethics, physios, 
astronomy, mathematics, art, and literature, 
written in an attractive and animated 
manner. We have the titles of some of 
his writings; but only scanty fragments 
remain. Deinocritus was the most learned 
Greek before Aristotle. In the history of 
philosophy he has a special importance, as 
the real founder of what is called the Atomic 
Theory, or the doctrine that the universe 
was formed out of atoms. It is true that 
his master Leucippus had already started 
the same idea. According to this theory 
there are in the universe two fundamental 
principles, the Full and the Void. The Full 
is formed by the atoms, which are primitive 
bodies of like quality but different form, 
innumerable, indivisible, indestructible. 
Falling for ever through the infinite void, the 
large and heavier atoms overtake and strike 
upon the smaller ones, and the oblique and 
circular motions thence arising are the 
beginning of the formation of the world. 
The difference of things arises from the fact 
that atoms differ in number, size, form and 
arrangement. The soul consists of smooth 
round atoms resembling those of fire ; these 
are the nimblest, and in their motion, 
penetrating the whole body, produce the 
phenomena of life. The impressions on the 
senses arise from the effect produced in 
our senses by the fine atoms which detach 
themselves from the surface of things. 
Change is in all cases nothing but the 
union or separation of atoms. 

The ethics of Democritus are based on 
the theory of happiness, and by happiness 
he means the serenity of the mind, undis- 
turbed by fear or by anything else. The 
control of the appetites, attainable by tem- 
perance and self-culture, is the necessary 
condition of this. To do good for its own 
sake, without the influence of fear or hope, 
is the only thing which secures inward 
contentment. The system of Epicurus is, 
of all other ancient systems, the most closely 
connected with that of Democritus. 

Demophoon. (1) Son of Celeus of Eleusis 
and Metanira. He was tended in infancy 



by Demeter, when, in her search for Perse- 
phone, she came to Eleusis in the form of 
an old woman. Demeter found comfort in 
the care of the child, and wished to confer 
immortality on him by anointing him with 
ambrosia and holding him at night over the 
fire. The interference of the mother, how- 
ever, prevented the fulfilment of her design 
(see Demeter). Triptolemus in some ver- 
sions takes the place of Demophoon (see 

(2) Son of Theseus and Phaedra. With 
his brother Acamas he was committed by 
Theseus to Elephenor, prince of the Abantes 
in Euboea. This was at the time when 
Theseus, on his return from the lower 
regions, found Menestheus in possession of 
the sovereignty of Attica, and was anxious 
to emigrate to Scyros. In the post-Homeric 
story Demophoon and Acamas march to 
Troy with their protector Elephenor. After 
the conquest of the city they liberate their 
grandmother ^Ethra, and take possession 
again of their father's kingdom, as Menes- 
theus, who in Homer is the chief of the 
Athenians before Troy, had fallen there 
(see ./Ethra). When Dlomedes was thrown 
upon the coast of Attica on his return from 
Troy, and began to plunder it in ignorance 
of where he was, Demophoon took the 
Palladium from him. Subsequently he 
protected the children of Heracles against 
the persecutions of Eurystheus, and killed 
the latter in battle. On his return from 
Troy he had betrothed himself to Phyllis, 
daughter of the king of Thrace. On the 
day appointed for the marriage he did not 
appear, and Phyllis hanged herself and 
was changed into a tree. 

Demos. A Greek word meaning: (1) the 
people, either in contrast with a despot 
or the nobility, or as the depository of 
supreme power. (2) a district or region. 
Thus in the Athenian state the denies 
were the hundred administrative districts 
formed by Clisthenes, of which ten were 
contained in each of the ten tribes or 
phf/lrp. The denies were named after the 
small towns and hamlets, and sometimes 
from distinguished families living there 
and owning property at the time of the 
division. In course of time the number of 
the denies increased through extension and 
division, so that in the age of Augustus it 
amounted to 174. According to the original 
arrangement all persons who belonged to a 
detne lived in its precincts. The descend- 
ants belonged to the same denies as their 
ancestors, even though they neither lived 

nor owned property there. To pass from 
one detne to another was only possible by 
adoption. To own property in a strange 
done it was necessary to pay a special tax 
to it. As every citizen was obliged to 
belong to a deme, the complete official de- 
scription of him included the name of his 
deme as well as of his father. Every d> ttu 
had certain common religious rites, presided 
over by special priests. The dvmotce, or 
members of a deme, had also a common 
property, a common chest for receiving the 
rents and taxes, common officers with a 
demarchus at their head, and common 
meetings for the discussion of common 
interests, elections, and so forth. At these 
meetings the names of the young citizens 
of eighteen years old were written in the 
registers of the deme, and after two years 
were enrolled in the lists of persons quali- 
fied to take part in the meetings. It was 
also at these assemblies that the regular 
revision of the lists of Athenian citizens 
took place. 

Demosthenes. The greatest orator of 
antiquity, born in 384 B.C., in the Attic 
deme Pseanla. His father, who bore the 
same name, was the wealthy owner of a 
manufactory of arms. He died before his son 
was seven years old, and the young Demos- 
thenes grew up under the tender care of 

I his mother. The boy's ambition was excited 
by the brilliant successes of the orator 
Callistratus, and he was eager at the same 
time to bring to justice his dishonest 
guardians for the wrong done to him and 

J his sisters. He therefore devoted himself 
to the study of oratory under the special 

i instruction of Isaeus. The influence of this 
master is very evident in his speeches 
delivered in 364 against one of his guar- 
dians, Aphobus, with his brother-in-law 
Onetor. Demosthenes won his case, but did 
not succeed in getting either from Aphobus 
or from his other guardians any adequate 
compensation for the loss of nearry thirteen 
talents (some £2,600) which he had sus- 

. tained. To support himself and his rela- 
tions, he took up the lucrative business 
of writing speeches for others, as well as 
appearing in person as an advocate in the 
courts. His two first attempts at address- 
ing the assembled people were, partly owing 
to the unwieldiness of his style, partly 
from a faulty delivery, complete failures. 
But Demosthenes, so far from being daunted, 
made superhuman efforts to overcome the 
defects entailed by a weak chest and a 
stammering tougne, and to perfect himself 



hi tin' .11 1 ol di liver] , En thia he « ■* 

l>\ the sympathy and experience "f several 

I ••■■ i.i 1 1 \ ' I Thu ■ 

prepared. In' appeared again in public in 
■ I-, with ln> celebrated speech against 
the law "! I.i'i'iiins, and theu tnadi 
Iuh position "ii the rostrum, Two years 
afterwards he started on his political 
1 1 is obji i I from the firs) was to re 
store the supremacy ol Athens through her 

own i . and to rally I he 1 1 k 

round her against the common enemy, 
whom he had long recognised in Philip ox 
It iii :>."ii n. o. that he first 
l his voice against the Macedonian 
kin;;. 1'liili]", invoked by the Ihessalians 
to help them against the Phooians, had con- 
quered the latter, and was threatening to 
occupy the pass of Thermopylae, the key 
Proper. In his first Philippic, 
Demosthenes opened the conflict between 
Greek freedom and the Macedonian military 
despotism. This contest he carried on with 

ther weapon than his eloquence; but 
with such power and persistence that 
Philip himself is reported to have said that 
it was Demosthenes and not the Athenians 
with whom he was fighting. On this 

-ion he succeeded in inspiring the 
Athenians to vigorous action. But his 
three Olynthiae orations failed to conquer 
the indolence and short-sightedness of his 
fellow-citizens, and their ally the city of 
Olynthns was taken by Philip in 348. In 
34»i he was one of the ambassadors sent 
to conclude a peace with Philip. His col- 
leagues Plulocrates and ^Eschiues were 
bribed with Macedonian gold, and Demos- 
thenes did not succeed in thwarting their 
intrigues, which made it possible for the 
king to occupy Thermopylae, and secure 
therewith the approach to Greece. In his 
speech on the Peace he advises his country- 
men to abide by the settlement. But the 
ceaseless aggression of the Macedonian 
soon provoked him again to action, and in 
the second and third Philippic (344 and 341) 
he put forth all the power of his eloquence. 
At the same time he left no stone unturned 
to strengthen the righting power of Athens. 
His exertions were, on this occasion, success- 
ful : for in spite of the counter efforts of the 
Macedonian part}-, he managed to prevail ou 
the Athenians to undertake a war against 
Philip, in the victorious course of which 
Perinthus and Byzantium were saved from 
the Macedonian despotism (340). But it was 
not long before the intrigues of ^Eschines, 
who was in Philip's pay, brought about a 

■ii the I '■ p 

the ail. iii ol Qreei move 

Demosthenes used bis eloquence to pei 
the Thebans in ally theme* Ivi a n ith Athens: 
■ •iii all hope was shattered by the unhappy 
■ of OhsBrOnea bj in which 

I lemo • bene i himself took pai I a a hi avj - 
armed soldier. Ore* • was now completely 


(Vatican Museum, Rome.) 

in the hands of Philip. The Macedonian 
party tried to make Demosthenes responsible 
for the disaster; but the people acquitted 
him, aud conferred upon him, as their most 
patriotic citizen, the honour of delivering 
the funeral oration over the dead. In 336, 
aftar Philip's death, Demosthenes summoned 



the Athenians to rise against the Mace- 
donian dominion. But the destruction of 
Thebes by Alexander crippled every at- 
tempt at resistance. It was only through 
the venal intervention of Demades that 
Demosthenes, with his true-hearted allies 
and supporters Hyperides and Lycurgus, 
escaped being given up to the enemy, as 
had been demanded. Demosthenes had been 
repeatedly crowned in public for his public 
services, and in 337 B.C. Cteslphon had pro- 
posed not only to give him a golden crown 
for his tried devotion to his country, but to 
proclaim the fact at the Dion3 r sia by the 
mouth of the herald. jEschines had already 
appeared to prosecute Ctesiphon for bring- 
ing forward an illegal proposal. In 330 he 
brought up the charge again, meaning it 
no doubt as a blow against his bitterest 
enemy Demosthenes. Demosthenes replied 
in his famous speech upon the Crown, and 
won a brilliant victory over his adversary, 
who was thereupon obliged to go into exile 
at Rhodes. But in 324 his enemies, joined 
on this occasion by his old friend Hyperides, 
succeeded in humiliating him. Harpalus, 
the finance minister of Alexander, had fled 
to Athens with an immense treasure, and 
Demosthenes was accused of having taken 
bribes from him, condemned, and sentenced 
to pay a fine of 50 talents. Unable to pay 
this enormous sum, he was thrown into 
prison, whence he escaped to jEgina, to be 
recalled and welcomed with trumpets in 
the following year after the death of Alex- 
ander. But the unfortunate issue of the 
Lamian war, which resulted in a Mace- 
donian occupation of Athens and the dis- 
solution of the democratic constitution, 
involved him in ruin. Condemned to death 
with his friends by the Macedonian party, 
he fled to the island of Calauria, near 
Troezen, and took sanctuary in the temple 
of Poseidon. Here, as Antipater's officers 
were upon him, he took poison and died, 
Oct. 16, 322. 

Sixty-five genuine speeches of Demos- 
thenes were known in antiquity, and 
man} 7 others were falsely attributed to him. 
The collection which we possess contains 
sixty speeches, besides a letter of Philip 
to the Athenians, but some twenty-seven 
of these are suspected. The seventh, for 
instance, On the Island of Hdlonnesus, was 
written by a contemporary, Hegesippus. 
The genuineness of the six letters, and of 
fifty-six profemta, or introductions to public 
speeches, which bear his name, is also doubt- 
ful. Among the genuine speeches the most 

remarkable, both for the beauty of their 
form and the importance of their subjects, 
are the Olynthiacs, the Philippics, the 
orations on the Peace, on the Crown, on 
the Embassy (against ^Eschines), with 
those against the Law of Leptines, against 
Androtion, and against Meidlas. The 
greatness of Demosthenes consists in his 
unique combination of honest intention 
with natural genius and thoroughly finished 
workmanship. He has all the qualities 
by which the other Greek orators are dis- 
tinguished singly, and at the same timc- 
the power of apptying them in the most 
effective way on each occasion as it arises. 
It is true that he had not the gift of free 
extempore speaking, or if he had, he did 
not cultivate it ; he gave the most elaborate 
preparation to all his speeches, so that a 
witty contemporary said they smelt of the 
lamp. The consequence however is, that 
all he says shows the deepest thought and 
ripest consideration. There is the same 
finish everywhere, whether in the sobriety 
and acuteness of his argumentation, in the 
genial and attractive tone of his narrative, 
or in the mighty and irresistible stream of 
his eloquence, which no violence of passion 
ever renders turbid. With all his art, his 
language is always simple and natural, 
never far-fetched or artificial. The greatest 
of the Greek orators, Demosthenes was the 
centre of all rhetorical study among the 
Greeks and Romans, and was much com- 
mented upon by scholars and rhetoricians. 
Little, however, of these commentaries 
remains, except a collection of mediocre 
scholia, bearing the name of Ulpianus. 

Demotse. See Demos. 

Denarius (Latin). A Roman silver coin 
so called because it originally contained 10 
asses. In later times it = 16 asses = 4 
sestertii = J T 0I an aureus. Its original 
weight was 455 gr. (= between 9rf. and 
10rf.), from 207 B.C. to Nero, 3'90 (about 
8hd.), after Nero's time 3 41 gr., the amount 
of pure silver being so reduced that it 
was worth only about Gd. Its value sub- 
sequently sank more and more, until at 
the beginning of the 3rd century a.d. it 
was worth only 3id. When at the end 
of the 3rd century Diocletian introduced a 
new silver coin of full value according to 
the Xeronian standard (the so-called argen- 
tSus), the name denarius was transferred to 
a small copper coin (see Coinage, Roman). 

Deo. See Demeter. 

Deportatio. Banishment to a specified 
locality, generally an island. This form of 



. rile was devised under 1 1 • « - early EU>mu 
emperors, li involved loss oi oivil rights, 
and genei all] al o oi property. 

Dusultorea. Sw OntOI 8, 

Deucalion. In Greek mythology, the 

i Prometheus end Olymen.8, husband 

oi Pyrrha, the daughter oi ECpimetheus, 

. ■ . ii oi Phi hit in Thesssly. Zens 

having resolved to destroy the degenerate 

raoe of mankind by a great flood, Deucalion, 

bj the advice oi his father, built a v leu 

, in which In' rescued only himself 
and bis wife From the general destruction. 
\ 1 1 it nine days ho lanitoil on Mount Par- 
nassus and sacrificed to Zeus Phyzlos (who 
sends help by flight). Inquiring of the 

oracle of Themis at Delphi how the human 
raoe oould be renewed, he received answer 
i hat Pyrrhs and he should veil their heads, 
and throw In-hind them the bones of their 
mother. They understood the priestess to 
refer to stones, which they accordingly 
threw behind them ; and the stones of 
Deucalion turned into men, those of Pyrrha 
into women. With this new race Deucalion 
founded a kingdom in Locris, where the 
grave of Pyrrha was shown. That of 
Deucalion was said to be visible at Athens 
in the ancient temple of the Olympian Zeus, 
which he was supposed to have built. 

Deverra. One of the three goddesses 
worshipped among the Italian tribes. She 
was supposed to protect new-born children 
and their mothers against disturbance from 
the god SilvanuB (see Picumnds). 

Deversorium. See Inns. 

Devotlo (Latin). A religious ceremony, 
by virtue of which a general, whose army 
was in distress, offered up as an atonement 
to the gods below, and a means of averting 
their wrath, the army, city, and land of the 
enemy ; or some soldier in the Roman 
army : or even himself, as was the case with 
the Decii. The general, standing on a spear 
and with veiled head, repeated a solemn 
formula dictated to him by the Pontifex. 
If the city and land of the enemy were 
offered, the gods were solemnly invited to 
burn the land or city (See Evocatio). The 
fate of the devoted person was left in the 
hands of the gods. If he survived, an 
image at least seven feet high was buried 
in the ground and a bloody sacrifice offered 
over it ; he was meanwhile held incapable 
in future of performing any other religious 
rite, either on his own behalf or on that of 
the state. 

Dia. See Hebe. 

Diadem (dladema). The white fillet 

p. mil mblem "f 

ignty from < 
the Qreal ed i< whi 

him by Ant' ih, and it was mil, in 

sequence, won by the Boman emptors, 
except in a few oases. Hut when thi 

■ i ii in. ii i was removed to Bj sanl ium. 
i n! mi adopted the < hreek emblem "f 
Diacrli. Set BOLONIAN 0ON8TlTrjTIi 
Diana. An ancient Italian deity. ■ 

name is the feminine counterpart of hums. 
She was the goddess of the moon, of the, open 
air, ami open country, with its mountains, 
threats, springs and brooks, of the chase, and 
of childbirth. In the latter capacity she, 
like Juno, bore the second title of Luclna. 
Thus her attributes were akin to those of 
the Greek Artgmls, and in the course of 
time she was completely identified with her 
! and with Hecate, who resembled her. The 
most celebrated shrine of Diana was at 
Artcia in a grove (nemus), from which 
she was sometimes simply called N<5m6ren- 
sis. This was on the banks of the modern 
lake of Nemi, which was called the mirror 
of Diana. Here a male deity named Virblus 
was worshipped with her, a god of the forest 
and the chase. He was in later times 
identified with Hippolytus, the risen 
favourite of Artemis, and the oldest priest 
of the sanctuary (Rex Nemorensis). He 
was said to have originated the custom of 
giving the priest's office to a runaway slave, 
who broke off a branch from a particular 
tree in the precincts, and slew his pre- 
decessor in office in single combat. In 
consequence of this murderous custom the 
Greeks compared Diana of Aricia with the 
Tauric Artemis, and a fable arose that 
Orestes had brought the image of that god 
into the grove. Diana was chiefly wor- 
shipped by women, who prayed to her for 
happiness in marriage or childbirth. The 
most considerable temple of Diana at Rome 
was in the Aventine, founded by Servius 
Tullius as the sanctuary of the Latin con- 
federacy. On the day of its foundation 
(August 13) the slaves had a holiday. This 
Diana was completely identified with the 
sister of Apollo, and worshipped simply as 
Artemis at the Secular Games. A sign of 
the original difference however remained. 
Cows were offered to the Diana of the 
Aventine, and her temple adorned with 
cows, not with stags' horns, but it was the 
doe which was sacred to Artemis (see 

DIseta. See House. 



Diaetetae (Athenian). Public arbitrators, 
to whom the parties in a private suit might 
apply if they wished to avoid a trial before 
the Heliastae. For this object a consider- 
able number of citizens 60 years of age 
were nominated. They received no salary, 
but a fee of a drachma (about 8d.) from each 
party, and as much from the complainant 
for every adjournment. In case of miscon- 
duct they could be called to account. The 
Diivtetce were assigned to the parties by 
lot by the magistrate who (according to the 
character of the case) would have presided 
in the court of the Helisea. To this magis- 
trate (in case the parties did not appeal to 
the Heliaea against it), the Dicetctes handed 
in the sentence he had delivered as the 
result of his investigation, to have it signed 
and published, and thus made legal. The 
name of Dicetetce was also given to private 
arbitrators named by agreement between 
the parties on the understanding that their 
decision was to be accepted without appeal. 

Diasia. A festival of atonement held by 
the whole population of Attica, on the 23rd 
of Anthesterion (February to March), to 
Zeus Meilichios (the Zeus of propitiatory 
offerings). The offerings were bloodless, 
and consisted chiefly of cakes. 

Diaulos. See Gymnastics. 

Diazoinata (Latin prcecinctiones). The 
broad passages in the Greek theatre, which 
horizontally divided the successive row of 
seats into two or three flights (see Theatre.) 

DIcasarchus (Dikaiarchos). A Greek phi- 
losopher and author, a disciple of Aristotle. 
He was born at Messana in Sicily, but 
lived mostly in Greece, and especially in 
the Peloponnese. He was the author of 
many works on geograplry, history, poli- 
tics, and philosoph}'. One of his most 
important works was The Life of Hellas, 
in three books, which contained an account 
of the geography of Greece, its political 
development and the condition of its vari- 
ous states, its public and private life, its 
theatre, games, religions, etc. Onlv frag- 
ments of it remain. [The De Re Publico 
of Cicero is supposed, with good reason, to 
be founded upon a work bj' Dicsearchus.] 
A badly written description of Greece, in 
150 iambic sendril, bears the name of 
Dicaearchus, but (as the acrostic at the 
beginning shows) is really from the hand 
of a certain Dionysius, son of Calllphon. 
Three interesting and not unimportant 
fragments of a work on The Cities of 
Greece have also been wrongly attributed 
to him. Their real author appears to have 

been an unknown writer named Heraxlides, 
who flourished 280 B.C. 

Dicasterion. See Heli^a. 

Dice (Games with). Games with dice 
were of high antiquity and very popular 
among the Greeks. They were usually 
played on a board with a vessel called a 
tower (pyryds, turv'icula, fritillus, etc.), 
narrower at the top than at the bottom, 
and fitted inside with gradually diminish- 
ing shelves. There were two kinds of games. 
In the first, three dice (kijbo's, tesslra), and 
in later times two were used. These were 
shaped like our dice and were marked on 
the opposite sides with the dots 1-6, 2-5, 
3-4. The game was decided by the highest 
throw, and each throw had a special name. 
The best (3 or 4 x 6) was called Aphrodite or 
IV mis, the worst (3x1) the dog ikyon or 
cam's). In the second, four dice (astragalus 
or talus) were used, made of the bones of 
oxen, sheep or goats, or imitations of them 
in metal or ivory. They had four long 
sides, two of which, one concave and the 
other convex, were broad, and the other two 
narrow, one being more contracted than 
the other, and two pointed ends, on which 
they could not stand, and which therefore 
were not counted. The two broad sides were 
marked 3 and 4; of the narrow sides the 
contracted one was marked 6, and the wider 
one 1, so that 2 and 5 were wanting. 
As in the other game, so here, every 
possible throw had its name. The luckiest 
throw (Venus) was four different numbers, 1, 
3, 4, 6; the unluckiest (ccinis) four aces. 
Dicing as a game of hazard was early for- 
bidden in Rome, and only allowed at the 
Saturnalia. The penalty was a fine and 
infamia. The aediles were responsible for 
preventing dicing in taverns. If a private 
individual allowed it in his house, he had 
no legal remedy for any irregularities that 
might occur. In spite of this, dicing was 
quite common at drinking bouts, especially 
under the empire. Indeed some emperors, 
e.g. Claudius, were passionate players- 
Others however did their best to check the 
evil. Justinian went so far as to allow a 
claim for the recovery of money lost at play. 

Dictator. The Latin term for a magis- 
trate appointed for special emergencies, 
after auspices duly taken by the consuls 
on the commission of the senate. The 
dictator was never appointed for more than 
six months. The first instance of the 
appointment occurred in 501 B.C. The 
dictator was usually, though not always, 
chosen from the number of consuldrcs or 


l>\\>\ Ml 


•i ho lin'l bald i ha office "( oonra] No 
plebeian waa eleoted befon 8 •<• n.<'. He alwa] ■ Dominatad (or ■ particulai or 
specified purpose, on thefulfilmenl "I which 
he laid down Ins office, Be oombined the 
supreme jndioiaJ with the nprame mili- 
power, and there waa, originally, bo 
appeal againat his proceedings, even the 
( . i" "I the iiiliuiics being powerleea againat 
him. Be waa entirely irresponsible I'm hi 
aotS| and oould therefore oot !»• oalled to 
acoount on the expiration of Ins term "l 
office. His insignia were the sella i mulls. 
t&ga pratexta, and '_'•! lictors, who repre- 

i the lictors of two isnls. and who 

ni the city bore a cas in 1 1 1 • - i i- bundle 
"i rods, as a si^n of ih" mil united power of 
life and death. His assistant was the 
mdgister Squltum (master of the horse), 
u li" was bound absolutely to obey his com- 
mands, and \\ I i In' had to nominate 

immediately after his own election. The 
original function of the diotator was mili- 
tary ; but after 863 B.C. a dictator was occa- 
sionally ohosen, in the absence of the consuls, 
for other purposes than dealing with external 
danger or internal troubles; especially to 
hold the games or religious festivities. The 
office gradually passed out of use, though not 
legally abolished. The last military dictator 
was appointed in - ( 16 B.C., the last absolutely 
in 202 B.C. The dictatorships of Sulla and 
Caesar, who was named perpetual dictator 
not long before his death, were anti-ropubli- 
oan and unconstitutional. After Caesar was 
murdered in 44 B.C., the office was abolished 
for ever by a law of Marcus Antunius. 

Dictymna. A goddess of the sea, wor- 
shipped in Crete. (See Britomartis.) 

Dictys. (1) A poor fisherman on the 
island of Seriphus, who gave welcome to 
Danae and her son Perseus. 

(2) Dictys of Gnossos in Crete. Alleged 
to have been the companion of Idomeneus 
in the Trojan war, and author of a diary 
recording his experiences therein. The 
diary, written in Phoenician on palm leaves, 
was said to have been found in a leaden box 
in his grave in the time of Nero, and to have 
been translated into Greek at that emperor's 
command. The existence of this Greek ver- 
sion was doubted, but a certain Lucius Sep- 
timius, of the 4th century A.D., gave out 
his Dictys Cretensis EphemSris be Bello as a translation of it. This book, 
and the equally absurd one of Dares {see 
Dares'), were the chief authorities followed 
by the mediaeval poets who handled the 
story of Troy. 

DIdascalia /"< latkdlta \ < treel 

i lii, | ■ oe of a drama, 

l i brought I'n h ard foi |" i 

rormanoe at a dramai ic • i 

i 'I bong up in the theatre, a nli ihoi < 

ooticea as to the time and plaoi oi the < - 

test, t Ik- competing | ts, their playa and 

other Buocesses, i" rhap the ' 'hOri gl, 

and the most oelebrated actoi 
documents, so important for I hi 
the drama, wen- tiisi collected and arranged 
In Aristotle, whose example was followed 
by the Alexandrian Boholars CallTmftchna, 

Aristophanes of Hyzant iiiin, and 01 
From tlusc writings, also called iliilns- 
rnliir. but now unfortunately lost, come 
the scanty notices preserved by gram- 
marians and scholiasts upon the particular 
tragedies and comedies. Following the 
example of the Greeks the Romans pro- 
vided the dramas of their own poets with 
iliiliisiiiliir. as for instance those atta 
to the comedies of Terence and the Stichus 
of Plautus. 

Dido. Properly a surname of the 
Phoenician goddess of the moon, the wan- 
dering Astarte, who was also the goddess 
of the citadel of Carthage. The name of 
this goddess and some traits of her story 
were transferred to Elissa. daughter of the 
Tyrian king Mutton (the Belus or Agenor 
of the Greeks). Elissa came from Tyre to 
Africa, where she founded Carthage. She 
was flying from her brother Pygmalion, 
the murderer of her husband and paternal 
uncle Sicharbaal or Sicharbas icalled in 
Greek Acerbas and in Latin Sychaeus). To 
escape wedding the barbarian king Iarbas 
she erected a funeral pyre and stabbed her- 
self upon it. According to the later ston-, 
followed or invented by Vergil, the tragedy 
was due to her despair at her desertion by 

Didrachma. See Coinage. 

DIdymus. One of the most celebrated 
Greek scholars of antiquity. He was born 
at Alexandria in 63 B.C., but lived and 
taught in Rome. He was one of the chief 
representatives of the school of Aristarchus. 
He is said to have been the author of more 
than 3,500 works, and from his own in- 
dustry and gigantic power of work was 
called Chalkenteros (the man with bowels 
of brass). Homer was the chief subject of 
his researches. His greatest work was a 
treatise of extraordinary care upon Aris- 
tarchus' edition of Homer, extracts from 
which are preserved in the Venetian Scholia 
to Homer. He wrote commentaries, not 



only on Homer, but on Hesio"d, the lyric and 
dramatic poets, and the Attic orators, be- 
sides monographs and works of reference 
on literary history. The most valuable part 
of the information handed down in the 
grammatical lexicons and commentaries of 
the Byzantines is to be referred to him. 

Diipolia. A festival celebrated in Athens 
on the 14th Scirophorion (June to July), 
to Zeus as the protector of the city. It 
was also called Buphonia, from the sacri- 
fice of an ox connected with it. A labour- 
ing ox was led to the altar of Zeus in the 
Acropolis, which was strewn with wheat 
and barley. As soon as the ox touched the 
consecrated grain, he was punished by a blow 
on the neck from an axe, delivered by a 
priest of a particular family, who instantly 
threw away the axe and took to flight. In 
his absence the axe was brought to judg- 
ment in the Prytaneum, and condemned, as 
a thing polluted by murder, to be thrown 
into the sea. To kill a labouring ox, the 
trusty helper of man, was rigidly forbidden 
by custom. In the exceptional sacrifice of 
one at this festival, the ancient custom may 
be regarded as on the one hand excusing 
the slaughter, and on the other insisting 
that it was, nevertheless, equivalent to a 

Dilectus. The levying of soldiers for 
military service among the Romans. In the 
republican age all the citizens who were 
liable to service assembled in the Capitol 
on the day previousty notified by the 
Consuls in their Sdictum, or proclamation. 
The twenty-four tribiini militum were 
first divided among the four legions to be 
levied. Then one of the tribes was chosen 
by lot, and the presence of the citizens 
ascertained by calling the names accord- 
ing to the lists of the several tribes. The 
calling was always opened with names of 
good omen (see Omen). If a man did not 
appear, he would be punished according 
to circumstances, by a fine, confiscation of 
property, corporal punishment, even by 
being sold into slavery. Four men of equal 
age and bodily capacity were ordered to 
come forward, and distributed among the 
four legions, then another four, and so on, so 
that each legion got men of equal quality. As 
the proceeding was the same with the other 
tribes, each legion had a quarter of the levy 
for each tribe. No one man was excused 
(vdcatXo) from service unless he was over 46 
years of age, or had served the number of 
campaigns prescribed bj- law, twenty in the 
infantry, ten in the cavalry, or held a city 

office or priesthood, or had a temporary or 
perpetual dispensation granted on account 
of special business of state. In ancient 
times the levy of the cavalry followed that 
of the infantry, in later times it preceded 
it. On the oath taken after the levy see 

About the year 100 B.C. Marius procured 
the admission of the c&pitS censi, or classes 
without property, to military service (see 
Proletarii). After this the legions were 
chiefly made up out of this class by enlist- 
ment; and though the liability to common 
military service still existed for all citizens, 
the wealthy citizens strove to relieve them- 
selves of it, the more so, as after Marius 
the time of service was extended from 
twenty campaigns to twenty years. In 89 
B.C. the Roman citizenship was extended 
to all the inhabitants of Italy, and all, 
therefore, became liable to service. The 
levies were in consequence not held ex- 
clusively in Rome, but in all Italy, by con- 
qulsitores. These functionaries, though 
they continued to use the official lists of 
qualified persons, assumed more and more 
the character of recruiting officers. They 
were ready to grant the vacatio, or exemp- 
tion, for money or favour, and anxious 
to get hold of volunteers by holding out 
promises. The legal liability to military 
service continued to exist in imperial times, 
but after the time of Augustus it was only 
enforced in regard to the garrison at Rome, 
and on occasions of special necessity. The 
army had become a standing one. and even 
outside of Italy, except when a special 
levy of new legions was made, the vacancies 
caused by the departure of the soldiers who 
had served their time were filled up by 
volunteers. The levy was carried out by 
imperial commissioners (dileetatores), whose 
business it was to test the qualifications of 
the recruits. These were, Roman citizen- 
ship — for only citizens were allowed to 
serve, whether in the legions, or in the 
guard and other garrison cohorts of Rome 
(Cohortes Urbance) — physical capacity, and 
a certain height, the average of which was 
5 feet 10 inches under the empire. For the 
republican age we have no information on 
this point. 

Dlnarchus (Deinarchos). The last of 
the ten great Attic orators. He was born 
at Corinth about 361 B.C., and came early 
to Athens, where he became the pupil and 
friend of Theophrastus and Demetrius of 
Phalerum. After B.C. 336, and especially 
after the death of the great orators, he 



acquired wealth and reputation by b i 

epeeohei i than. II"' mi involved In 

the mill of his patron, Demetrius, and in 
BO? w 'Hi into voluntary exile at Ghaloia 
in ECubcae. It m Bfteen yean before be 
obtained permission t" return, through the 
good offioea oi TheophraetuB. Bobbed of 
his property by the treachery of a friend, 
and oearly blind, be died al Athena, more 

than To years old. His s| ohea, which 

ware very numerous (there were a1 leasl 
1 1 1 1 \ eight), are all lost, axoepl three on 
the trial of Barp&lus, one of which is di- 

ld BgainB( Demosthenes. They iln not 

i favourable idea of Ins powers. In 

tho opinion of the anoienta his stjde had 
no individuality, but was an unsuccessful 
imitation, at one timo of Lysias, at another 
of BypSrides, at anothor of Demosthenes. 

J)iri6cT&.tes(l >iini')ki<itrs). A Greek archi- 
tect, a native of Macedonia, who flourished 
in the second half of the 4th century B.C., and 
was thus a contemporary of Alexander the 
Great. On the commission of Alexander 
he superintended the foundation of Alex- 
andria, and erected the funeral pyre of 
Heplni'stion, celebrated for its boldness and 
splendour. He is also said to have restored 
the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, burnt 
down by Herostrittus. An idea of the bold- 
ness of his conceptions may be gathered 
from the fact that he proposed to represent 
Mount Athos in human form, with a city in 
one hand, and in the other a vessel from 
which the waters of the mountain flowed 
into the sea. 

Dindldchus (DcinOlochds). See Comedy. 

Diocletian, Edict of. [An edict published 
by the Emperor Diocletian about 303 a.d., 
directing those engaged in the sale of pro- 
visions not to exceed certain fixed prices 
in times of scarcity. It is preserved in an 
inscription in Greek and Latin on the outer 
wall of the cella of a temple at Stratonicea 
(Eski-hissar) in Caria. It states the price 
of many varieties of provisions, and these 
inform us of their relative value at the 
time. The provisions specified include not 
only the ordinary food of the people, but 
also a number of articles of luxury. Thus 
mention is made of several kinds of honey, 
of hams, sausages, salt and fresh-water fish, 
asparagus and beans, and even pernce 
Mcnapica (Westphalian hams). At the 
time when the edict was published the 
dt'narius was obviously much reduced in 
value, that coin appearing as the equivalent 
of a single oyster. The inscription was 
first copied by Sherard in 1709 ; it has been 

elaborately edited bj If. Waddington, with 

DeH flan Mis anil a COmi 

and by Mommaen in the third volume 
of the Corpus InscriptiOnum Latlndrum. 

Port i I iii'- I ■ i • ■ i. i . i- 1 1 ■ l tin' I 

preamble were found ■>: Plataaa in 18 

during tl ra] tiona of the American 

School "i I Ha i ixcal An ba ology. In isim, 
during the excavation > oi the British School 
of Arcnteology, several hundred line if the 

Greek version of the decree Were disCC 

ai Megalopolis, including a list of pi^i 

with their prices. It has been edited anew 

by Moiinnseu and Blflmner, L893. -J. E. 8.] 
DIddorus, Burnamed StcfiZus, or the Sici- 
lian. A Greek historian, native of AgyrWn, 
in Sicily, who lived in the times of Julius 
(Vsar and Augustus. After thirty years' 
preparation, based upon the results yielded 
by long travels in Asia and Europe, and the 
use of the plentiful materials supplied by 
residence in Home, lie wrote his liibWfthBca, 
an Universal History in 40 books, extending 
over a period of some 1,100 years, from the 
oldest time to 60 B.C. In the first six books 
he treated the primitive history and mytho- 
logy of the Egyptians, the natives of Asia, 
and Africa, and the Hellenes. The next 
eleven embraced the period from the Trojan 
war to the death of Alexander the Great. 
The remaining 23 brought the history down 
to the beginning of Csesar's struggle with 
Gaul. We still possess books 1-5 and 11- 
20 (from the Persian War under Xerxes to 
302 B.C.), besides fragments, partly con- 
siderable, of the other books. In the early 
books his treatment is ethnographical : 
but from the seventh book onwards, in the 
strictly historical part of his work, he writes 
like an annalist narrating all the events of 
one year at a time, with emphasis on the more 
important ones. It is obvious that this 
proceeding must rob the history of all its 
inner connection. He has other weaknesses. 
He is incapable of seizing the individual 
characteristics either of nations or of indi- 
viduals, and contents himself with giving 
anecdotes and unconnected details. He 
follows his authorities blindly, without any 
attempt to criticize their statements. Then 
his work falls far short of the ideal which 
he himself sets up in his introduction. But 
it is none the less of great value as being 
one of the main authorities for many parts 
of ancient history, especially that affecting 
Sicily. In his style Diodorus aims at clear- 
ness and simplicity. 

Diogenes Laertius (of Laerte in Cilicia). 
A Greek author, who flourished about 150 




A.D., the author of a work, in ten books, on 
the lives and doctrines of celebrated Greek 
philosophers. It is an uncritical compilation 
from books of earlier and later date, but the 
richness of the material gathered from lost 
writings gives it inestimable value for the 
history of philosophy. Books 1-7 embrace 
the Ionic philosophers from Thales onwards, 
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics 
down to Chrysippus. Books 8, 9 treat of 
the philosophers whom he includes under 
the name of Italian, Pythagoras, Empedocles, 
Heraclitus, the Eleatics and Atoniists, 
Protagoras, Pyrrho and Epicurus, to the 
last of whom the whole tenth book is de- 

Diogenlanus. A Greek grammarian of 
Heraclea. In the middle of the 2nd cen- 
tury a.d. he made extracts in five books frcm 
the great collection of stories compiled 
about a century before by Pamphllus. 
These extracts form the foundation of the 
lexicon of Hesychlus. A collection of 
proverbs made by him is preserved in an 
abridged form. 

Diomedes. (1) Son of Ares and Cyrene, 
king of the Bistones. (See Heracles.) 

(2) Son of Tydeus and Deipyle, and one 
of the Eplgoni. After the death of his 
maternal grandfather Adrastus, king of 
Argos, he led 80 ships against Troy, accom- 
panied by his trusty companions Sthenelus 
and Euryalus. He appears in Homer, like 
his father, as a bold, enterprising hero, and 
a favourite of Athene. In the battle which 
took place during the absence of Achilles 
she enables him not only to vanquish all 
mortals who came in his way, JEneas 
among them, but to attack and wound 
Ares and Aphrodite. On his meeting with 
Glaucus in the thick of battle, see Glauccs 
4. When the Achasans fty from the field, he 
throws himself boldly in the path of Hector, 
and is only checked by the lightning of 
Zeus, which falls in front of his chariot. 
In the night after the unsuccessful battle 
he goes out with Odysseus to explore, kills 
Dolon, the Trojan spy, and murders the 
sleeping Rhesus, king of Thrace, who had just 
come to Troy, with twelve of his warriors. 
In the post-Homeric storj', he makes his 
way again, in company with Odysseus, by 
an underground passage into the acropolis 
of Troy, and thence steals the Palladium. 
This, according to one version, he carried 
to Argos ; according to another, it was 
stolen from him by the Athenian king, 
Demophoon, on his landing in Attica. After 
the destruction of Trov, according to Homer, 

he came safe home on the fourth day of his 
journey. His wife, JSglale or ^Eglaleia 
(daughter or granddaughter of Adrastus), 
was, according to the later legend, tempted 
to unfaithfulness by Aphrodite in revenge 
for the wounds inflicted on her by Diomedes. 
To escape the fate of Agamemnon, Diomedes 
fled from Argos to ^Etolia, his father's home, 
and there avenged his old grandfather 
(Eneus on his oppressors. Hence he was 
driven by a storm to Italy, to king Daunus 
of Apulia, who helps him in war against the 
Messapians, marries his daughter Euippe\ 
and extends his dominion over the plain ef 
Apulia (called after him Campl Dwmedei). 
According to one story, he died in Daunia, in 
another he returned to Argos, and died there; 
in a third, he disappeared in the islands 
in the Adriatic, named, after him, Insula' 
Didmedece, his companions being changed 
into the herons that live there, the birds of 
Diomedes. Diomedes was worshipped as a 
hero not only in Greece, but on the Italian 
coast of the Adriatic, where his name had 
in all probability become confused in wor- 
ship with those of the native deities of 
horse-tamiug and navigation. The founda- 
tion of the Apulian city of Argyrippa (later 
called Arpi) was specially attributed to him. 
In his native city, Argos, his shield was 
carried through the streets with the Palla- 
dium at the festival of Athene, and his 
statue washed in the river Inachus. 

(3) A Roman writer on grammar of the 
last part of the 4th century a.d. He was the 
author of an Ars Grammatir.a, in three books, 
founded on the same ancient authorities as 
the work of his contemporary Charisius, 
with whom he often agrees verbatim. His 
third book derives special value from the 
notices on literary history taken from 

Diomeia. An Athenian festival in honour 
of Heracles. (See Heracles.) 

Dion (Lat. Did). (1) Dio Chrysostomus 
Coeceius. A Greek rhetorician and philo- 
sopher, born of a respectable family at Prusa 
in Bithynia, about the middle of the 1st cen- 
tury a.d. He began his career by devoting 
himself to rhetoric. Driven from his native 
ocuntry by domestic intrigues, he lived for a 
long time in Egypt, where he obtained the 
favour of the future emperor Vespasian. 
Afterwards he lived in Rome under Domi- 
tian, until he was banished from Italy and 
Bithynia for his friendship with a person 
in high place who had incurred the sus- 
picion of the emperor. The period of his 
banishment he spent, according to the com- 


limml oi the Delphi :i<l'-, in distant travels 

throagb the northern region! of the Roman 
empire, m far aa the Borysthenes, or Dniejn r, 
mi. I the Qetss, All this time he wna studj 
big philosophy, to which he had previously 
bean averse, in ipite of his friendship with 
A.poUonIus "i Tyftno, Ihs leaning waa in 
the direction oi Stoicism. On the accession 
ot' liis friend Ooooeins Narva (from whom 
ha took the name Cocceiut), he returned to 
Borne, where he spent the remainder of his 
days, with the exception of a short stay 
in ProM, H<' was greatly honoured both 
Narva and his Bnooeasor Trajan, His 
oontemporarias called him Chrysostomot 
Idas month"), from his powers as a 
Bpeakar, which he often displayed in pub- 
lic in Borne and elsewhere. Eighty of his 
speeches survive. They should rather be 
called essays on topics of philosophy, morals, 
and politics. Ee has talent, and refinement, 
and healthy moral tone. In his style he 
imitates the best models, especially Plato 
and Demosthenes, and his writings are on 
the whole, in spite of many defects, among 
the best literary productions of that age. 

(-) l>i" Cussiiis (or Ca88tU8 Dio) Coc- 
ctirtiuis. A Greek historian, grandson of 
Dio Chrysostomos, born at Nicsea, in 
Bithvnia, 155 a.d. He came early to Rome 
with his father, Cassius Apronianus, a 
senator and high official. Here he received 
a careful education. In about 180 a.d. he 
became a member of the senate, and he was 
a long time in practice as an advocate. In 
194 he was pitetor, and afterwards consul. 
As proconsul he administered in succession 
the provinces of Africa, Dalmatia, and Pan- 
nonia. The strict order which he had 
maintained in Pannonia had drawn upon 
him the hatred of the undisciplined prae- 
torians, who demanded his life. Alexander 
Severus, however, not only shielded him, 
but nominated him his colleague in the 
consulship of 229. At the same time he 
allowed, him, for the sake of his own per- 
sonal safety, to live outside Rome during 
his term of office. When this had expired 
the emperor, in consequence of his age and 
weak health, gave him leave to quit the 
public service and retire to his native city, 
where he ended his days. Here he com- 
pleted his great work on Roman history, 
from the arrival of .Eneas in Italy, to his 
own consulship in 229 a.d. This he had 
undertaken at the divine command, commu- 
nicated to him iu a dream. He spent twenty- 
two years upon it, ten on the preparation, 
and twelve on the execution. It contained 80 

■ li\ ided into nly a 

■ketch "f the history down to «'.<-.! r. but 

i In- empire in being 

bestowed upon the • i ■ mporai v w ith 

the writer. Of the first thirty-five bool 

liav defragments; book 86 the r irawith 

the pirates and with Mithridates is muti- 
lated at the beginning; books i i 

the death of Agrippa are tolerably o | 

books .">.") 60, which come down to Claudius, 
are imperfect. The nst are preserved only 
iii fragments, and in the extracts made by 
loaniH-s Xipliilmos. a Byzantine monk of 
the 12th century. These begin with book 
35. The model takou by Dio for imitation 
was Polj bius, whom he only distantly re- 
sembles. He often repels the reader by his 
crawling tlattery, his affected dislike of the 
republican champions, such as Cicero, Bru- 
tus, and Cassius, and his gross superstition. 
But his book is a work of enormous indus- 
try, and of great importance, especially tor 
the history of his own time. His narrative 
is, generally speaking, clear and vivid, and 
his style is careful. 

Dione. In Greek mythology, the daughter 
of OoS&nns and Tethys, or, according to 
another account, of Uranus and Gaia. By 
Zeus she was mother of Aphrodite, who 
was herself called Dione. At Dodona she 
was worshipped in Hera's place as the wife 
of Zeus. Her name, indeed, expresses in a 
feminine form the attributes of Zeus, just 
as the Latin Juno does those of Jupiter. 
When the oracle of Dodona lost its former 
importance, Dione was eclipsed by Hera as 
the wife of Zeus, and came to be regarded 
as a nymph of Dodona. 

Dionysia. A celebration in honour of 
Dionysus, which was held in Athens in a 
special series of festivals, namely : 

(1) The Oschophoria, supposed to have 
been instituted by Theseus on his return 
from Crete. This was celebrated in the 
month of Pyanepsion (October to Novem- 
ber), when the grapes were ripe. It was 
so called from the shoots of vine with grapes 
on them, which were borne in a race from 
the temple of Dionysus in Limnae, a 
southern suburb of Athens, to the sanctu- 
ary of Athena Sciras, in the harbour town 
of Phalerum. The bearers and runners were 
twenty youths (ephebi) of noble descent, 
whose parents were still living, two being 
chosen from each of the ten tribes. The 
victor received a goblet containing a drink 
made of wine, cheese, meal and honey, and 
an honorary place in the procession which 
followed the race. This procession, in 



which a chorus of singers was preceded bj' 
two youths in women's clothing, inarched 
from the temple of Athene to that of 
Dionysus. The festival was concluded by 
a sacrifice and a banquet. 

(2) The smaller, or rustic Dionysia. This 
feast was held in the month Poseideon 
(December to January) at the first tasting 
of the new wine. It was celebrated, with 
much rude merriment, throughout the vari- 
ous country districts. The members of the 
different tribes first went in solemn proces- 
sions to the altar of the god, on which a 
goat was offered in sacrifice. The sacrifice 
was followed by feasting and revelry, with 
abundance of jesting and mockery, and dra- 
matic improvisations. Out of these were 
developed the elements of the regular drama. 
And in the more prosperous villages, pieces 
— in most cases the same as had been played 
at the urban Dionj'sia — were performed by 
itinerant troupes of actors. The festival 
lasted some days, one of its chief features 
being the Askolia, or bag-dance. The point 
of this was to dance on one leg, without 
falling, upon oiled bags of inflated leather. 
The Hdloa, Harvest-home (or feast of 
threshing-floors) was celebrated at Athens 
and in the country in the same month to 
Demeter and Persephfine in common. 

(3) The Lencea, or feast of vats. This 
was held at Athens in the month of 
Gamelion (January to February), at the 
Lenseon, the oldest and most venerable 
sanctuary of Dionysus in the city. After 
a great banquet, for which the meat was 
provided at the public expense, the citizens 
went in procession through the city, with 
the usual jesting and mockery, to attend 
the representation of the tragedies and 

(4) The Anthesterla. Celebrated for three 
days in Anthesterion (February to March). 
On the first day (Plthoegta, or opening of 
casks) the casks were first opened, and 
masters and servants alike tasted the 
new wine. On the second, or Feast of 
Beakers, a public banquet was held, at 
which a beaker of new wine was set by 
each guest. This was drunk with enthusi- 
asm, to the sound of trumpets. The most 
important ceremony, however, was the 
marriage of the Bcisllissa, or wife of the 
Archon Bdsileus, with Dionysus, the Basi- 
lissa being regarded as representing the 
country. The ceremony took place in the 
older of the two temples in the Lenseon, 
which was never opened except on this occa- 
sion. The last day was called Chytroi, or the 

Feast of Pots, because on this day they made 
offerings of cooked pulse in pots to Hermes, 
as guide of the dead, and to the souls of the 
departed, especially those who had perished 
in the flood of Deucalion. 

(5) The great urban Dionysia. This 
festival was held at Athens for six days in 
the month of Elaphebolion (March to April) 
with great splendour', and attended by multi- 
tudes from the surrounding country and 
other parts of Greece. A solemn proces- 
sion was formed, representing a train of 
Dionysiac revellers. Choruses of boys sang 
dithyrambs, and an old wooden statue of 
Dionysus, worshipped as the liberator of 
the land from the bondage of winter, was 
borne from the Lonseon to a small temple 
in the neighbourhood of the Acropolis and 
back again. The glory of this festival was 
the performance of the new tragedies, 
comedies, and satyric dramas, which took 
place, with lavish expenditure, on three 
consecutive days. In consequence of the 
immense number of citizens and strangers 
assembled, it was found convenient to take 
one of these six days for conferring public 
distinctions on meritorious persons, as in 
the case of the presentation of the golden 
crown to Demosthenes. 

Dionysius. (1) A Greek I6g6graph6s. 
(See Logographi.) 

(2) Dionysius Thrax, or the Thracian. 
A Greek scholar, so called because his 
father was a Thracian. He lived at Alex- 
andria, and was a disciple of Aristarchus. 
About 100 B.C. he wrote the first scientific 
Greek grammar in existence, on which a 
high value was set in antiquity. The work 
has come down to us, though not in its 
original form. 

(3) Dionysius of Hdlicarnassus. A Greek 
scholar and historian. He came to Rome 
about 30 B.C., and lived there for twenty-two 
years, probably as a professor of rhetoric, 
enjoying the society of many men of note. 
In these circumstances he devoted him- 
self to studying the Eoman language and 
literature, the historical literature in par- 
ticular. The result of his studies was his 
Roman Antiquities, finished about 8 B.C., 
in all probability not long before his death. 
This was a history of Rome from the mythi- 
cal age to the Punic Wars, with which the 
work of Polybiusbegins. There were twenty 
books, of which we have 1-9 in a complete 
state, 10 and 11 in great part, but the rest 
only in fragments. The intention of its 
author was to give the Greeks a more cor- 
rect and more favourable idea of the Roman 



i .u iii ol its power, and 
thus to reconcile them to B an j oke. 
With iti is vu'« In' si-is ("i ili i In' w isdom and 

I qualit iee "f the font 

The b rik ia founded on * thorough study "f 
the authorities, and, in spite "i its rhetori 
ml tons and ol many other defects, forms 

i our ohiei sources "f information upon 
ancient Roman history in its internal and 

aal development. Tin' ciIht remainim; 
works of Dionysius are partly on r 1 1 . ■ t ■ • 1 - i < , 
partly "n literary oriticism. The rhetorical 
works an: ") On ih< Arrangement of 
Words, or on the different stylos of Greek 
structure; (0) a treatise on rhetoric, 
which baa oertainlynot come down to us in 
its original form. The critical writings are 

- "ii the ancient Greek classics, par- 
ticularly the orators, and among them 
Demosthenes; bat also on Aristotle, Plato, 
and Thuoydldes. They are in part thrown 
into the form of letters to contemporary 
Romans of repute. 

(4) Dionysius of Alexandria. A Greek 
of the 2nd century A J). Two hymns of 

his have survived, one to the Muse CalllSpe, 
the other to Ajiollo. A special interest 
attaches to them from the fact that the 
principle of their composition has been pre- 
served, in ancient musical notation. 

(5) Dionysius PSriBgetSs, or the descri- 
ber of the earth. A Greek poet whose 
precise country and date have not been 
ascertained : it is certain only that he did 
not live earlier than the imperial age of 
Rome. His surviving work is a DSseriptiO 
Orbis Terrfirum, or description of the 
earth, written in well-turned hexameters, 
and founded mainly on Eratosthenes. This 
was much read, and translated into Latin 
by Avienus and Priscian (see these names . 
To the later Greeks he was the geographer 
par excellence. The ancient scholia to his 
book, a paraphrase, and the commentary by 
Eustathius, testify to the interest which it ex- 
cited. (On another author of a geographical 
poem of the same name, see Dicjearchus.) 

Dionysus, sometimes Dionysus (Greek). 
The god of luxuriant fertility, especially as 
displayed by the vine ; and therefore the 
god of wine. His native place, according 
to the usual tradition, was Thebes, where he 
was born to Zeus by Semele, the daughter 
of Cadmus. Semele was destroyed by the 
lightning of her lover, and the child was 
Dorn after six months. Zeus accordingly 
sewed it up in his thigh till ripe for birth 
and then gave it over to Ino, the daughter 
of Semele. {See Athamas.) After her death 

Rermes took the boy to the nymphs ol Mount 

i ording >" am m, to the 

//y<''/'- ol D6d6na, who brought bim op, 

and bid bim in •' avi evi .i\ fi 

■ ■I Hera, It cannot i» ed where 

(fount Nysa wss originally supp 
in later tunes the name n b i trst 

many places where the vine WSS Culti 

not only in Grreece, but in A 
and Africa, When grown up, Dioi 
is represented as planting the vine, and 
wandering through the wide world to 
spread bis worship among men, with his 
wine-flushed train (ihMsos), his nurses and 
other nymphs, Satyrs, Sileni, and similar 
woodland deities. Whoever welcomes him 
kindly, like Icarlus in Attica, and (Eneus 
in .Kt"lia. receives the gift of wine; but 
who resist him are terribly punished. 
For with all his appearance of youth and 
softness, he is a mighty and irresistible god, 
strong to work wonders. A whole series of 
fables is apparently based upon the tradi- 
tion that in many places, where a serious 
religious ritual existed, the dissolute wor- 
ship of Dionysus met with a vigorous 
resistance. (See Lycurgus, VssyadM, 
Pextheus, Prcetos.) 

This worship soon passed from the con- 
tinent of Greece to the wine-growing islands, 
and flourished pre-eminently at Naxos. 
Here it was, according to the story, that 
the god wedded Ariadne. In the islands 
a fable was current that he fell in with 
some Tyrrhenian pirates who took him to 
their ship and put him in chains. But his 
fetters fell off, the sails and the mast were 
wreathed in vine and ivy, the god was 
changed into a lion, while the seamen throw 
themselves madly into the sea and were 
turned into dolphins. In forms akin to 
this the worship of Dionysus passed into 
Egypt and far into Asia. Hence arose a 
fable founded on the story of Alexander's 
campaigns, that the god passed victoriously 
through Egypt, Syria, and India as far as 
the Ganges, with his army of Sileni, Satyrs, 
and inspired women, the Mwnddes or Bac- 
chantes, carrying their wands (thyrsi) 
crowned with vines and ivy. Having thus 
constrained all the world to the recognition 
of his deity, and having, with Heracles, 
assisted the gods, in the form of a lion, to 
victory in their war with the Giants, he 
was taken to Olympus, where, in Homer, 
he does not appear. From Olympus he 
descends to the lower world, whence he 
brings his mother, who is worshipped with 
him under the name of Thyone (the wild 



one), as Leto was with Apollo and Artemis. 
From bis mother he is called ThyOneus, a 
name which, with others of similar mean- 
ing, such as Bacchus, BrOmlOs, EkliSs, and 
Iacchos, points to a worship founded upon 
a different conception of his nature, 

In the myth with which we have been 
hitherto concerned, the god appears mainly 
in the character and surroundings of joy 
and triumph. But. as the god of the earth, 
Dionysus belongs, like Persephone, to the 
world below as well as to the world above. 
The death of vegetation in winter was 
represented as the flight of the god into 
hiding from the sentence of his enemies, or 
even as his extinction, but he returned 
again from obscurity, or rose from the 
dead, to new life and activity. In this 
connexion he was called Zagrcus (" Torn 
in pieces'") and represented as a son of 
Zeus and his daughter Persephone, or some- 
times of Zeus and Demeter. In his child- 
hood he was torn to pieces by the Titans, at 
the command of the jealous Hera. But 
ever}- third year, after spending the inter- 
val in the lower world, he is born anew. 
According to the Orphic story, Athene 
brought her son's heart to Zeus, who gave 
it to Semele, or swallowed it himself, 
whereupon the Theban or younger Diony- 
sus was born. The grave of Dionysus was 
shown at Delphi in the inmost shrine of the 
temple of Apollo. Secret offerings were 
brought thither, while the women who were 
celebrating the feast woke up Licnttcs ; 
in other words, invoked the new-born god 
cradled in a winnowing fan, on the neigh- 
bouring mountain of Parnassus. Festivals 
of this kind, in celebration of the extinction 
and resurrection of the deity, were held by 
women and girls only, amid the mountains 
at night, every third jear, about the time 
of the shortest -day. The rites, intended 
to express the excess of grief and joy at 
the death and reappearance of the god, 
were wild even to savagery, and the women 
who performed them were hence known by 
the expressive names of Bacchae, Maenads, 
and Thyiades. They wandered through 
woods and mountains, their flying locks 
crowned with ivy or snakes, brandishing 
wands and torches, to the hollow sounds of 
the drum, and the shrill notes of the flute, 
with wild dances, and insane cries and jubi- 
lation. The victims of the sacrifice, oxen, 
goats, even fawns and roes from the forest, 
were killed, torn in pieces and eaten raw, 
in imitation of the treatment of Zagreus 
by the Titans. Thrace, and Macedonia, 

i and Asiatic Greece were the scene of the 
wildest orgies; indeed Thrace seems to be 
the country of their birth. In Asiatic 
Greece, it should be added, the worship of 
Dioi^-sus-Zagreus came to be associated 
with the equally wild rites of Rhea (Cybele), 
and Atys, and Sabus or Sabazius." (See 
Sabazius.) In Greece Proper the chief 
seats of these were Parnassus, with Delphi 
and its neighbourhood, Boeotia, Argos, and 
Laconla, and in Boeotia and Laconia especi- 
ally the mountains Clthseron and Taygetus 
They were also known in Naxos, Crete, and 
other islands. They seem to have been 
unknown in Attica, though Dionysus was 

ens «■ 


(From the relief of the Reception of Dionysus by Icarias ; 
Vatican, Louvre, and British Museum .} 

worshipped at the Eleusinian mysteries with 
Persephone and Demeter, under the name 
of Iacchos, as brother or bridegroom of 
Persephone. But the Attic cycle of 
national festivals in honour of Dionysus 
represents the idea of the ancient and 
simple Hellenic worship, with its merry 
usages. Here Diouysus is the god who 
gives increase and luxuriance to vineyard 
and tree. For he is a kindly and gentle 
power, terrible only to his enemies, and 
born for joy and blessing to mankind. His 
gifts bring strength and healing to the 
body, gladness and forgetfulness of care to 
the mind, whence he was called Lyavs, or 
the loosener of care. They are ennobling 


1 9J) 

in theii effects, for thej <• ■ ding, 

nml thus keep bmd employed in diligent 
i. ill. in they bring them together in marry 

I'tinu's, nml in ipire them t" musi 

Thus it is to the worship of 
Dionysus thai the dithyramb end the 



(Rome, Vatican. 1 

drama owe their origin and development. 
In this way Dionysus is closely related, 
not only to Demeter, Aphrodite, Eros, the 
Graces and the Muses, but to Apollo, 
use he inspires men to prophesy. 
The most ancient representation of 
Dionysus consists of wooden images with 
the phallus, as the symbol of generative 
power. In works of art he is sometimes 
represented as the ancient Indian Diony- 
sus, the conqueror of the East. In this 
character he appears, as in the Vatican 
statue called Sardanapalus, of high stature, 
with a luxuriant wealth of hair on head 
and chin (conip. fig. 1 I. Sometimes again, 
as in numerous statues which have sur- 
vived, he is a youth of soft and feminine 
shape, with a dreamy expression, his long, 
clustering hair confined by a fillet or crown 
of vine or ivy, generally naked, or with a 
fawn or panther skin thrown lightly over 
him. He is either reposing or leaning idly 
back with the Thyrsos, grapes, or a cup 
in his hand (fig. 2). Often, too, he is 

D. C. A. 

surrounded by the i si inns, 

Satyrs, Sileni, 

i lupids, indeed ii 
greate I possi ble aumbei end roi 
situations. See the i B 

dm vinr, i\\ . and rose, tin- panther, Lion, 

and dolphin were si 
t.' bun II is usual sacrifices were 'he ox 
and the j-" 

In Italy tin' indigi i Llbei , with 

n feminine Libera at his side, > i i 

to the Greek god of wine. .Inst us the 
It alinn (Vri's was identified with Demeter, 
so these two deities were identified with 
Dionysus, or Iakclins, and Persephone, with 
whom they were worshipped under their 
native name, but with tireek rites, in a 
temple on the Aventine. (See Ceres, ) 
Liber or Bacchus, like Dionysus, had a 
country and an urban festival. The coun- 
try festivities were held, with unrestraine I 
merriment, at the time of grape-gathering 
and straining off the wine. TIip urban 
festival held in Rome on the 17th March, 
was called Liberalla. Old women, crowned 
with ivy, sold cheap cakes (llba) of meal. 
, and oil, and burnt them on little pans 

(3) * M.V.NAD. 

(Vase from Nocera, IV, No. 2419, Naples Mosenm.) 

for the purchasers. The boys took their 
toga vlrllis or toga libera on this day, and 
offered sacrifice on the Capitol. Side by 
side with this public celebration, a secret 
worship, the Bacchanalia, found its way 
to Rome and into the whole of Italy. The 



Bacchanalia were celebrated by men and 
women, in Italy outside the cities, in Rome 
in the sacred enclosure of Stiiniila or 
Semele. They were accompanied with such 
shameless excesses that in 186 B.C. they 
were put down, with unsparing severity, 
by a decree of the senate. 

Diophantus. A Greek mathematician of 
Alexandria, who flourished probably about 
360 B.C. He was the author of an Arith- 
mCt'ira in thirteen books, of which little more 
than the first six still remain. The book 
is the onlv Greek work upon algebra. Dio- 
phantus was the most considerable arith- 
metician in Greek antiquity. 

Dioscorides (Peddnios). A Greek physi- 
cian and man of science. He flourished 
about the middle of the 1st century a.d., 
and was the author of a work De Materia 
Mt'd'icd in five books. For nearly 1700 years 
this book was the chief authority for stu- 
dents of botany and the science of healing. 
Two short essays on specifics against 
vegetable and animal poisons (Alexiphar- 
mdca and Theridca) are appended to it as 
the sixth and seventh books : but these are 
probably from the hand of a later Dioscorides 
of Alexandria. A work on family medicine 
is also attributed to him, but is not genuine. 

Dioscuri, i.e. sons of Zeus, the horse- 
tamer Castor, and Polj'deuces (Lat. Pollux) 
the master of the art of boxing. In Homer 
the}- are represented as the sons of Leda 
and Tyndareos, and called in consequence 
Tyndaridse, as dying in the time between 
the rape of Helen and the Trojan War, and 
.is buried in their father-city Lacedaemon. 
But even under the earth the}' were alive. 
Honoured of Zeus, they live and die on 
alternate days and enjoy the prerogatives 
of godhead. In the later story sometimes 
both, sometimes only Polydeuces is the 
descendant of Zeus. (See Leda.) They 
undertake an expedition to Attica, where 
they set free their sister Helena, whom 
Theseus has carried off. They take part 
in the expedition of the Argonauts. (See 
AmtccsO Castor, who had been born 
mortal, falls in a contest with Idas and 
Lynceus, the sous of their paternal uncle 
Aphareus. The fight arose, according to 
one version, in a quarrel over some cattle 
which they had carried off ; according to an- 
other, it was about the rape of two daughters 
of another uncle Leucippus, Phoebe and 
Hilalra, who were betrothed to the sons of 
Aphareus. On his brothers death Poly- 
deuces, the immortal son of Zeus, prays his 
father to let him die too. Zeus permits 

him to spend alternately one day among 
the gods his peers, the other in the lower 
world with his beloved brother. According 
to another story Zeus, in reward for their 
brotherly love, sets them in the sky as the 
constellation of the Twins, or the morning 
and evening star. They are the ideal types 
of bravery and dexterity in fight. Thus 
they are the tutelary gods of warlike youth, 
often sharing in their contests, and honoured 
as the inventors of military dances and 
melodies. The ancient symbol of the twin 
gods at Lacedaemon was two parallel beams, 
joined by cross-pieces, which the Spartans 
took with them into war. They were 
worshipped at Sparta and Olympia with 
Heracles and other heroes. At Athens 
too they were honoured as gods under the 
name of Andkes (Lords Protectors). At 
sea, as in war, they lend their aid to men. 
The storm-tossed mariner sees the sign of 
their beneficent presence in the flame at 
the mast-head. He prays, and vows to 
them the sacrifice of a white lamb, and 
the storm soon ceases. (See Helexa.) The 
rites of hospitality are also under their 
protection. They are generally represented 
with their horses Xanthus and Cyllarus, 
as in the celebrated colossal group of Monte 
Cavallo in Rome. Their characteristic 
emblem is an oval helmet crowned with a 

The worship of Castor and Pollux was 
from early times current among the tribes 
of Italy. They enjoyed especial honours 
in Tusculum and Rome. In the latter city 
a considerable temple was built to tbem 
near the Forum (414 B.C.) in gratitude 
for their appearance and assistance at the 
battle of the Lake Regillns twelve years 
before. In this building, generally called 
simply the temple of Castor, the senate 
often held its sittings. It was in their 
honour, too, that the solemn review of the 
Roman equites was held on the 15th July. 
The names of Castor and Pollux, like that 
of Hercules, were often in use as familiar 
expletives, bu.t the name of Castor was 
invoked by women only. They were wor- 
shipped as gods of the sea, particularly in 
Ostia, the harbour town of Rome, Their 
image is to be seen stamped on the reverse 
of the oldest Roman silver coins. (See 

DIphllus. A poet of the new Attic 
comedy, a native of Sinope, and contem- 
porary of Menander. He is supposed to 
have written some 100 pieces, of which we 
have the titles and fragments of about 50. 

Wl'lllins in; PATER. 


Tin Cdiina ami RUdent "f Plautug are 
modelled on t\\" oi Diphilua 1 p] 

l '. i enoe baa adopted aome s< le 

oi then ni bia Adelphi. Diphilua took hia 
both h "in common life and from 
mythology Both the judgments pas 
liim in antiquity, and hia remaining frag- 
ments, juatify ua in reoogniaing him aa one 
be moat gifted poeta of hia age 

Diphrds. Sft i ii a i us. 

Dipconus. A Greek sculptor, born in 
Crete, who flouriahed in Argoa and Blc^fin 
about W l B.o. in oonjunction with Ins 
oountryman Soyllia he founded an influen- 
tial aohool of sculpture in the Peloponnesus. 

Dipteros. An architectural epithet de- 
BOriptive of a temple surrounded by a 
double Line of columns. {See Temple.) 

Diptychdn. This Greek word was 
applied in antiquity to a pair of 
writing tablets fastened together by 
rings, so that the inner sides, covered 
with wax, lay one upon the other. 
They were fastened sometimes by a 
strap, on the Bide opposite to the rings: 
sometimes by a Btrwg passed through 
two holes in the middle, and secured, 
if necessary, by seals at the back. 
(Sec the engravings under Writing 
Materials.) Two or more of the 
tablets (Trij)tyclia, Polyptycha) were 
sometimes joined in the same way. 
They were used for notes, letters, and 
documents. Under the Empire much 
fancy and expense were lavished on 
'hem, the outer side being sometimes 
made of gold, silver, or magnificently 
carved ivory. This was especially 
the case after it became the fashion 
for consuls, and other high officials, 
to give presents of diptycha when 
entering upon office. For the diplo- 
mas made out on bronze diptycha for 
soldiers who had served their time, 
see Missio. 

Dirae. See Erinyes. 

Dirce {Dirke). Wife of Lycus, who 
governed Thebes as guardian of Lalus. 
revenge for her ill-treatment of their mother 
Antiope, the brothers Amphion and Zethus 
bound her to the horns of a bull and left 
her to be dragged to death (sec cut). They 
threw her body into a spring near Thebes, 
which bore her name ever after. 

Discus (Or. diskds). (1) A Hat piece of 
stone, or metal, shaped like a bean to fit the 
palm of the hand. As far back as the age 
of Homer it was a common thing for men 

ntend In throwing the dJ ions, and the 
exeroise was a favourite om in thepaZo tn 

■ •I- gymn&tia of One bJ toi Leal times. 

Ii waa represented al thi ivala, 

but a i pari of the pentathlon, n 
independent exhibit ion 
The thrower grasped the di ens thi Las 
and weight of which would vary according 

to with tin- lingers of his 
right hand, with which he held the edge, 
letting the whole rest on the inner surface 
of the hand and lower arm. Ho then raised 
his arm backwards as far as the shoulder, 
and threw the disk forward in an arch. 
The longest throw won the prize. The 
exercise was taken up by the Romans under 
the Empire. It was a favourite subject 
with artists, the most celebrated statue of 
a Discubulds being that of Myron {tee cut, 


Hound of Zetbus and lyre of Auipliion. 

(As restored by Guglielmo delta Porta, Naples Museum.) 


under Myron). (2) The name was also 
applied to the oil-disk of a lamp. (See 

Dis Pater ( = Dives Pater, Father Dives 
or the rich). The ruler of the world below, 
worshipped by the Romans as the god who 
corresponded to the Greek Pluto. His 
worship, like that of Proserpina, was first 
introduced in the early days of the Republic, 
at the command of the Sibylline books. 
Dis Pater had a chapel near the altar of 



Satumus, and a subterranean altaron the Cam- 
pus Martius in common with Proserpina. 
This was only opened when, as at the secu- 
lar games, sacrifices were offered to both. 
The victims offered thus were black animals. 
Dithyrambos. A hymn sung at the 
festivals of Dionysus to the accompaniment 
of a flute and a dance round the altar. 
The hymn celebrated the sufferings and 
actions of the god in a style corresponding 
to the passionate character of his worship. 
In the course of time it developed into a 
special class of Greek Lytic poetry. It was 
in Corinth that it first received anything 
like a definite artistic form, and this at the 
hands of Arion, who was therefore credited 
by the ancients with its actual invention. 
The truth probably is that he was the first 
who divided the festal song of the chorus 
into strophe and antistrophe, an arrange- 
ment from which tragedy took its rise. 
(See Tragedy.) Dithyrambs were sung 
at Athens twice in the year — at the great 
Dionysia in the spring, and at the Lenaea 
in the beginning of winter. The chorus 
consisted of fifty persons, who stood in a 
circle round the altar. The dithyramb was 
further developed by Lasos of Hermione, 
the lyric poet and musician who lived about 
507 B.C. at the court of the Pisistratidse. 
By several innovations in music and rhythm, 
especially by a stronger and more complete 
instrumentation, this artist gave it greater 
variety and a more secular character. He 
also introduced the prize contests for the best 
dithyramb, and apparantly abolished the 
antistrophical division. Of the dithyrambs 
of his pupil Pindar fragments only have sur- 
vived. With Lasos and Pindar, Simonldes 
and Bacchylldes may be named as among 
the foremost dithyrambic poets of the time. 
At the dithyrambic contests the poets and 
the different tribes contended for the 
prize. Each had their chorus, brilliantly 
fitted out at great expense by the richer 
citizens. Besides the honour of the victory, 
the poet received a tripod ; the chorus, and 
the people which he represented, an ox for 
the sacrificial feast. These performances 
were very popular for a long time : but as 
the new tendency developed itself, voices 
of authority made themselves heard, con- 
demning them as involving a serious de- 
generacy in art. And there is no doubt 
that in the form which it assumed after the 
time of the Peloponnesian War, the dithy- 
ramb did violence to the older taste. More 
and more it lost the inner unity and beau- 
tiful proportion which that feeling required. 

A continuous and rapid change of rhythm 
and mode was accompanied by an extra- 
ordinary boldness of diction, in keeping 
with the wild character of the composition. 
In the hands of inferior poets this often 
passed into turgidity and bombast, if not 
into mere nonsense. Solo pieces were in- 
serted to relieve the choruses, the text was 
gradually subordinated to the music, and 
the dithyramb was thus gradually trans- 
formed into a kind of opera. Though the 
subjects of the poems had long ceased to be 
taken exclusively from the cycle of Diony- 
siac myths, they were never, of course, 
entirely out of harmony with the lyrical 
spirit of the dithyramb. 

There was a very considerable number of 
dithyrambic poets. The best known are 
Melanippides of Melos (about 415 B.C.), 
who is generally held responsible for the 
degeneracy of the dithyramb, and the excess 
of instrumental music ; his disciple Phi- 
loxenus of Cy thera, who died in 380 ; Timo- 
theus of Miletus, who died in 357, and his 
contemporaries Polyeidus and Telestes. 
Of the whole literature we possess nothing 
but fragments. 

Dins Fidius (Italian). The god of oaths 
and protector of the laws of hospitality and 
international dealing. (See Sancos.) 

Dlvinatio (prevision of the future). 

(1) In general the word is applied to 
all prophecy or foretelling in the simplest 
sense of the word. Among the Romans 
prophecy was based, not on inspiration, as 
with the Greeks, but on the observation of 
definite signs, such as the omen (or voice), 
the prodigies and the auspices taken note of 
by the augurs (see Acgcres). The science 
of the hdruspices (or the foretelling of 
events from the inspection of the carcases 
of sacrificial victims) was a later importa- 
tion from Etruria. The ancient Romans 
were not familiar with the dicinatio from 
sortes or lots, which was common in many 
parts of Italy. The Sibylline books threw 
no light on future events. (See Sibyls.) 
Towards the end of the republican period 
the sciences of the augurs and haruspices lost 
their significance, and the Greek oracles, 
in the various forms of their craft, with the 
Chaldsean astrology, came into vogue, and 
carried the fashion in the society of the 
Empire. (Cp. Maxtic Art.) 

(2) In the language of Roman law, 
divinatio meant the legal inquiry for 
deciding who, among many advocates pro- 
posing themselves, was the fittest to under- 
take a prosecution, and the speeches by 

\\ D0SITH1 


which the » trioui advo 

^x« >• -. 1 their competency for the task. 

Ndtath In r : Phi anoienl 

of the oracle <■( Zeus and DlOne, who was 
u oi hipped I" i" ; wife instead oi 

Hera. Tl Ideal aanotuan of the g.>d waa 

.in oi ith i pra it il 

i to Zeus, and probably mephitio. 
I'hr will of Zeus whs asoartained from the 
rust lina of the <>al< leaves by I be pi ii 
whom Homer calls 8elloi, and their 

d priestesses called /'. /. iddi s, in 
later times onirics were taken at Dodona 

lots, an. I from i Ii" ringing <>f aj □ 

basin. In front of this liasin there stood 
an iron statne "f a hoy, with a whip formed 
of three chains, from which bung some 
buttons which touched the basin. It' the 
whip moved in t lie breeze, the buttons 
sounded against the basin. The oracle of 
Dodona had in early times the greatest 
of all ; but in later times, though it 
never lost its reputation, it was eclipsed by 
that of Delphi. It was still consulted, 
mainly indeed by the neighbouring popu- 
lations, but sometimes also by the states of 
Athens and Sparta. It was in existence 
in the 2nd century A.D., and does not seem 
to have disappeared before the 4th. 

Dokimasla. The name used at Athens 
to denote the process of ascertaining the 
capacity of the citizens for the exercise of 
public rights and duties. If, for instance ; a 
young citizen was to be admitted among the 
Ephebi(seeEPHEBi), he was examined in an 
assembly of his district, to tiud out whether 
he was descended on both sides from 
Athenian citizens, and whether he possessed 
the physical capacity for military service. 
All officials too, even the members of the 
senate, had to submit to an examination 
before entering upon their office. The ] 
purpose of this was to ascertain, not their 
actual capacity for the post, which was pre- 
supposed in all candidates, but their descent 
from Athenian citizens, their life and char- 
acter, and (in the case of some offices which 
involved the administration of large sums) 
even the amount of their property. The 
examination was carried on in public by 
the archons in the presence of the senate, 
and any one present had the right to raise 
objections. If such objections were held 
to be valid, the candidate was rejected ; 
but he had the right of appeal to the deci- 
sion of a court, which would take cogni- 
zance of the matter in judicial form. On 
the other hand, if he were accepted, any 
one who thought his claims insufficient had 

the i iedit oi inal itul ing judicial pi 

in. If tli 
he would lose hi • offioi , and a 1 1 fui ther 
iii'ut varying according to 
i be "ti.ii. e chat him. which 

be, for Instance, thai of unlawfully 
nj og the ' ighl oi ■ n. \ ip 

in a public .. .■mill', might the bi bro 

■ . .iiit bj any 'it i/. n, I 

pus . . .1 of the full right oi citizenship 

OOuld legally address the people. The 

question might thus be raised whether the 
..rat.. r were nut actually <tthiion, OT guilty 

of an offence which involved dtimla. 
D6lich6s. See Gymnastics. 

Dollum. 8ei VESSELS. 

Donativuin Etonian). A present of money 

made to the army. In the republican age 
donatives were distributed on the occasion 
of a triumph, the expense being defrayed 
.nit of the money raised by selling the spoil. 
Under the Kmpire it was usual for the 
emperor to grant a donati cum on his ac- 
cession. Tiberius on this occasion made a 
present of some £750,000 to the army; and 
the sum increased in later reigns. After 
the time of Claudius it became the fashion 
for the emperor to purchase the favour of 
the praetorians by a special largess. 

Donatus (yKlius). A Roman scholar and 
rhetorician of about the middle of the 4th 
century A.D., and tutor of Jerome. He 
was the author of a Latin grammar (Ars 
Granimatlca) in three books. This was 
much commented on b} r Servius, Pompeius, 
and others. His Ars Minor, or short cate- 
chism on the eight parts of speech, survived 
long after the Middle Ages as the chief 
manual for elementary instruction. These 
works survive in their original form. He 
also wrote a valuable commentary on 
Terence, which we possess in an imperfect 
shape, the notes on the Htauton Timoru- 
menos being lost, and not in its original 
form. [He was also the author of a lost 
commentary on Vergil, which is often 
alluded to contemptuously by Servius.] 

[Donatus (Tiberius Claudius). A com- 
mentator on the jEneid of Vergil, who 
probably lived in the 4th or early 5th 
century a.d. His work, which is mostly a 
prose paraphrase, survives in great part, 
but is of little value.— H. N.] 

Doris. Daughter of Oceanus, wife of the 
sea-god Nereus, and mother of the Nereides. 
{See Oceanus, Nerecs.) 

Dositheus. A grammarian who flourished 
towards the end of the 4th century A.D. 
He wrote a Latin grammar for Greek boys, 



with a literal Greek translation, which was 
not fully completed. With this was bound 
up (whether by Dositheus himself is un- 
certain) a miscellany of very various con- 
tents by another author. This comprises 
(1) anecdotes of the Emperor Hadrian, (2) 
fables of ^Esop, (3) an important chapter 
on jurisprudence, (4) mythological stories 
from Hyginus, (5) an abridgment of the 
Iliad, (6) an interesting collection of words 
and phrases from ordinary conversation. 

Drachma (Greek). A weight and coin = 
6 obols,= T ^o °f a mina or 6-5V0 °f a talent. 
Before the time of Solon it = 603 grs., or 
rather more than a shilling. After Solon 
it maintained the same value as a weight, 
but as a coin (the Attic dr.) it sank to 4 - 366 
grs., about 8d. (See Coinage.) 

Draco. The standard of the Roman 
cohort. (See Signum.) 

Dracontlus (Blossius JEmilius), A 
Latin poet who lived and practised as 
an advocate at Carthage towards the 
end of the 5th century a.d. He was 
a man of real poetic gifts and con- 
siderable reading, but his style is 
spoiled by rhetorical exaggeration and 
false taste. His surviving works are : 
(1) a number of short epics upon sub- 
jects taken from the old mythology 
and school-room rhetoric. (2) An apo- 
logetic poem (Sdtisfactio) addressed in 
the form of an elegy to Guthamund, 
king of the Vandals, whose wrath he 
had excited by writing a panegyric 
on a foreign prince. (3) A Christian 
didactic poem in three books. This is 
a really poetical treatment of the story 
of the creation. 

Drama. (1) Greece. In Athens the produc- 
tion of plays was a state affair, not a private 
undertaking. It formed a great part of the 
religious festival of the Dionysia, in which 
the drama took its rise (see Dionysia) ; 
and it was only at the greater Dionysia 
that pieces could be performed during the 
author's lifetime. The performances lasted 
three days, and took the form of musical 
contests, the competitors being three tragic 
poets with their tetralogies, and five comic 
poets with one piece each. The authority 
who superintended the whole was the 
archon, to whom the poets had to bring 
their plays for reading, and apply for a 
chorus. If the pieces were accepted and 
the chorus granted, the citizens who were 
liable for the Choregia undertook at their 
own cost to practise and furnish for them one 
chorus each. (See Leitourgia.) The poets 

whose plays were accepted received an 
honorarium from the state. The state also 
supplied the regular number of actors, and 
made provision for the maintenance of order 
during the performances. At the end of the 
performance a certain number of persons 
(usually five), was chosen by lot from a com- 
mittee nominated by the senate, to award 
the prizes (AgonotMtce), and bound them by 
oath to give their judgment on the plays, 
the chdregl, and the actors. The poet who 
won the first prize was presented with a 
crown in the presence of the assembled 
multitude — the highest distinction that 
used to be conferred on a dramatic author 
at Athens. The victorious choi-egus also 
received a crown, with the permission to 



Inscribed ' AKafiavrls eeiica <£uArj : TAaviciin' KaAdf. 

(Panofka, Mu&Je Blacas, pi. 1; now in British Museum.) 

dedicate a votive offering to Dionysus. 
This was generally a tripod, which was 
set up either in the theatre, or in the temple 
of the deity, or in the " Street of Tripods," 
so named from this custom, an inscription 
being put on it recording the event (fig. 1). 
The actors in the successful play received 
prizes of money, besides the usual hono- 

From the time of Sophocles the actors 
in a play were three in number. They had 
to represent all the parts, those of women 
included, which involved their changing 
their costume several times during the 
performance. The three actors were 
distinguished as Protdgonistes, Deuterd- 
gonistSs, and Trltdgonistes, according to 
the importance of their parts. If the 
piece required a fourth actor, which was 
seldom the case, the ckoregus had to pro- 


viilo mi.'. Tin' •Imn i/iis had a] to 
I In' position iiihI equipment "i the /■• i 

nulla . 

In earlier times it is possible thai the 

i! . ugaged in tin' represental ion did 
make I business of their art, bat 
rmed gratuitously, aa the poeta down 
to the time of Bophoolea appeared on tlio 
I tut the dramatic art gradually be- 
oame ■ profession, requiring careful pre- 
paration, and winning general reapei 
1 1 ^ members ea artists. Theohief require- 
ments for the profession were distinotnesa 
and correctness oi pn>iiuiii'iution, especially 
in declamatory passages, and an onnsnal 
power of memory, as there was do 
prompter in a Greek theatre. An 
had also to be thoroughly trained in sing- 
ing, melodramatic action, dancing, and 
play of gesture. The latter was especially 
necessary, as the use of masks precluded 
all play of feature. The actors were, ac- 
cording to strict rule, assigned to the poets 
by lot ; yet a poet generally had his special 
protagonist) s, on whose peculiar gifts he had 
his eye in writing the dramatic pieces. 

The Athenian tragedies began to be 
known all over the Hellenic world as 
early as the time of jEschylus. The first 
city, outside of Attica, that had a theatre 
was Syracuse, where ^Eschylus brought 
out some of Lis own plays. Scenic con- 
tests soon began to form part of the 
religious festivals in various Greek cities, 
and were celebrated in honour of other 
deities besides Dionysus. It was a habit 
of Alexander the Great to celebrate almost 
every considerable event with dramatic 
exhibitions, and after him this became 
the regular custom. A considerable in- 
crease in the number of actors was one 
eonsequence of the new demand. The 
actors called themselves artists of Diony- 
sus, and in the larger cities they formed 
permanent societies (synddoi) with special 
privileges, including exemption from mili- 
tary service, and security in person and 
property. These companies had a regular 
organization, presided over by a priest of 
their patron-god Dionysus, annually elected 
from among their members. A treasurer 
and officers completed the staff. At the 
time of the festivals the societies sent out 
their members in groups of three actors, 
with a manager, and a flute-player, to the 
different cities. This business was espe- 
cially lively in Ionia and on the Euxine, 
the societies of Tgos being the most dis- 
tinguished. The same arrangement was 

adopted in Italy, and "xiat 

«iii- i » - 1 the EL iman ECmpii i 

Tin snivel al employment of masks was 
a remarkable peculiaril 

M \ iks '. Ii naturally i « luded all - 

l mi , Imt the mask 
the general types ol ofa II BJ 

to the rpei J types indicated by 'ho re- 
quirements of the play. aven- 
tionalitiea were observed in the colour of 
the hair, linddesaes and young pel 
bad Light hair, god - of riper 
age, dark brown : aged persons, white ; 
and tin - of the lower world, black. 
The lni^lit of the masks and top-! 
varied with the age of the actors, and 
the parts they took. Their stature was 
considerably heightened in tragedies by 
the high boot (see COTHUBMUB), and the 
defects in proportion corrected by pad- 
ding, and the use of a kind of gloves. 
The conventionalities of costume, probably 
as fixed by iEschylus, maintained them- 
selves as long as Greek tragedies were 
performed at all. Men and women of high 
rank wore on the stage a variegated or 
richly embroidered long-sleeved chiton, 
reaching to the feet, and fastened with a 
girdle as high as the breast. The upper 
garment, whether hlmdtion or ctddmys, 
was long and splendid, and often embroi- 
dered with gold. Kings and queens had a 
purple train, and a white hitnation with a 
purple border ; soothsayers, a netted upper 
garment reaching to the feet. Persons in 
misfortune, especially fugitives, appeared 
in soiled garments of grey, green, or blue ; 
black was the symbol of mourning, and so on. 
In the Satyric Drama the costumes of 
the heroic characters resembled in all es- 
sentials what they wore in the tragedies, 
although, to suit the greater liveliness of 
the action, the chiton was shorter and the 
boot lower. In the Old Comedy the cos- 
tumes were taken as nearly as possible 
from actual life, but in the Middle and New 
Comedy they were conventional. The men 
wore a white coat ; youths, a purple one ; 
slaves, a motley, with mantle to match ; 
cooks, an unbleached double mantle ; 
peasants, a fur or shaggy coat, with wallet 
and staff; panders, a coloured coat and 
motley over-garment. Old women appeared 
in sky-blue or dark yellow, priestesses and 
maidens in white ; courtesans, in motley 
colours, and so on. The members of the 
chorus w r ere masked and dressed in a cos- 
tume corresponding to the part assigned 
them by the poet. (On their dress in the 



Satyric Drama, see Sattric Drama.) The 
chorus of the comedy caricatured the ordi- 
nary dress of the tragic chorus. Sometimes 
they represented animals, as in the Frogs 
and Birds of Aristophanes. In the Frogs 
they wore tight dresses of frog-colour, and 
masks with a mouth wide open ; in the 
Bin Is, large beaks, bunches of feathers, 
combs, and so on, to imitate particular birds. 
plate in Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
vol. ii, plate xiv B, copied in Haiglrs Attic 
Theatre, p. 267.) 

the manager received no compensation. 
But after performance the piece became his 
property, to be used at future representa- 
tions for his own profit. In the time of 
Cicero, when it was fashionable to revive 
the works of older masters, the selection 
of suitable pieces was generally left to the 
director. The Romans did not, like the 
Greeks, limit the number of actors to 
three, but varied it according to the re- 
quirements of the play. Women's parts 
were originally played by men, as in Greece. 


(Mosaic from Pompeii, Naples Museum.) 

(2) Roman. Dramatic performances in 
Rome, as in Greece, formed a part of the 
usual public festivals, whether exceptional 
or ordinary, and were set on foot by the 
asd Lies and pragtors. (See Games.) A private 
individual, however, if he were giving a 
festival or celebrating a funeral, would have 
theatrical representations on his own account. 
The giver of the festival hired a troupe 
of players (grex), the director of which, 
(dumhuis gregis), bought a play from a poet 
at his own risk. If the piece was a failure, 

Women appeared first in mimes, and not 
till very late times in comedies. The 
actors were usually freedmen or slaves, 
whom their masters sent to be educated, 
and then hired them out to the directors 
of the theatres. The profession was 
technically branded with infamia, nor was 
its legal position ever essentially altered. 
The social standing of actors was however 
improved, through the influence of Greek 
education ; and gifted artists like the 
comedian Roscius, and ^Esopus the tra- 


\ li:l 

me, enjoyed the 1 1 
ship ,.i ii | ima Tin' lit— 

B tWO Hlili iii:i\ sh'iu what 

iii. I Im' in. i i.' by .1 good a 
ia received, i"i everj day thai he 
played, 686, and made an annual income of 

! ; I ■■ ' 1 mi-, in jpite oi I 
extravaganoe, lefl £176,400 el bis death. 
Besides the regular honoraria, aotors, it 
thought to deserve it, received other and 
volunl from the giver of the per- 

These often took the form of 
finely wrought crowns oi silvei 

Masks were not worn until Etosoins 
made their ose general. Before his time 
a had recourse to false hair of different 
colours, and paint for the race. The cos- I 

Deceptive dn 

1 1 Hi- dreams throi born. 

The Hi 

authority over these dream 
sometimes one, sometimes another, to man- 
kind. < >n some 

dream-figures themselves, oi appeal In per- 
son under different shapes, in the chamber 
oi the sleeper. The spirits of the departed, 
too, bo 1 i not in the kingdom 

of Sadfis, have the power of appearing to 

the sleeper in dreams. These, the ideas 

of the Homeric age, survived in the latei 

popular belief. Later poetS Call dream- tie- 
sons of Sleep, and i;ive them separate names. 
Morpheus, for instance, only appears in 
various human forms. Ikelos, called also 

NUK& Mils. PARAtlTUS. PR.*CO. 

(3) " SCENE FROM A ROMAN COMEDY (Fabula Pall iota). 
(Mural painting from Pompeii, Naples Museum.) 

tume in general was modelled on that of 
actual life, Greek or Roman. As early as 
the later years of the Republic, a great 
increase took place in the splendour of the 
costumes and the general magnificence of 
the performance. In tragedy, particularly, 
a new effect was attained by massing the 
actors in great numbers on the stage. (See 
further Theatre, Tragedt, Comedy, and 
Satyric Drama.') 

Dreams (Greek Oneiroi). According to 
Hesiod, Dreams are the children of Night, 
and brothers and sisters of Death and 
Sleep. Like these they are represented in 
the Odyssey as dwelling in the far West, 
near Oceanus, in the neighbourhood of the 
sunset and the kingdom of the dead. 

Phobetor, or Terrifyer, assumes the shapes of 
all kinds of animals as well as that of man : 
Phantasos onlv those of inanimate objects. 
A god of dreams was subsequently wor- 
shipped, and represented in works of art, 
sometimes with Sleep, sometimes alone. 
He was honoured especially at the seats 
of dream-oracles and the health-resorts of 
Asclepms. (See Artemidorcs, 2 ; Incd- 
batio ; and Mantic Art.) 

Dress. See Clothing. 

Dromos. See Gymnastics. 

Dryades. See Nymphs. 

Duodecim Tabulae. See Twelve Tables. 

Duoviri or Duumviri (Italian). A board 
or commission of 2 men, as e.g. the duoviri 
eapltdles perdueUionis, or duoviri sac- 



rorum (see Sibyls), duoviri vits pwgan- 
dls (see Viginti sex viri, 6). In colonies 
and mwnicXpia, the title was borne by the 
two highest officials, who represented the 
the authority of the Roman consuls. (Sec 

Dupondlus. See Coinage. 

Doris. (1) A Greek historian, a native of 
Samos, and a disciple of Theophrastus. 
For some time he was despot of Samos. 
In the first half of the 3rd century B.C. he 

wrote, besides other historical works, a com- 
prehensive history, in twenty-three books, of 
Greece and Macedonia, from 370 to at least 
281 B.C. He was also the author of Annals 
of Samos, in at least twelve books. No- 
thing but fragments of his writings remain, 
which show that they were no more than 
uncritical collections of material carelessly 

(2) A vase-painter ; see Vases. 

Duumviri. See Duoviri. 

Eagle (dquUd). The standard of a Eoman 
legion, introduced by Marios : a silver (or, 
under the Empire, golden) eagle carried on 
a pole by the aquilifcr, or eagle-bearer, its 
wings spread out, and often a thunderbolt 
in its talons. Beneath it were frequently 
fixed in later times a flag (see Vexillum I, 
and other ornaments, e.g. medallions with 
portraits of emperors and generals. Under 
the Republic, during peace, it was preserved 
in the cerarium ; in camp it stood in a 
small chapel beside the pratorium, was 
held in religious veneration by the soldiers, 
and regarded as affording sanctuary : in 
battle it was borne on the right wing of the 
legion, in the first century of the first cohort. 
From Augustus' time it bore the name 
and number of the legion (see the figs, 
under Signum). 

Ecclesia (Greek). The assembly of the 
people, which in Greek cities had the power 
of final decision in public affairs. 

(1) At Athens every citizen in posses- 
sion of full civic rights was entitled to 
take part in it from his twentieth year 
upwards. In early times one ecclesia 
met regularly once a year in each of 
the ten prytanies of the senate (see 
Boule), iu later times four, making forty 
annually. Special assemblies might also 
be called on occasion. The place of meet- 
ing was in early times the market-place, 
in later times a special locality, called the 
Pnyx ; but generally the theatre, after a 
permanent theatre had been erected. To 
summon the assembly was the duty of the 
PK'tiines, who did so by publishing the 
notice of proceedings. There was a special 
authority, a board of six Lc.riarcht (so called) 
with thirty assistants, whose business it 
was to keep unauthorized persons out of the 
assembly. The members on their appear- 
ance were each presented with a ticket, on 
exhibiting which, after the conclusion of 
the meeting, they received a payment of an 

cibolus (about l'3rf.), in later times of three 
obols. After a solemn prayer and sacrifice, 
the president (Epistdtis) communicated to 
the meeting the subjects of discussion. If 
there were a previous resolution of the 
senate for discussion, he put the question 
whether the people would adopt it, or pro- 
ceed to discuss it. In the debates every 
citizen had the right of addressing the 
meeting, but no one could speak more than 
once. Before doing so he put a crown of 
myrtle on his head. The president (but no 
one else) had the right of interrupting a 
speaker. If his behaviour were unseemly. 
the president could cut short his harangue, 
expel him from the rostrum and from 
the meeting, and inflict upon him a fine not 
exceeding 500 drachmas (£16 13s. 4rf.). Cases 
of graver misconduct had to be referred 
to the senate or assembly for punishment. 
Any citizen could move an amendment or 
counter-proposal, which he handed in in 
writing to the presiding Prytany. The 
president had to decide whether it should 
be put to the vote. This could be prevented, 
not only by the mere declaration of the 
president that it was illegal, but by any 
one present who bound himself on oath to 
prosecute the proposer for illegality. The 
speaker might also retract his proposal. 
The votes were taken by show of hands 
(cheirdtdnia). The voting was never secret, 
unless the question affected some one's 
personal interest, as in the case of ostra- 
cism. In such cases a majority of at least 
6,000 votes was necessary. The resolution 
(psSphismd) was announced by the presi- 
dent, and a record of it taken, which was 
deposited in the archives, and often publicly 
exhibited on tables of stone or bronze. 
After the conclusion of business, the presi- 
dent, through his herald, dismissed the 
people. If no final result was arrived at, 
or if the business was interrupted by a 
sign from heaven, such as a storm or a 


p of i .hii, the mooting w ■< ad jot id 

( Vi urn . 1 1 08 of i"i i ■ signed in 

i in Ini.ii iblies. 

The funotioni oi i in- i ccletia wi 
a i To take pari in legislat ion. At the 
tii-si i i .-iii i ' l \ in too \ ear the pn i 

dent asked the Question whether the i 
thought any alteration nece iarj in the 
existing laws, It the answer were in the 
affirmative, the proposal • for alteration were 
brought forward, and in the third regular 
assembly a legislative commission we 
pointed from among the inomlirrs <>!' tlio 
III h, hi or jury for the current roai (sea 
Hku i \ . The members of thiB commission 
were called NdmdthStce. The question be- 
i w fin the old laws ninl the now |>roi>osals 
was then decided by a quasi-judicial process 
under the presidency of the ITtesmOthStce, 

ill.' proposers of the now law appearing as 

prosecutors, and advocates, appointed by the 
people. coming forward to defend the old 
one. It the verdict were in favour of the 
iii'u law, the latter had the same authority 
as a resolution of the ecclesia. The whole 
proceeding was called "Voting (gpicheiro- 
tuiua) upon the Laws." In the decadence 
of the democracy the custom grew up of 
bringing legislative proposals before the 
people, and having them decided at any 
time that pleased the proposer. 

(b) Election of officials. (Sec Probole.) 
This only affected, of course, the officials 
who were elected by show of hands, as the 
Strdtegt aud ministers of finance, not those 
chosen by lot. In the first ecclesia of 
every pryfanja the archou asked the ques- 
tion whether the existing ministers were 
to be allowed to remain in office or not, 
and those who failed to commend them- 
selves were deposed. 

(c) The banishment of citizens by ostra- 
cism. (Sec Ostracism.) 

(d) Judicial functions in certain excep- 
tional cases only. (Sec Eisangelia.) Some- 
times, if offences came to its knowledge, 
the people would appoint a special commis- 
sion of inquiry, or put the inquiry into 
the hands of the Areopagus or the senate. 
Offences committed against officials, or 
against private individuals, were also at 
times brought before the assembly, to obtain 
from it a declaration that it did, or did not, 
think the case one which called for a 
judicial process. Such a declaration, 
though not binding on the judge, always 
carried with it a certain influence. 

(e) In legal co-operation with the senate 
the Ecclesia had the final decision in all 

mat '■ apreme Interests of 

the regulation ox ai mj and oavj , fu 

Urate . ■I"' ii i pi ohibil ion of i icporti 

or imports, the introduction of new relii 
rites and festivals, ! he an ardii of h 
and rewards, and the conferring of the citi- 
tenship [Aristotle, Const, of Athena, 43). 

(2) At Spin la all I In- S/iiirtmlii . • 

iii |i" if lull civic rights, w< i 

titled i" take part in the delib 'f the 

ably from I heir thirl ieth year onv 
The assembly was convoked once a n 
at the full moon l>\ the kings, and later by 
i hi ephors as well. After 600 b.i 
in a special building in the market-place al 
Sparta, the Scins, the members Stan 
not sitting, as in the Athenian eeclrsiu. li- 
business was to accept or reject prop 
made by/ the GCrfisia or senate. ' See 
Gerusia.) It made its will known by 
acclamation, or, in doubtful cases, by 
separation of the parties into different 
places. The right of bringing forward 
proposals and speaking in the debates be- 
longed only to the kings, the members of 
the Gerusia, and the ephors ; in all other 
cases special consent was required. The 
functions of the assembly were the election 
of the officials and senators to decide (in 
doubtful cases) on the regal succession, on 
war and peace, treaties, legislation, and 
other matters affecting the state. 

Echidna. A monster and robber in Greek 
fable, half maiden, half snake, the daughter 
of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, or, according to 
another story, of Tartarus and Gasea, Her 
home was the country of the Arimi in 
Cilicia, where she brought forth to Typhceus 
a number of monsters, Cerberus, Chimajra, 
Sphinx, Scylla, the serpent of Lerna, the 
Nemean lion, etc. (See TrPHffius.) She 
was surprised in her sleep and slain by 
Argos. (See Argos, 1.) 

Echion. One of the five Sparti who helped 
Cadmus to build Thebes ; husband of Agave, 
the daughter of Cadmus, and father of 
Pentheus. (See Sparti.) 

Echo. A Nymph, who by her chattering 
prevented Hera from surprising her hus- 
band Zeus in the company of the Nymphs. 
Hera punished her by making it impossible 
for her either to speak first, or to be silent 
when any one else was speaking. She loved 
the beautiful Narcissus, but in vain, and 
pined away in grief till nothing remained 
of her but her voice. 

Eclectics or "Selectors." The technical 
name in philosophy for philosophers who 



were attached to no particular school, but 
made a selection of favourite dogmas from 
the tenets of the different sects. 

Eclogue (Gr. Ecloge). A selected piece 
of writing. Properly a poem taken out of 
a larger collection, and so applied, under 
the Roman Empire, to a short poem, as an 
idyl] or satire. The term was specially 
applied to the pastoral poems of Vergil and 
Calpurnius Siculus. 

Edictum. The Roman term for any 
written announcement made by a magis- 
trate to the people. An edictum was some- 
times temporary only, as, e.g., the announce- 
ments of the public assemblies or games ; 
sometimes it contained permanent enact- 
ments, as, for instance, the edicta of the 
censors against luxury. The name was 
especially applied to the proclamations 
issued by judical functionaries on assuming 
office, and stating the principles or rules 
which they intended to follow in the 
exercise of their authority. The edicta 
of the aediles relative to the markets 
belong to this class. One kind of edictum 
was specially important in its bearing 
upon Roman law, the edictum of the 
praetor. In his edictum the praetor laid 
down the rules which he would observe in 
arranging the proceedings of the regular 
courts and of his voluntary jurisdiction, 
and in deciding cases which did not 
appear to be covered by the written enact- 
ments of the Twelve Tables, or later 
legislation. These edicta, written on wood, 
stone, or bronze, were in early times pub- 
lished only as occasion required, but in 
later times the praetors regularly promul- 
gated them on entering upon their office. 
They prevented the fossilization of the law, 
and allowed the enactments of the Twelve 
Tables to adapt themselves in natural 
development to the changing circumstances 
of civic life and intercourse. It is true 
that the edicta had no force beyond the 
praetor's year of office, but, as every new 
praetor observed what was found in the 
edicta of his predecessors, a permanent 
nucleus of constantly repeated rules, called 
edictum perpetuum (or continuous edict), 
was formed in course of time. This be- 
came, for the later period, a recognised 
source of customary law, side by side 
with the leges proper. At length, under 
Hadrian, the mass of edicta was reduced to 
system by Salvius Julianus, and received 
the force of law at the imperial command. 
This body of law included the accepted 
edicta of the praetor urbdnus and the other 

praetors administering law in the provinces, 
of the proconsuls, propraetors, and sediles. 
It was called edictum perpetuum, ius 
jn-titorium, or ius lionoritvlum, the latter 
because its authors had held public offices 
(hunures). On this collection the Corpus 
Iuris of Justinian is in great part founded. 
The emperor and imperial officials, as 
pra'fectus urbl and prcefectus prattorio, 
had also the right of issuing edicta. 

Education. (1) Greek. The Dorians of 
Crete and Sparta followed a peculiar line 
in the matter of education. Throughout 
Greece generally the state left it to private 
effort ; but in Sparta and Crete it came 
under the direct supervision of the com- 
munity. At Sparta, as soon as a child was 
born, a commission of the elders of its tribe 
had to decide whether it should be reared 
or exposed. If it was weakly or deformed, 
it was exposed in a defile of Mount Tay- 
getus. Till his seventh year, a boy was 
left to the care of his parents. After this 
the Paidonomos, or officer presiding over the 
whole department of education, assigned 
him to a division of children of the same 
age called a bua. Several of such buas 
together formed a troop or lla. Each bua 
was superintended by a BudgSrds, each ila 
by an Ilarclws. Both these officers were 
elected from among the most promising of 
the grown up youths, and were bound to 
instruct the children in their exercises. 
The exercises were calculated to suit the 
various ages of the children, and consisted 
in running, leaping, wrestling, throwing 
the spear and discus, as well as in a num- 
ber of dances, particularly the war dance 
or Pyrrhiche {see Pyrrhic Dance). The 
dancing was under the constant superin- 
tendence of the Paidonomos, and five 
Bidyai under him. The discipline was 
generally directed to strengthening or 
hardening the body. The boys went bare- 
foot and bareheaded, with hair cut short, 
and in light clothing. From their twelfth 
year they wore nothing but an upper 
garment, which had to last the whole 
year. They slept in a common room with- 
out a roof, on a litter of hay or straw, 
and from their fifteenth year on rushes or 
reeds. Their food was extremely simple, 
and not sufficient to satisfy hunger. A boy 
who did not want to be hungry had to 
steal ; if he did this cleverly, he was praised, 
and punished if detected. Every year the 
boys had to undergo a flogging at the altar 
of Artemis Orthia, as a test of their power 
to endure bodily pain. They were whipped 


till the l>l I tl"« fil, mi-) deemed il 

to slnu it ii \ m i ^ 1 1 nf sufrei ing. i 
ing and « riting were lefl to pi 
Btraoton; bat tnusio, end choral singing 
mi particular, formed ■ perl of the regular 
discipline. The understanding was as- 
sumed to be formed bj daily life in public, 
and the conversation oi the men, to which 
the boys were admitted. Ever] Spartan 
boy Looked up to bia seniors as bis instmc 

ml laperiora ; the oon tequenoe b 
that in Sparta the young behaved to theii 
elders with more modesty am than 

in any other Greek oity, Besides this, 
ever] man chose a boy or youth as liis 
favourite. He waa bound to set the boj 
an example of all manly excellence, and 
was regarded as responsible and punishable 
for his delinquencies. This public educal ion 
ami the performance of the regular exer- 
cises, under the superintendence of the 
Bidyce. lasted till the thirtieth year. In 
the eighteenth year the boy passed into the 
class of youths. From tin 1 twentieth year, 
when military service proper began, to the 
thirtieth, the youth was called an I inn 
IK was not regarded as a man, or allowed 
to atteud the public assembly till his 
thirtieth year. 

The girls had an education in music and 
gymnastic education similar to that of the 
boys, and at the public games and contests 
each sex was witness of the performances of 
the other. The girls' dress was extremely 
simple, consisting of a sleeveless tunic 
reaching not quite down to the knees, and 
open at the sides. In this, however, there 
was nothing which interfered with modesty 
and propriety of behaviour. 

In Crete the system of education was 
generally similar to that of Sparta. But the 
public training did not begin till the seven- 
teenth year, when the boys of the same age 
joined themselves freely into divisions called 
dgClai, each led by some noble youth, whose 
father was called dgtlatas, and undertook 
the supervision of the games and exercises. 
It is probable that the young men remained 
in this organization till their twenty-seventh 
year, when the law compelled them to marry. 

At Athens, as in Greece generally, the 
father decided whether the child should be 
reared or exposed. The latter alternative 
seems to have been not seldom adopted, 
especially when the child was a girl. If 
the education of a cbild was once fairly 
commenced, the parents had no power to 
put it out of the way. At the birth of a 
boy, the door of the house w T as adorned with 

a la aie boi the birtb of ■ git I 

wool, i *n the fifth orsevi birtb 

bild underwent a religlOUl dele 

at the festival of the Amphldx in- 

ning round "), It was touched « ith 
meiits nf purification, and ■ irried everal 
times round the burning hearth. On 

tenth day cairn- tie- festival of naming the 

child, with Bacrinoe and entej tainm 
when the lather acknowledged it as 
timate. To the end of the sixth year 

.ml girls were brought op together 
under female supervision ; but alter 
the sexes were educated apart. The girls' 
hte was almost entirely confined to her 
home: she was brought up under the 
superintendence of w.nuen, and with hardly 
any thine; which can be called profitable in- 
struct inn. The boy was handed over to a 
slave older than himself called Pced&gO 
It was the slave's duty to watch the boy's 
outward behaviour, and to attend him, un- 
til his boyhood was over, whenever he went 
out, especially to the school and the gymna- 
sium. The laws made some provision tor 
the proper education of boys. They obliged 
every citizen to have his son instructed in 
music, gymnastics, and the elements of 
letters (grammdta\ i.e. writing, reading, 
and arithmetic. They further obliged the 
parents to teach their boys some profitable 
trade, in case they were unable to leave 
them a property sufficient to maintain them 
independent. If they failed in this, they 
forfeited all claim to support from the 
children in old age. But with schools and 
their arrangements the state did not con- 
cern itself. The schools were entirely in 
private hands, though they were under the 
eye of the police. The elementary instruc- 
tion was given by the grammatistce, or 
teachers of letters, the teacher writing and 
the scholars copying. The text-books for 
reading were mostly poems, especially such 
as were calculated to have an influence on 
the formation of character. The Homeric 
poems were the favourite reading book, but 
Hesiod, Theognis, and others were also 
admitted. Collections of suitable passages 
from the poets were early made for the 
boys to copy, learn by heart, and repeat 
aloud. The higher instruction given by 
the grammdtikds was also of this literary 

Mathematics were introduced into the 
school curriculum as early as the 5th cen- 
tury, drawing not till the middle of the 
4th century B.C. Instruction in music 
proper began about the thirteenth year. 



The profound moral influence attributed to 
music in Greek antiquity made this art an 
essential part of education. It brought 
with it, naturally, an acquaintance with the 
masterpieces of Greek poetry. The in- 
strument most practised was the lyre, from 
its suitableness as an accompaniment to 
song. The flute was held in less esteem. 

The aim of education was supposed to be 
the harmonious development of mind and 
body alike. Instruction in gymnastics was 
consequently regarded as no less essential 
than in music, and began at about the same 
age. It was carried on in the pdlcestrie 
(see Palaestra) under the paidotribai, who 
were, like the grammdtikoi, private, not 
public instructors. The boys began their 
gymnastics in the palaestra, and completed 
them in the gymnasia under the superinten- 
dence of the gymnastce. The Sphebi, in 
particular, or boys between sixteen and 
nineteen, practised their exercises in the 
gymnasia, till, in their twentieth year, 
they were considered capable of bearing 
arms, and employed on frontier service. At 
this point they became liable to enlistment 
for foreign service, and obtained the right 
of attending the meeting of the public as- 
sembly. Towards the end of the 5th 
century B.C. the class of sophistce, or pro- 
fessors of practical education, arose. This 
gave the young men an opportunity of 
extending their education by attending 
lectures in rhetoric and philosophy; but 
the high fees charged by the sophistce had 
the effect of restricting this instruction to 
the sons of the wealthy. 

(2) Roman. Among the Romans the 
father was free, when the new-born child 
was laid before him, either to expose it, or 
to take it up, as a sign that he meant to 
rear it. He had also the right of selling 
his children, or putting them to death. It 
was not till the beginning of the 3rd century 
a.d. that the exposure of children was 
legally accounted as murder, nor did the 
evil practice cease even then. If the child 
was to be reared, it was named, if a boy on 
the ninth day after birth, if a girl, on the 
eighth. The day was called diss htstrlcus, 
or day of purification. A sacrifice in the 
house, accompanied with a feast, gave to 
the child's life a religious dedication. A 
box with an amulet was hung round the 
child's neck as a protection against magic 
(see Bull^:). Official lists of births were 
not published until the 2nd century after 
Christ. In earlier times, in the case of 
boys, the name was not formally confirmed 

until the assumption of the tdga virilis. 
The child's physical and moral education 
was, in old times, regularly given at home 
under the superintendence of the parents, 
chiefly of the mother. The training was 
strict, and aimed at making the children 
strong and hec.lthy, religious, obedient to 
the laws, temperate, modest in speech 
and actions, strictly submissive to their 
superiors, well behaved, virtuous, intelli- 
gent, and self-reliant. The girls were 
taught by their mothers to spin and weave, 
the boys were instructed by their fathers 
in ploughing, sowing, reaping, riding, swim- 
ming, boxing and fencing ; in the knowledge 
necessary for household management ; in 
reading, writing, and counting ; and in the 
laws of their country. The Romans did 
not, like the Greeks, lay stress on gym- 
nastics, but only carried physical exercises 
to the point necessary for military service. 
The contests and exercises took place in 
the Campus Martins, which, down to the 
time of the Empire, was the favourite arena 
of the youths. The state took as little care 
of mental as of physical education. If a 
man could not educate his children himself, 
he sent them to a master. From an early 
time there were elementary teachers (litttid- 
tdres) at Rome, corresponding to the Greek 
grammdtistoe. These were sometimes 
slaves, who taught in their masters' house 
for his benefit. Sometimes they were freed- 
men, who gave instruction either in families, 
or in schools, (schold or Indus) of their own. 
They received their salary monthly, but 
only for eight months in the year ; no in- 
struction being given between June and 
November, Boys and girls were taught 
together. The elementary instruction in- 
cluded reading, writing, and arithmetic ; 
arithmetic being, as among the Greeks, 
practised by counting on the fingers. In 
later times grown up boys learned arith- 
metic with a special master (calculator), 
who was paid at a higher rate than the 
litterator, With the duodecimal system in 
use, arithmetic was regarded as very diffi- 
cult. The reading lessons included learning 
the Twelve Tables by heart. 

After the Second Punic War it became 
usual, at first in single families, and after- 
wards more and more generally, to employ a 
litterator, or grammdticus, to teach Greek. 
The chief element in this instruction was 
the explanation of Greek poets, above all of 
Homer, whose writings became a school book 
among the Romans, as among the Greeks. 
At the same time higher instruction was 



in Latin »s well, the text book being 

tin- Latin Odj sej "t Living And i . 

Ti renoe, and m latex tin l loraee, 

in. I othen The exposition of these authors 

,n ..|i]...| tunitj of oonunonioating a 
i information. <;irls wer In- 

..ii the same lines. The highest 
point in Roman education was attained by 
the -■ boots of the rhetoricians, which came 

i cistenoe befbn I be ■•nil of tho re- 
publican age. In these schools, us in those 
of the gramm&ttet, Greek was at first the 
only language taught. Since the time when 

literature became the highest educa- 
tional standard, boys, and sometimes ^irls, 

taught Greek from their earliest years, 
weri' put into the hands of a Greek 
peeddgOffus, or a Greek female slave, and 
I the first rudiments from Greek 
schoolmasters. As the range of subjects 
widened, so as to include, among other 
things, music and geometry, more impor- 
tance came to be attached to scholastic edu- 
cation. This tendency was strengthened 
by the increased demand for Greek culture 
which manifested itself under the Empire 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
Western provinces. Education was carried 
on on stricter lines as the old system of 
home training disappeared, mainly owing 
to the diffusion of an effeminate refinement, 
and the parents' habit of putting their 
children into the hands of Greek slaves. 

After the time of Vespasian the higher 
public instruction began to be a matter of 
imperial concern. Vespasian paid away 
as much as £850 annually to the Latin and 
Greek rhetoricians in Rome. Hadrian 
founded the Athenaeum, the first known 
public institution for the higher education, 
with salaried teachers (see Athex.kcm . 
After his time philosophers, rhetoricians, 
and grammarians were publicly appointed to 
lecture in all the larger cities of the empire. 
They were maintained partly at the expense 
of the respective communities, partly by the 
emperors, and enjoyed in all cases certain 
immunities conferred by the State. 

The ordinary educational course generally 
concluded with a boy's sixteenth or seven- 
teenth year, though rhetorical instruction 
was sometimes continued far beyond this 
limit. And towards the end of the re- 
publican age, young men of intellectual 
ambition would often go to Greece to 
enlarge their sphere of culture. 

On the 17th March, the festival of the 
Liberalkt, boys who had reached the age of 
puberty, or their fifteenth year, took off, in 

the pi ■ th l .i" 

toga fin !• i ta, oi purph ■ I put 

on the unadorned toga virilit I 
then, aftei ■ ■acrifioe at home, taken by 
their Esthers or sruai panied by 

friends and relations, to thi forum, an 
rolled in the lists of citizens. Thi 
were from this time, in the eyea "f the law, 
capable of marriage, and bound to mil 
service. They now entered upon their 
ti ;■•» linn in, which was regarded as thi 
stage of education. {See TmocDrn k. 

Egeria I Latin). A goddess of fountains, 
who was also a goddess of birth, 
possessed the gift of prophecy. It was 
from her fountain in the SBOred enclosure 
of the C&mens, before the Port 
in Rome, that the Vesta] Virgins brought 
the water necessary for the baths and 
purifications of their office. There was 
another fountain of Egeria in the precincts 
of Diana at Alicia. In Roman story Egeria 
was the consort and counsellor of king 
Numa, who used to meet her in a grotto in 
the precincts of the Camenae. After the 
death of her beloved, she fled to the shrine 
of the Arician Diana, by whom, as her 
wailings disturbed the worship, she was 
changed into the fountain which bore her 
name. Married women worshipped her at 
Rome, as a goddess of childbirth. 

Eidothea. A sea-goddess, daughter ot 
Proteus, the old man of the sea. 

Eidyllion. See Bucolic Poetry. 

Eilithyia Latin, Illthyia). The Greek- 
goddess of childbirth, daughter of Zeus 
and Hera, according to whose will she 
makes childbirth easy or difficult. In 
Homer there is more than one goddess of 
the name. Just as Hera was herself often 
worshipped as a goddess of childbirth, so 
Artemis, goddess of the moon, was invoked 
under the title of Eilithyia ; the moon, 
according to ancient belief, having had 
great influence upon the event. The oldest 
seat of the worship of Eilithyia was the 
island of Crete, where a grotto at Cnossus, 
consecrated to her, is mentioned in Homer. 
Next to this came the island of Delos, where 
she was also worshipped as a goddess of 
Destiny. She had sanctuaries and statues 
in many places, being represented as veiled 
from head to foot, stretching out one hand 
to help, and in the other holding a torch, as 
the symbol of birth into the light of the 

Eirene (Latin, Irene). The Greek god- 
dess of peace, one of the Horse. She was 
worshipped as goddess of wealth, and repre- 




(Munich, Glyptothek.) 

sented accordingly as a young woman with 
Plutus in her arms. (See Plutus.) Among 
her other attri- 
butes are the 
cornucopia, the 
olive branch, 
Hermes' staff, 
and ears of corn 
in her hand and 
on her head. 
The correspond- 
ing deity among 
the Romans was 
Pax, to whom an 
altar was set up 
on July 4th, 13 
B.C., on the re- 
turn of Augustus 
from Gaul. 

Eireslone. See 

Eis angelia 
(Greek). Pro- 
perly, an an- 
nouncement made in presence of a legal 
authority. In Attic jurisprudence eis- 
angelia was a special form of public prose- 
cution, instituted especially for offences 
which appeared to inflict injury, directly 
or indirectly, upon the state, but which it 
was impracticable to prosecute under the 
regular and customary procedure. The 
accusation was put into writing and handed 
in to the senate ; if the senate received it, 
the accused was arrested, or had to get 
three persons to stand surety for him. But 
if the charge were one of treason, or an 
attack upon the constitution, this was not 
allowed. If the voting on the guilt or 
innocence of the accused were unfavourable, 
the senate itself fixed the penalty, suppos- 
ing it fell short of the amount which lay 
within its competence (500 drachmae or 
£16 13s. 4d.). If not, the senate referred 
the case at once to one of the courts of the 
Helisea, or even to the ecclesia, to which 
the prosecutor might, indeed, have applied 
from the first. If the ecclesia decided to 
take up the case, the first thing it did was 
to fix the penalty, in case there were no 
legal provisions on this point. It then 
either entered on the investigation and 
decided the case, or handed it over to a 
court of law. The name eisangelia was 
also given to the prosecution of judges in 
office for neglect of their duties ; and to 
certain charges lodged before the archons : 
namely, charges against children for ill- 
treatment of parents, against husbands for 

ill-treatment of heiresses, and against guar- 
dians for ill-treatment of their wards. (See 

Eisphora (Athenian). An income-tax, 
levied only in extraordinary cases. It was 
based on the Solonian division of classes 
into PentacdslOmed imni, Hippeis, Zeugitve, 
and ThStSs, the last of whom were not 
taxed at all. The taxable capital was esti- 
mated at twelve times a man's net income 
as estimated by himself. In the case of the 
Pentacosiomedimni, with a minimum in- 
come of 500 drachma' and minimum capital 
of 6,000 drachmae ( = 1 talent or £200), 
the whole property was treated as taxable 
capital itlmema). In the case of the 
Hippeis (300-3,600 drachmae) five-sixths, in 
that of the Zeugitce (150-1,800 drachmae) 
five-ninths or 1,000 drachmae. The first 
instance of the levy of an eisphora oc- 
curred in 428 B.C. In 378 B.C. another 
method of levying it was introduced under 
the archon Nausinicus. According to this, 
the taxable capital of the highest class 
was fixed at one-fifth of the whole property. 
The resident aliens (mttoeci), as well as the 
citizens, were liable to pay the eisphora. 
On the method of collecting it, see Sym- 


Ekecheirla. The "truce of God" (lite- 
rally, "holding of hands"), observed in 
Greece at the great festivals which were 
visited by strangers ; e.g. the national 
games, and the Eleuslnia in Attica. This 
peace was proclaimed by heralds through- 
out Greece, to secure the visitors to the 
games freedom in passing backwards and 
forwards and security during the festival. 
In the case of the Eleusinia the truce 
lasted li months and ten days. 

Elaphebolia. A festival held at Athens 
in the month Elaphebollon (March-April) 
in honour of Artemis as goddess of the 
chase and of game. (See Artemis.) 

Electra (Gr. Elektra). (1) Daughter of 
Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, sister of 
Iphigenia and Orestes. She saved Orestes 
from the murderer of his father, and 
assisted him afterwards in avenging his 
death. She married Pj'lades, her brother's 
friend, and became the mother of Medon 
and Strophius. 

(2) One of the Pleiades, the mother (by 
Zeus) of Dardanus, ancestor of the royal 
house of Troy. 

Electrum (Gr. Elektron). This word had 
two meanings in antiquity. (1) A mixture 
of gold and silver in the proportion of about 
4 : 1. (2) Amber, the use of which in orna- 


mentation was known to the Groel 

the Homeric ogi through their with I * I i« i.i. In later times, mainly 

through the overland trade, amber was 
i.i down from the Baltic to the 
mouths of the Po, and from thenos forth* c 
south. In the olaasioal timi ma to 

have been onrj in exceptional oases thai 
amber wns applied to the uses of art 

reek innuenoe increased, the taste for 
a disappeared in Italy. It was only to- 
wards the end oi the republican age that 
dually came into favour again, and 
then us a material for ladies' ornaments, 
Buoh as bracelets, pins and rings, and for 
adorning bedsteads ami similar furniture. 
Under th>' Empire it w n 
than it had ever been. The white, wax- 
ooloured sort was accounted the worst, ami 
was only used tor fumigation. The ruddy 
amber, especially if transparent, found more 
favour; tie bright yellow, of the colour of 
Folernian wine, was liked best of all. The 
natural colour was sometimes intensified or 
altered by artificial means. 

Electryon (Gr. ElektryOn). Son of Perseus 
and Andromeda, king of Mycena>, father of 
Alcmene, the mother of Heracles. (See 

Elegy. The general term in Greek for 
any poem written in the elegiac metre, a 
combination of the dactylic hexameter and 
pentameter in a couplet. The word SISgSs 
is probably not Greek, but borrowed from 
the Lydians, and means a plaintive melody 
accompanied by the flute. How it happened 
that the word was applied to elegiac poetry, 
the earliest representatives of which by no 
means confined it to mournful subjects, is 
doubtful. It may be that the term was 
only chosen in reference to the musical set- 
ting, the elegy having originally been ac- 
companied by the flute. Like the epos, the 
elegy was a production of the Ionians of 
Asia Minor. Its dialect was the same as 
that of the epos, and its metre only a varia- 
tion of the epic metre, the pentameter being 
no more than an abbreviation of the 
hexameter The elegy marks the first 
transition from the epic to lyric proper. 
The earliest representatives of the elegy, 
Callluus of Ephesus (about 700 B.C.), and 
Tyrtseus of Aphidnse in Attica (about 600), 
gave it a decidedly warlike and political 
direction, and so did Solon (640-559) in his 
earlier poems, though his later elegies have 
mostly a contemplative character. The 
elegies of Theognis of Megaril (about 540), 
though gnomic and erotic, are essentially 

0. C. A 

politi ol. The Aral typii al 

Of tie j was Mum. 

t '.•].. |.|i"ii, hi eldi i i ".•' mp : .Ion. 

The elegy "i mi oi ning oi on tn 

pei fection bj Sim i I 

(died B.C. 169 . Aftei him the emotional 
el. in. hi predominated. Anl u 
phOn (about 100) gave the elegy i 
tinge, and was thus thi ; I 

elegiac poets of Alexandra PI 
Phlletas oi I Ifis, Hei mi IS as i i t Colophon, 
and I JalllmftohuB of I 'yreni, I he m i I ir "f 
them all The subject of the Alexandrian 
elegy is sometimes the passion of love, with 
n- | i ins and pleasures, treated through 'In- 
medium of images and similes taken from 
mythology, sometimes learned narrati. 
fable and history, from which personal emo- 
tion is absent. 

This type of elegy, with its learned and 
obscure manner, was taken up and imitated 
at Rome towards the end of the Republic. 
The Romans soon easily surpassed their 
Greek masters both in warmth and sin- 
cerity of feeling and in finish of style 
The elegies of Catullus are among their 
earliest attempts ; but in the Augustan 
age, in the hands of Cornelius Gallus, 
Propertius, Tibullus, and Ovid, the elegiac 
style was entirely appropriated by Latin 
literature. Ovid in his Fasti showed how 
a learned subject could be treated in 
this metre. From his time onward the 
elegiac metre was constantly employed. In 
the later literature it was used, like the 
epic metre, for every possible subject, as, 
for instance, by Rntilius Namatlanus in 
the description of his return from Rome to 
Trance (a.d. 416). In the 6th century a.d. 
the poet Maximianus, born in Etruria at 
the beginning of the 6th century, is a late 
instance of a genuine elegiac poet. 

Elephants. Indian elephants were first 
i used in European warfare by the successors 
of Alexander for the purpose of breaking 
through the enemy's ranks. An elephant, 
if completely equipped, carried on its back, 
besides its driver, a tower or howdah. 
generally containing four archers. The 
Romans first learned their use in the war 
with Pyrrhus. In the Second Punic War 
they got possession of African elephants, the 
first which they turned to their own account, 
and used them against Philip of Macedon. 
But elephants never played so important a 
part in the Roman armies as they had in 
those of Alexander's successors. They 
were liable to panic if the enemy frightened 
ihem with firebrands or in any other way, 



and in this state became dangerous to 
friends as well as enemies. Combats of 
elephants, however, were always the central 
attraction iu the fights of wild animals in 
the games of the circus, and, from the time 
of Augustus, the chariots which bore the 
images of the deified emperors were drawn 
by elephants in the solemn procession. 

Eleusinia. The two mystic festivals of 
Demeter and her daughter Persephone 
(Core) celebrated in Attica. They took their 
name from the cit} r of Eleusis, twelve miles 
distant from Atheus. This was, from time 
immemorial, a seat of the worship of 
Demeter, instituted, it was said, by the 
goddess herself after the disappearance of 
her daughter. (See Demeter.) The wor- 
ship of Dionysus was early associated with 
that of the two goddesses of the earth, for 
Dionysus was himself a god of fertility, 
worshipped here under the name of Iakchos, 
as son of Zeus and Demeter or Persephone. 
The ritual of the Eleusinian service was 
supposed to have been ordained by Eumol- 
pus (see Eumolpus). The conquest of 
Eleusis, which took place, according to the 
story, under king Erechtheus, gave Athens 
a right to take part in the solemnity, and 
the lesser of the two festivals was actually 
celebrated in Athens. Eleusis, however, 
continued to be the chief seat of the wor- 
ship, and the highest priesthoods were 
hereditary in the Eleusinian families of the 
Eumolpidae and Kerykes. The sanctity 
which shrouded the Eleusinian mysteries 
occasioned the foundation of Eleusinia on 
their model in other Greek cities. But the 
initiations at Eleusis were always accounted 
the most sacred and the most efficacious. 
The events celebrated in the mysteries were 
the descent of Persephone into the world 
below, and her return to light and to her 
mother. The former was celebrated at the 
greater Eleusinia between autumn and 
seed-time ; the latter in spring at the lesser 
Eleusinia. The symbolical representation 
of both events had the same object. This 
was to excite and strengthen in the minds 
of the initiated, by means of the story of 
Persephone, the faith in the continuance of 
life, and a system of rewards and punish- 
ments after death. The right of initiation 
into the Eleusinian mysteries was in all 
probability restricted originally to inhabi- 
tants of Attica, but it was not long before 
it was extended to all Greeks. In later 
times, after their closer connexion with the 
Greeks, the Romans were also admitted. 
Barbarians were excluded, and so were all 

who had been guilty of murder, or any other 
serious offence. The neophyte \v as proposed 
for initiation by an Athenian citizen who 
had himself been initiated. He was admitted 
first to the lesser mysteries at the lesser 
Eleusinia. At this stage the candidates 
were termed Mystce, and were allowed to 
take a limited part in the greater Eleu- 
sinia the next autumn. They were not 
initiated, however, into the greater mys- 
teries until the greater Eleusinia succeed- 
ing these ; and after their initiation were 
called epopta*, or seers. The external 
arrangement of the festival was in the 
hands of the second archon, or Archon 
Basileus, who exercised a general superin- 
tendence over the whole of the public wor- 
ship. He was assisted by four overseers 
(gpimSletce), two of whom were elected from 
the whole body of citizens, and two from the 
Eleusinian families of the Eumolpidae and 
Kerykes. 1 The high-priestly officials, who 
carried out the liturgical functions at the 
celebration, were also chosen from thes6 
two families. The Hierophantes, or chiel 
priest, belonged to the house of Eumolpus. 
It was his duty to exhibit to the initiated 
the mysterious shrines, and probably to 
lead the performance of the hymns handed 
down from his ancestors. The Keryx, or 
herald, was of 
the house of the 
Kerykes. He 
summoned the 
initiated, in the 
traditional form 
of words, to wor- 
ship, pronouncing 
for them the form 
of prayer. The 
Dadtichos or 
torch-bearer, and 
the superinten- 
dent of the sacri- 
fice, were also im- 
portant officials. 

The lesser 
Eleusinia were 
celebrated in the 
month Anthes- 
terion, which 
corresponded roughly to February. 

The service was performed at Agrae, a 
suburb of Athens on the Hissus, in the 
temple of Demeter and Core, and accom- 

1 Keryx was, according to one account, repre- 
sented as the son of Hermes and Aglauros, 
daughter of Cecrops, according to another, one of 
the sons of Eumolpus. 


{Vase from Kertch ; Gerhard, 
G«. Abh., taf. 77.| 



panied by mj it lot! ritea, tht natw 
whioh is unknown. It waa sai.l to have 
founded at the w ieh "i Ber&cles, who, 
being b stranger, m exoluded by usage 
from the Bleusinia, The great 

BleudiniB were oelebrated in the middle oi 
B66drflmI6n (roughly September), for a 
space probably of nine days. The first days 
were devoted to the preparation for tii<> 
in. mi festival, bathing in the sea, sacrifices 
>>f purification, and the like. On the sixth 
day, the 20th Boedromion, the immense 
multitude of mytta. in festal attire and 
orowned with myrtle, marched in proces- 
sion along tlu> Baored way to BjIoubib, pre- 
oeded by the image of [akohos, \\ ho gave 
liis name to the celebration Much time 

by the poti nixed r,f water, meal 

penny-royal, suppoeed to have bam the 

iii'.tl l'i i I l r nfti'i In 

ception in Bleusis, It prob ibly while 

theae celel were going on tnal the 

Epopta, and the Myttcu who were oalled to 
their final >n, took pari in the mys- 

teries proper, Mysterious rites wen 
ii would seem, performed in dark throw the celebrants intu a Mate ,,f 

painful suspense and expectation. Then, 
m a daunting light, and amid great 
splendour, t lie Hierophantes showed them 
certain shrines of the goddess and Iakchos, 
explaining their meaning; holy songs I 
meantime performed, partly by himself, 
partly by choirs with instrumental accom- 


A, outer ptHMlffs; aa, inner pmbolos; B, greater propylna; C, lesser propylaa; 
D, Great Temple of the Mysteries, with portico of Philon (183 ft. x37$ft.), and Teles- 
terion, or interior of the temple (178 ft. x 170 ft.), with eight rows of seats, partly hewn 
out of the rock. — Unedited Antiquities of Attica, chap. i. 5. 

was spent, partly in the performance of 
acts of devotion at the numerous holy 
places on the road, partly in merriment 
aud banter; so that it was late in the 
evening before they arrived at the Teles- 
trriOn, or house of initiation, at Eleusis. 
This was a magnificent temple erected by 
Pericles in place of the ancient temple of 
Demeter, which had been burnt down in the 
Persian War. During the following nights 
various celebrations took place at those 
spots in Eleusis and its neighbourhood 
which were hallowed in the story of the 
goddess. In these were represented the 
sorrowful searching of the goddess for her 
lost daughter, and the mother's joy at find- 
ing her. The transition from sorrow and 
fasting to joy and festivity was symbolized 

paniment. The climax of the whole was 
the sacred drama, a representation of the 
story of the three goddesses in the worlds 
above and below. The festival was brought 
to a close by a libation of water from two 
vessels in the shape of a top (plemochde). 
The water was poured in the direction of 
east and west with mystical formulae. 

The ancients speak of the revelations 
made in the mysteries as having a bene- 
ficial influence on morality, pointing as 
they did to reward and punishment after 
death. They represent them further as 
giving comfort in the trials and sufferings 
of life, and as opening brighter hopes after 
death. It is certain that there were few 
citizens of Athens who were not initiated ; 
many who neglected the rite early in life 



were initiated in old age. For in the 
popular belief the initiation conferred a 
claim to the joys promised in the mysteries 
to the good after death. 

The Eleusinian mysteries maintained 
their position for a long time. Among 
the Romans, men of the highest rank, as, 
for instance, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, 
deigned to receive the initiation. When 
the Christian emperor Valentinian put an 
end to all religious celebrations by night, 
he excepted the Eleusinia, which continued 
in existence till they were abolished b}' 
Theodosius towards the end of the 4th 
century a.d. 

Eleutheria. A festival in honour of 
Eros, celebrated at Samos. (See Eros.) 

Eleven. See Hexdeka. 

Elissa. See Dido. 

Elysium. In Homer Elysium is a 
beautiful meadow at the western extremity 
of the earth, on the banks of the river 
Oceanus. Thither the favoured of Zeus, 
such as Rhadamanthys his son, and his 
son-in-law Menelaus, are carried without 
having seen death. They live a life of 
perfect happiness, there is no snow, nor 
storm, nor rain, but the cool west wind 
breathes there for ever. Hesiod speaks of 
the islands of the blest by the Ocean, where 
some of the heroes of the fourth generation 
of men live a life without pain, and where 
the earth produces her fruits three times in 
the year. According to Pindar, all who 
have three times passed blamelessly through 
life live there in perfect bliss under the 
sway of Cronus and his assessor Rhada- 
manthys. Such are Cadmus and Peleus, 
and Achilles through the intercession of his 
mother Thetis with Zeus. Like Cronus, the 
Titans, after their reconciliation with Zeus, 
dwell on these islands. In later times Ely- 
sium with its bliss was localized in the 
world below, and regarded as the abode of 
those whom the judges of the dead had 
pronounced worthy of it. (Cp. Hades, 
Realm of.) 

Emancipatio (Roman). The formal libe- 
ration of a son from the control (manus) of 
his father. If the son were sold three times 
over, all the rights of his father came to an 
end. If then a father wished to make a 
son his own master (sul iuris), he made 
him over three times by mancipdtlo or a 
fictitious sale to a third person. The third 
person emancipated him the first and second 
time, so that he came again into the con- 
trol of his father. After purchasing him a 
third time he either emancipated him him- 

self, and thus became his patrOnus, or he 
sold him back to his father, to whom he 
now stood, not in the relation of a son, but 
in manclplo, so that the father could 
liberate him without more ado. In this 
case the father remained patronus of the 
son. The emancipated son did not, a6 in 
the case of adoption (see Adoption), pass 
into the patria pdtestas of another, and 
therefore retained his father"s family name. 
But he lost his right to inherit in default 
of a will. 

Emathlon. Son of Eos and Tithonus, 
brother of Memnon, from whom he seized 
the government of the Ethiopians. He was 
slain by Heracles when travelling in search 
of the apples of the Hesperides. 

Emmeleia. The serious and majestic 
dance of the chorus in the Greek Tragedy-. 

Empedocles. A Greek philosopher and 
poet, born of a rich and noble family at 
Agrigentum in Sicily, about 490 B.C. Like 
his father, Meton, who had taken part in 
the expulsion of the tyrant Thrasvdseus, 
he was an ardent supporter of the demo- 
cracy. He lent his aid in destroying the 
aristocracy and setting up a democratic 
constitution, although his fellow-citizens 
offered him the kingly dignity. He was 
content with the powerful influence which 
he derived from his wealth, his eloquence, 
and extraordinary knowledge. His ac- 
quaintance with medicine and natural 
science was so great as to win him the 
reputation of a wonder-worker in his life- 
time, and the position of a hero after his 
death. It was probably a political revolu- 
tion which caused him, in advanced age, to 
leave his country and settle in the Pelo- 
ponnese. He died about 430 B.C., away 
from Sicily. A later story represented him 
as having thrown himself into the crater of 
^Etna, that his sudden disappearance might 
make the people believe him a god. The 
truth, however, was said to have been 
revealed by the appearance of his shoes, 
thrown up by the volcano. 

He was the author of propitiatory hymns, 
probably of a mystical and religious charac- 
ter ; of a didactic poem on medicine : and 
of an epic poem in three books upon Xature. 
This last was his chef d'oeuvve, and had a 
high reputation in antiquity, both for its con- 
tents, and for its form, in which the writer 
took Homer for his master. Considerable 
fragments of it remain, written in a sublime 
and pregnant style. His system is grounded 
upon the assumption of four unchangeable 
elements, fire (the noblest of all), air, earth, 



n r i ' l v id two opposing force i, Love 

n in, li bind and at 1 1 sots, and I [ate w bioh 

ites and repels. Th6 format ion ■ •! the 

world began when the elementa, held to- 

i r bj I iove, and sepai ated bj l fati , 

again tended to union under the influenoe 

The manifold minglings and 

it ions "i tl lementa originated the 

.hi species, thai of man inolnded. 

perceptions arise from the particles 
which are thrown off by tilings, and stream 

m upon us through special pores or passages. 

As in our persons all the fundamental 

elements an' uinti'il, we art« enaMed li\ 

their means to recognise what is homo- 
geneous OUtBide US. Our ideas are not pure, 

but compounded of the particles which pour 
in upon as and go out from us. The system 

of Kinpedocles often agreed with that of 
Pythagoras. Both adopted the theory of 
transmigration, and the moral and ascetic 
hies connected with it. The propitia- 
tory hymns above mentioned may well 
have been in harmony with these ideas. 

Einptlo. Sri' Bonorum Emptio. 

Encaustlke. The art of painting by 
burning in the colours. (See Painting.) 

Enceladus. [See Giants.) 

Encomldn (Greek). Originally the song 
sung by the chorus at the k&mds or festal 
procession held at the great national games 
in honour of the victor, either on the day 
of his victory, or on its anniversary. The 
word came afterwards to denote any song 
written in celebration of distinguished 
persons, and in later times any spoken or 
written panegyric whatever. 

Endels. Daughter of Chiron and the 
Naiad Chariclo. wife of .Eacus, mother of 
Peleus and Telamon. 

Endeixis. A term in Athenian juris- 
prudence, denoting a prosecution in no- 
torious cases, as, for instance, against the 
Prytanes, if they refused to put a question 
to the vote in the great assembly. It was 
especially employed against persons who, 
although lying under attnua, presumed to 
claim a share in civic rights, as (particu- 
larly! by instituting prosecutions, or ap- 
pearing, speaking, and voting in the assem- 
bly [Aristotle, Const, of Athens, 29, 52, 63]. 

Endromls (Greek). (1) A boot of leather 
or felt, rising as far as the calf or above it, 
and fitting close to the foot. In frout it 
was open and fastened with straps. It 
was specially adapted for journeys or hunt- 
ing, and consequently appears often in 
representations of Artemis and of the 
Erinf es. Runners in races too, often wore 

ii 8m l'. 1. 1 1 ,im i 

A ilu'-it wo Hen rag menti ned h Id 

and .luwiial. in L02 

Endymlon. In Greek mythology, the 
beautiful son ol A, thl for, according to 
another stoi j . Zen and I daughtei 

"f .K. ,i i ing of Klin, father of EC] 
.Kiidu-, and PsaOn, the first of whom won 
i he government of the country by conquer- 
ing in a raoe irhioh his father bad set on 

foot. He Was loved liy Selene, the godde I 

of i he moon, by whom he had fifty daughters. 
They were supposed to symbolize the lilt-. 
lunar months whioh intervened between 
the Olympic games. His grave was at 
Olympian Another story made him a shep- 
herd or hunter on Mount LatmOs in Caria. 
Zeus bestowed on him eternal youth and 
eternal life in the form of unbroken slumber. 
Selene descended every night from heaven 
to visit and embrace the beautiful sleeper 
in his grotto. 

Ennius (Quintus) The founder of the 
Hellenized type of Latin poetry. He was 
born 239 b.c. at Rudte in Calabria, and 
was by descent aGrsecised Messapian. He 
was probably educated at Tarentum, and 
served with the Romans in the Second 
Punic War in Sardinia, whence Cato took 
him to Rome in 204 B.C. His poetical 
talent here came to his aid, not in a 
pecuniary way (for he was in slender cir- 
cumstances to the end of his life), but as 
an introduction to the favour of the great 
men. Among these must be mentioned the 
Scipios, and Fulvius Nobilior, who took him 
in his retinue to the iEtoliau war in B.C. 189, 
and whose son procured him the citizen- 
ship five years later (184). A gouty affec- 
tion did not prevent him from continuing 
his literary work to an advanced age. 
He was in his sixty-seventh year when he 
finished his Annates, and he put a tragedy 
on the stage shortly before his death. He 
died in 170 B.C., in his seventieth year. It 
was said that the Scipios placed his image 
in their family vault. 

Ennius wrote poetry with success in a 
great number of styles. But in his own 
opinion, as well as in that of his fellow- 
citizens, his greatest work was his Annates 
in eighteen books. This was a chrono- 
logical narrative of Roman history in verse. 
Like Nsevius' Bellum Poemcum, it began 
with the destruction of Troy, and came 
down to the poet's own times. In this 
poem Ennius created for the Romans their 
first national epic, the fame of which 
was only eclipsed by Vergil. But he did 



more. By the introduction of the Greek 
hexameter Ennius did much to further the 
future development of Latin poetry. His 
predecessor, Nfevius, had continued to 
write in the native Saturnian metre, which 
was hardly capable of artistic development. 
But the practice of writing in the strict 
dactylic measure enabled the Latin poets 
to assimilate the other metrical forms pre- 
sented by Greek literature. 

Of the Annals we possess, relatively speak- 
ing, only a small number of fragments. 
Some of these can only be distinguished 
from prose by their metrical form ; others are 
very fine, both in form and ideas. Ennius 
showed considerable capacity, too, as a 
writer of tragedies. His dramas, which were 
very numerous, were composed after Greek 
models, especially the tragedies of Euripides. 
More than twenty of these Euripidean plays 
are known to us by their titles and sur- 
viving fragments. He also wrote prie- 
text(B t or tragedies on Roman subjects, as, 
for instance, the Ambrcicia, representing 
the siege and conquest of this city by his 
patron Fulvius Nobilior. His comedies 
were neither so numerous nor so important 
as his tragedies. Besides these he wrote 
several books of sdturce, or collections of 
poems of various contents and in various 
metres. Several of his adaptations or trans- 
lations of Greek originals were probably in- 
cluded in these : as, for instance, the Hedy- 
phdgetica, a gastronomic work after Arches- 
tratus of Gela ; Epicharmus, a didactic 
poem on the "Nature of Things"; Euhe- 
merus, a rationalistic interpretation of the 
popular fables about the gods; Pracepta 
or Protrepticus, containing moral doctrines ; 
and others of the same kind. There was a 
poem entitled Scipio, written in honour of 
the elder Africanus. Whether this was a 
satura or a drama is uncertain. 

The memory of Ennius long survived the 
fall of the Republic. Even after literary 
taste had taken quite a different direction, 
he was revered as the father of Latin 
poetry, and especially as having done much 
to enrich the Latin language. 

Ennodius (Magnus Felix). A Latin 
rhetorician and poet. He was born about 
473 a.d. in the south of France, and died 
in 521 as bishop of Pavia. Among the 
other works, he wrote between 504 and 
508 an extremely fulsome panegyric on 
Theodosius the Great, and a biography of 
Epiphanius, his predecessor in the see. 
Both these writings have a value for the 
historian. Besides these we have a collec- 

tion of twenty-eight model speeches, some 
of which were really delivered : nine books 
of letters, and two of poems, sacred and 
secular. The first book of poems contains 
longer, the second shorter and occasional 
pieces. Both show a certain command of 

Enomotia. A subordinate division of the 
Lochos in the Spartan army. (Sec Lochos 
and Mora.) 

Enyallds. Epithet of Ares. (See Ares.) 

Enyo. (1) A Greek goddess of battle, 
companion of Ares (sec Ares), identified by 
the Romans with Bellona. (See Ares, 
Bellona.) (2) One of the Graice. (See 

Eos (Latin Aurora). The Greek goddess 
of the dawn, daughter of the Titan Hyperion 
and Theia, sister of Helios and Selene, by 
Astneus, mother of the winds, Argestes, 
Zephyros, Boreas and Notos, the morning 
star Heosphoros, and of the stars in general. 
Her hair is beautiful, her arms and Angel's 
ruddy, her wings are white. She rises 
early from her couch on the Eastern Ocean, 
and in a saffron-coloured mantle, on a golden 
chariot drawn by white horses, she comes 
forth as her brother's herald to proclaim 
the rising of day to mortals and immortals, 
Loving all fresh and youthful beauty, she 
carries away Clitus, Cephalus, Orion and 
Tithonus, to whom she bears Memnon and 
Emathion. She is represented in works of 
art as hovering in the sky, or riding on her 
chariot, moving with a torch before Ares, 
or sprinkling dew from a vase over the 
earth. See Memnon. 

Epaphos. See Io and Belos. 

Epeus (Epcios). (See Trojan War.) 

Ephebi. The Athenian name for youths 
over the age of sixteen. The completion 
of a boy's sixteenth year was the occasion 
of a festival, at which the ephebus made a 
drink offering to Heracles, and entertained 
his friends with wine. His hair, hitherto 
worn long, was cut, and the locks dedicated 
to Apollo. For the two following years the 
ephebi were mainly employed in gymnastic 
exercises, and after that time the proper 
civic ephcbia commenced. After an exa- 
mination intended to test the genuineness 
of their civic descent and their physical 
capacity, the ephebi were entered on the 
list of their tribe, presented to the people 
assembled in the theatre, armed with spear 
and shield, and taken to the sanctuary of 
Agraulos at the foot of the citadel, where 
they bound themselves by a solemn oath 
I to the service and defence of their country. 

I.NIH.i | KNIi.US. 

a 1 5 

B*or tin' kwo folio* nig \ ■ 

t on the !i"in ler. Ad' i' iIh' oompli 
tion ol ilii'n twentieth pear they were ad 
mitted i" the meeting! "i the a tamblj and 
employed in foreign lervioe. Theii drt • 

was Mi.' •iihiinj/s end tin- pltdnu 

K|iliogesis. 8a Apaoooi 

Epheta\ A jinlirial ooorl "I lush .-nit i- 

quity in Athens, i listing "f fifty-one 

ri. ted ii"ni the noblest Athenian 

families. It gave dei i i d i 

murder al five different places, differing 
according to ill" character of the case. If 
the crime had a religious character, the 
Arohftn B&slleus presided. {Set kscBOKS.) 
— . .i*>ii ili'l nut abolish this court, bul handed 
over to the newly organised Ax&opagus its 
most important functions,— the power of 
dei iding oases of intentional murder, poison- 
ing, malicious wounding, arson, and the like. 
The nearest relations of the murdered person 
were bound by religious sanction to avenge 
bis blood. At the funeral, and after that 
in the market place, they uttered a solemn 
denunciation, which bade the murderer keep 
away from all public places, assemblies, 
and sanctuaries, and to appear before the 
court. The Archon Basileus, after the 
charge had been announced and received, 
repeated this denunciation. The preliminary 
investigation, and determination of the place 
where the court was to be held, followed 
at three appointed times in three succes- 
sive months. The case was not finally 
dealt with till the fourth month. On the 
first two days of the final trial the two 
parties, after solemnly taking an oath, con- 
ducted their case in person. On the third 
day judgment was given, in case the accused 
had not gone into voluntary exile. If he 
had, his property was confiscated, but he 
was pursued no further. Intentional mur- 
der was punished with death, malicious 
wounding with exile ; the man's property 
was confiscated in both cases. In the 
court of Areopagus, if the votes of the 
judges were equal, the accused was acquit- 
ted. If the homicide were legally allowed 
(as, for instance, that of an adulterer) 
or legally innocent (as in self-defence), the 
case was investigated in the Delphinion, a 
sanctuary of the Delphic Apollo ; and only 
a religious purification was exacted. Cases 
of unintentional homicide, murder of an 
alien, and instigation to murder, were taken 
at the Palladion, a sanctuary of Pallas. 
Instigation to murder was punished with 
banishment and confiscation of property, 
the murder of an alien with banishment, 

iiiuiii' hi ional murdei \\ iti sent, 

until i he l.m-iiM n "i ; he murdered (j 
gave i" In 

the ' mi'' of I >■ most h' in it woo Id 
that tin- oast which a 
bhi Delphinion and Palladion were handed 
over to the ll< lUutce. I bus i b< I 

nIv two ' "in ' left them, thai in 
Phrfiatto, n place in the Pirawus, near the 
-. i. and i if l'i - ' "H'liin. 'I'h' i"i in- i had 

Only tO .judge in the (-vent of B person 

banished i-t unintentional homicide being 

.-I with intentional murder. As h<- 

might not set toot on land, lie was heard 
standing in a ship, and if Grand guilty was 
punished with banishment for life. At the 
Prytaneum a regular conrt was held on inani- 
mate objects and animals which had been the 
cause of death to a human being. The presi- 
dent of the four old Ionic tribes removed the 
object or the animal over the bonier. Again, 
if a murder had been committed and the of- 
fender was undiscovered, this court had to 
pronounce lawful sentence again st him[Dera. 
23 §§ 64-79 ; Aristotle, Const. Athens, 57]. 
Ephialtes. Sec Aload«. 
Ephors ( [Ephdroi= overseers.) A board 
of five members at Sparta, elected annually 
from all the citizens. It is said to have 
been established by Lycurgus or king Theo- 
pompus (770 B.C.). The original intention 
was that it should give decisions in private 
matters, and represent the absent kings in 
certain of their duties, especially the super- 
intendence of the officials and of public 
discipline. But their circle of authority 
gradually widened, till it came to mean a 
superintendence over the whole common- 
wealth, including the kings. The ephors 
had the right of raising objections against 
their actions, calling them, like other 
officials, to account for their conduct, pun- 
ishing them with fines and reprimands, and 
even prosecuting them before the senate, 
and threatening them with deposition and 
death. They were the only citizens who 
were not obliged to rise in the kings' 
presence, a fact which gives a good idea of 
the relative position of the two parties. 
Besides the duty of opposing everything 
which they thought adverse to the laws 
and interests of Sparta, they had from early- 
times the right of summoning the delibera- 
tive and legislative assemblies, the GSrusia 
and Ecclesia, to make proposals to them, 
and take the lead in proceedings left to 
their management. Two of them regularly 
accompanied the kings on their campaigns. 
It is probable also that they had the super- 



intendence of the public treasure. In their 
capacity of protectors of the public dis- 
cipline their authority extended itself to 
the minutest details of private life. In 
regard to the Helots and Perioeci it was 
still more altolute. Even on a pericecua 
they could pass sentence of death without 
trial. (See Perkeci.) On important occa- 
sions a majority of their votes was required. 
At the end of their annual office, on which 
they entered at the beginning of the 
Spartan year or at the time of the autumnal 
equinox, they were liable to be called to 
account by their successors. The year was 
dated by the name of the first Ephor on 
the board. 

Ephorus. A Greek historian, born about 
400 B.C. at Cyme, in Asia Minor. He lived 
to see the invasion of Asia by Alexander 
the Great in 334. Like Theopompus, he 
was a pupil of IsScrates, who, seeing that 
he was not likely to succeed as a public 
speaker, persuaded him to write history. 
He was the author of a Universal History, 
which omitted the mythical age, and began 
with the return of the Heraclidae into the 
Peloponnese. It treated in thirty books the 
history of the Greek and barbarian world, 
during a space of 750 years, ending in 340 
B.C. The last book is said to have been 
completed by his son Demophllus. The 
work was continued in the Alexandrian 
period by Diyllus of Athens, Psaon of 
Platea, and Menodotus of Perinthus. It 
was much read and used for the wealth and 
excellent arrangement of its material, which 
embraced geography, ethnography, myth- 
ology, and the history of civilization and 
literature. It met with much hostile criti- 
cism, but had its admirers, among whom 
was Polybius. 

Epicaste. See Jocasta. 

Epicharmus. A Greek comedian, born 
in the island of Cos, about 540 B.C. When 
only a child of three months old he came 
with his father Helothales, a physician, to 
Megara in Sicily, where he died about 450 
at the age of 90. Like his father, he is 
said to have been personally acquainted 
with Pythagoras, and whether this is so or 
no, his philosophical attainments were not 
inconsiderable. It was Epicharmus who 
gave to the Doric comedy of Sicily its liter- 
ary form. Thirty-five of his plays, written 
in the Doric dialect, are known to us by 
their titles, and a few meagre fragments 
have survived. They differed from the 
Attic comedy in having no chorus. Their 
subjects were taken partly from the stories 

of gods and heroes, which they burlesqued 
i and caricatured, and partly from life. The 
plots seem to have been simple and the 
action rapid. The philosophical leanings 
of Epicharmus are shown in numerous say- 
ings of deep practical wisdom. Plato said 
that Epicharmus was the prince of comedy, 
as Homer was of tragedy, a striking testi- 
mony to the perfection of his compositions 
in their own line. In his mythical comedy 
he was imitated by Dlnolochus of Syracuse, 

Epicheirdtonia. See Ecclesia. 

Epictetus (Gr. Epiktet&s). A Greek phi- 
losopher, born at Hlerapolis in Phrygia. 
He lived a long time in Rome as a slave, 
in the house of Epaphroditus, a favourite 
of Nero. Emancipated by his master, he 
became a professor of the Stoical system, 
which he had learned from the lectures of 
Musonius Rtifus. When the philosophers 
were expelled from Rome by Domitian in 
94 A.D., Epictetus went to Nicopolis in 
Epirus, where he lived as the master of a 
school until the reign of Hadrian (117 a.d.) 
He formed numerous disciples by free con- 
versations after the manner of Socrates. 
Among these was Arrianus, to whom we 
owe an account of Epictetus' doctrine, for 
the master himself left nothing in writing. 
The main point on which he laid stress 
was the independence of the human mind 
of all external circumstances, such being 
not in our power. This freedom is to be 
attained by patience and renunciation. 
The duty of man is to find all his happiness 
within himself, and the power of which he 
should be most in awe is the deity in his 
own breast. 

Epicurus (Gr. Ejnkourds.) A Greek phi- 
losopher, founder of the Epicurean school, 
which was so named after him. He was 
born 342 B.C. in the Attic deme of Gargettus, 
and spent his early years in Samos, where 
his father had settled as a cleruchus (See 
Colonies, Greek.) While still young he 
returned to Athens, and there acquired by 
independent reading a comprehensive know- 
ledge of previous philosophies. In 310 
(cetat. 32) he began to teach philosophy, 
first in Mytilene, and afterwards in Lamp- 
sacus. After 304 he carried on his pro- 
fession at Athens. Here he bought a 
garden, in which he lived in retirement in 
a very modest and simple style, surrounded 
by his brother and his friends. He died 
(B.C. 268, cetat. 74) of calculus, after terrible 
sufferings. But to the last moment he 
never lost the tranquil serenity which had 
characterized his whole life. Such was his 



ii itv « Itli his disciples 'hat ii. in. ..f 
ill. in \. -n i u i. I I., inn ka .in v innovation in hi* 
. i>i oontinned to flourish 
in Athens, under fourteen , for 

'_'-'T years; and much Longer in other ■ 
11 .ii Lugs w sre remarkably numi 
and in parts very oomprehensive. They 
were admired f"i their clearness, bnl their 

t • 'ilia was found fault with as i m 

Epicurus used to saj himself thai writing 

him ii" trouble. All that remains of 

them [ezolusive of what may be gleaned Erom 

quotations in later writers), is: 1 a com- 

pendium of liis doctrine in forty-four short 

isitions, written for liis scholars to 

learn by heart. This we must, however, re- 

member is not preserved in itsoiiginal form. 

- .me fragments, not inconsiderable, but 

much mutilated and very incomplete, of his 

work On Nature, in thirty books. 

e are preserved in the Herculanean 

pdpf/ri. (3 ) Three letters have survived from 

the body of his correspondence, besides his 

will. For his system, see Philosophy. 

Eplgauila (Greek . The right of con- 
tracting' a valid marriage, with all its legal 
quences. It was possessed only by 
citizens of the same state ; aliens could only 
acquire it by special le<;al authorization, 
».< .. a decree of the popular assembly. At 
Athens even the MStceci, or resident aliens, 
were excluded from it. (Comp. Conubium.) 

Epigoni. The descendants of the seven 
princes who marched against Thebes: 
ASgi&leus, son of Adrastus ; Alcnifeon, son 
of Amphiaraus ; Diomedes, son of Tydeus ; 
Promachus, son of Parthenopaeus ; Sthene- 
lus, son of Cipaneus ; Thersander, son of 
Polynices ; Eurvalus, son of Hecisteus. 
To avenge the slain, they marched against 
Thebes, under the leadership of Adrastus, 
ten years after the first Theban war (see 
ApkastcsV Unlike their ancestors, they 
started with the happiest auspices. The 
oracle of Amphiaraus at Thebes promises 
them victory, and a happy return to all, 
that is, except iEgialeus the son of Adras- 
tus, the only warrior who escaped in the 
previous war. In the decisive battle at 
Glisas, -Egialeus falls by the hand of Lao- 
lamas, son of Eteocles, and leader of the 
Thebans. Laodamas is himself slain by 
Alcmaeon. Part of the defeated Thebans, 
by the advice of Teiresias, fly before the 
is taken, and settle in the territory of 
Hestl»otis in Thessaly, or among the Illy- 
rian Encheli, where the government is in 
the hands of descendants of Cadmus (see 
Cadmus). The victors having conquered 

in. I desti oyed the i il the Im-.hi ; 

,.i | he boot | . ' heir vo 

the I telphic oraole Thersai :• i and li i -* 
family are benosfortfa thi 
Epigram Propei ly an ii nob 

as was often written 1 1 1 . . 1 1 | toml 

offering, a present, a work of art, and the 
like, to describe its oharactei !■ 
ti'.ns of this sort were from early times put 
into metrical form, and the writer s»ene- 

rally tried to put n 1 sense and spirit 

them. They were generally, though not 
always, written in the elegiac metre. 

The greatest master of epigram was 
Siuiouldes of Cfioa, the author of ah 
all the sepulchral inscriptions on the 
warriors who fell in the Persian wars. 
His lines are remarkable for repose, clear- 
ness, and force, both of thought and ex- 
ion. Fictitious inscriptions were 
often written, containing brief criticisms 
on celebrated men, as poets, philosophers, 
artists and their productions. The form of 
the epigram was also used to embody in 
concise and pointed language the clever 
ideas, or the passing moods of the writer, 
often with a tinge of wit or satire. The 
occasional epigram was a very favourite 
form of composition with the Alexandrian 
poets, and remained so down to the latest 
times. Some writers, indeed, devoted 
themselves entirely to it. Many of the 
choicest gems of Greek literature are to 
i be found in the epigrams. The epigram- 
matists used other metres besides the 
elegiac, especially the iambic. In later 
times more complex and almost lyrical mea- 
sures were employed. The Greek Anth- 
ology has preserved 4,500 epigrams, of the 
greatest variety in contents, and from the 
hand of more than 300 poets. {See Antho- 
logy.) Among these are found some of 
the most celebrated names of ancient and 
of later times. A great number, too, are 
found in inscriptions. 

Of all the Greek varieties of lyric poetry, 
the epigram was earliest welcomed at Rome. 
It lived on in an uninterrupted existence 
from Ennius till the latest times, being 
employed sometimes for inscriptions, some- 
times for other and miscellaneous purposes. 
In the second half of the 1st century a.d. 
Martial handled it in various forms and 
with the power of a master. We also have a 
collection of epigrams by Luxorlus I 6th cen- 
tury a.d.). Many of such poems are pre- 
served on inscriptions, besides a great quan- 
tity in manuscript, which in modern times 
have been collected into a Latin Anthology. 



Eplklerds. See Inheritance (Athenian). 

Epllenios. See Dancing. 

Epimeletae (overseers.) The name given 
at Athens to commissioners nominated as 
occasion might require for the superin- 
tendence of departments. Some of these 
commissioners were regularly elected every 
year, as, e.ff. } the ten epimeletce of the 
wharves, who were responsible for the 
care of the ships of war and equipments 
stored in the docks ; and the ten commis- 
sioners of the Empdridn, whose duty it was 
to enforce the laws relative to duties and 
commerce. For the commissioners of the 
revenue, sec Tamias. 

Epimetheus. Brother of Prometheus and 
husband of Pandora. (See Prometheus.) 

Epinikion (Greek). A prize hymn sung 
by the chorus in honour of the victors at 
'•he great national games. 

Epione. See Asclepius. 

Episkyros. See Ball. 

Epistates. See Boule. 

Epithalamion (Greek). The wedding- 
hymn sung before the bridal chamber by a 
chorus of youths and maidens. 

Epltimia (Greek). The full possession 
of civic privileges, the opposite of atlnua. 

Epon^mos (Greek). Properly the person 
after whom anything is named. This was 
in various Greek states the unofficial title 
of the magistrates after whom (in default 
of a generally received standard of chrono- 
logy) the year was designated. In Athens 
this would be the first Archon, in Sparta 
the first Ephor, in Argos the priestess of 
Hera. When the Sphebl, at Athens, w-ere 
enrolled in the list of the citizens who 
could be called out for military service, the 
name of the first archon of the year was 
attached. And when the citizens of various 
ages were summoned to military service, a 
reference was made to the archon eponymos, 
under whom they had been originally en- 
rolled. The ancient heroes who gave their 
name to the ten tribes of Clisthenes, and 
the heroes worshipped by the demes, were 
also called eponymoi. The statues of the 
former were in the market place, and it was 
near them that official notices were put up 
[Aristotle, Const, of Athens, 53]. 

Epopeus. Son of Poseidon and Canace, 
the daughter of iEolus, brother of Aloeus. 
He migrated from Thessaly to Sicyon, 
where he became king. He was killed by 
Lycus for the sake of Antiope, who, it was 
alleged, was mother of Zethus by him. 

Epoptae. See Eleusinia. 

Epos. (1) Greek. Many indications point 

to the fact that the oldest poetry of the 
Greeks was connected with the worship of 
the gods, and that religious poetry of a 
mystical kind was composed by the priests 
of the Thracians, a musical and poetical 
people, and diffused in old times through 
Northern Greece. The worship of the 
Muses was thus derived from the Thracians, 
who in later times had disappeared from 
Greece Proper ; and accordingly the oldest 
bards whose names are known to the 
Greeks, — Orpheus, Musaeus, Eumolpus, 
Thamyris, — are supposed to have been 
Thracians also. The current ideas on the 
nature and action of the gods tended more 
and more to take the form of poetical 
myths respecting their birth, actions and 
sufferings. And thus those compositions, 
of which an idea may be derived from 
some of the so-called Homeric hymns, 
gradually assumed an epic character. In 
course of time the epic writers threw off 
their connexion with religion, and struck out 
independent lines. Confining themselves no 
longer to the myths about the gods, they 
celebrated the heroic deeds both of mythical 
antiquity and of the immediate past. Thus, 
in the Homeric description of the epic age, 
while the bards Phemlus and Demodocus 
appear as favourites of the gods, to whom 
they are indebted for the gift of song, they 
are not attached to any particular worship. 
The subjects of their song are not only 
stories about the gods, such as the loves 
of Ares and Aphrodite, but the events of 
recent times, the conquest of Troy b}' 
means of the wooden horse, and the tragical 
return of the Achseans from Troy. Singers 
like these, appearing at public festivals. 
and at the tables of princes, to entertain 
the guests with their lays, must have 
existed early in Greece Proper. Bur it 
was the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor who 
first fully developed the capacities of epic 
poetry. By long practice, extending prob- 
ably through centuries, a gradual progress 
was probably effected from short lays to 
long epic narratives ; and at the same time 
a tradition delivered from master to scholar 
handed on and perfected the outer form of 
style and metre. Thus, about 900 B.C. 
epic poetry was brought to its highest per- 
fection by the genius of Homer, the reputed 
author of the Iliad and Odysse}-. After 
Homer it sank, never to rise again, from 
the height to which he had raised it. 

It is true that in the following centuries a 
series of epics, more or less comprehensive, 
were composed by poets of the Ionic school 



in olo a [on "f tin' style HM'i mi 'n "f 
Homer, itm do) one of them anoooeded in 
coming even w ithin He diatani e of 

i Inn iter. The favourite topics of 

iii. i w 1 1 1 ii s urn' such fables u served 
i ii in i- to introduoe, or to extend end oon 
tinue, the Qiad and Odyssey. Thei (rare 
called oyolio pool i, because the most impor- 
unit of theii works were afterwards put 

i ther with the Iliad and Odyssey i i 

epio oyole, or oirole of lavs. 1 The Cyprian 
poems (Cypria), of Staslnus, of S&lamls in 

Cyprus (7*6 B.C.), fori I the introduction 

i Died. These embraoed the history 
of tlic> period between the marriage of 
P&leus and the opening of the Qiad. At 
about the same tune Arctlnua of Miletus 
fonijiosoil his .I'.ili'ii'ijns in five books, This 
poem started from the conclusion of the 
Iliad, and described the death of Achilles, 
and of the Ethiopian prince Memndn. t ho 
contest for the arms of Achilles, and the 
suicide of Ajax. The Destruction nf Ilium, 
l'\ the same author, was in two books. By 
way of supplement to the Homeric Iliad, 
LesohSs of Mytllene, either about 7U8 or 
(iti-l h.c, wrote a Little Iliad, in four books. 
This embraced the contest for the arms of 
Achilles, the appearance of NeoptOlSmus 
and Philoctetes, and the capture of the 
city, The transition from the Iliad to the 
Odyssey was formed by the five books of 
Nostoi (The Return of the Heroes), written 
by Agias of Troezen. The Tellgtinia, by 
Eugammon of Cyrene (about 570), continued 
the Odyssey. This was in two books, em- 
bracing the history of Odysseus from the 
burial of the suitors until his death at the 
hands of his son Telegonus. These poems 
and those of the other cyclics were, after 
Homer, the sources from which the later 
lyric and dramatic poets drew most of their 
information. But only fragments of them 

A new direction was given to epic poetry 
in Greece Proper by the didactic and 
genealogical epics of Hesiod of Ascra, about 
a hundred years after Homer. Hesiod was 
the founder of a school, the productions of 
which were often attributed to him as those 
of the Ionic school were to Homer. One 
of these disciples of Hesiod was Eumelus 
of Corinth (about 750 B.C.), of the noble 
family of the Bacchiadaj. But his poems, 
like those of the rest, are lost. 

The most notable representatives of mythi- 

1 [Or perhaps because their style and treat- 
ment was conventional and without originality, 
another meaning of the word cyclicus.] 

oal epic poetry in the following 
an- Pi landei "f < Jamlrn 

and Tans I i of llaii. ai 

first li nl f <>f t be ,">ili . . nturj 1 1 

hall "1 the ,"n Ii I Kiel tins of S I 

rote a /'. pa is on the Persi irs; the 

attempt in I H eeo al a bi toi 
II is j oung i oontempoi ary, A nl Im&chi 
i lolOphfin, alio si ruol 

learned Tlulifiis, tin- precursor and model 
of die later epic of Alexandria. The Alex- 
ins laid great Btress on learning and 

artistic, event ion in detail, but usually con- 
fined themselves to poems of less magni- 
tude. The chief representatives of the 
Alexandrian school are Oalllm&chus (about 
250 B.C.). Ehi&nuB, EuphOrldn, and- Apol- 
li it i ins of Rhodes. The latter made the 
futile attem])t to return to the simplicity 
of Homer. His ArgOnantlca is, with the 
exception of the Homeric poems, the only 
Greek epic which has survived from the 
ante-Christian era. In the 200 years be- 
tween the 4th and 6th centuries A.D.. the 
mythical epic is represented by Quintus 
SmyrnsBus, Nonnus, Colluthus, TryphlO- 
dorUH, Musaeus, and the apocryphal 
Orpheus. Nonnus, Colluthus, and Tryphio- 
dorus were Egyptians. Nonnus and 
Musjeus, alone among these writers, have 
any claim to distinction. The talent of 
Nonnus is genuine, but undisciplined ; 
Musseus knows how to throw charm into 
his treatment of a narrow subject. The 
whole series is closed by the Illcica of 
Joannes Tzetzes, a learned but tasteless 
scholar of the 12th century a.d. 

As Homer was the master of the 
mythical, so Hesiod was the master of the 
didactic epic. After him this department 
of poetry was best represented by Xeno- 
phanes of Colophon, Parniemdes of Elea, 
and Empedocles of Agrigentum, in the 6th 
and 5th centuries B.C. In the Alexandrian 
period didactic poetry was much taken up, 
and employed upon the greatest possible 
variety of subjects. But none of its repre- 
sentatives succeeded in writing more than 
poetic prose, or in handling their intract- 
able material with the mastery which 
Vergil shows in his Georgics. The period 
produced the astronomical epic of Aratus 
of Sicyon ("about 275 B.C.), and two medical 
poems by. Nicander of Colophon (about 150). 
Under the Roman Empire more didactic 
poetry was produced b}* the Greek writers. 
Maxlmus and the so-called Manetho wrote 
on astrology. Dionysius Perlegetes on geo- 
graphy, Oppian on angling, and an imi- 



tator of Oppian on hunting. The Alex- 
andrian period also produced didactic 
poems in iambic sendrii, as e.g. several on 
geography bearing the names of Diesearchus 
and Scymnus, which still survive. 

(2) Roman. The Romans probably had 
songs of an epic character from the earliest 
times ; but these were soon forgotten. They 
had, however, a certain influence on the 
later and comparatively artificial literature, 
for both Livlus Andronicus in his transla- 
tion of the Odyssey, and Naevius in his 
Punic War, wrote in the traditional 
Italian metre, the versus Saturnius. 
Nsevius was, it is true, a national poet, and 
so was his successor Ennius, but the latter 
employed the Greek hexameter metre, in- 
stead of the rude Saturnian. To follow 
the example of Ennius, and celebrate the 
achievements of their countrymen in the 
form of the Greek epic, was the ambition 
of several poets before the fall of the 
Republic. A succession of poets, as Hostius, 
the tragedian Accius, and Furius were the 
authors of poetical annals. In this con- 
nexion we should also mention Cicero's 
epics on Marius and on his own consulship, 
besides the poem of Terentius Varro of Atax 
(Atdclnus) on Caesar's war with the Sequani 
{Bclluvi Sequdnicum). Latin epics on 
Greek mythical subjects seem to have been 
rare in the republican age. At least we 
know of only a few translations, as that of 
the Iliad by Mattius and Ninnius Crassus, 
and of the Cypria by Lsevinus. Towards 
the end of the republican age it was a 
favourite form of literary activity to write 
in free imitation of the learned Alex- 
andrians. Varro of Atax, for example, 
followed Apollonius of Rhodes in his 
Argonautica ; others, like Helvius Cinna 
and the orator Licinius Calvus, preferred 
the shorter epics so much in favour with 
the Alexandrians. Only one example in 
this style is completely preserved, The 
Marriage of Pelcus and Thetis, by Cat- 
ullus. This is the only example we possess 
of the narrative epic of the republic. 

But in the Augustan age both kinds of 
epic, the mythic and the historical, are repre- 
sented by a number of poets. Varius Rufus, 
Rabirlus, Cornelius Severus, and Albino- 
vanus Pedo, treated contemporary history 
in the epic style : Domitius Marsus and 
Macer turned their attention to the mytho- 
logy. The jEneid of Vergil, the noblest 
monument of Roman epic poetry, combines 
both characters. Of all the epic produc- 
tions of this age, the only ones which are 

preserved intact are the iEneid, a pane- 
gyric on Messala, which found its way 
into the poems of Tibullus, and perhaps two 
poems, the Culex and Ciris, falsely attri- 
buted to Vergil. 

In the 1st century a.d. we have several 
examples of the historical epic : the Phar- 
salla of Lucan, the Punica of Silius 
Italicus, a Bellum Civile - in the satirical 
romance of Petronlus, and an anonymous 
panegyric on Calpurnius Piso, who was 
executed for conspiracy under Nero, a.d. 
65. The heroic style is represented by 
the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, and 
the Thebaid and Achilleid of Statius, to 
which we may add the metrical epitome 
of the Iliad by the so-called Pindarus 
Thebanus. The politico-historical poems 
of the succeeding centuries, by Publius 
Porflrius Optatianus in the 4th century, 
Claudian, Merobaudes, Sidonius Apolllnaris 
in the 5th, Priscian, Corippus, and Venantius 
Foi tiinatus in the 6th, are entirely panegyric 
in character, and intended to do homage to 
the emperor or men of influence. Of all 
these poets, Claudian is the most consider- 
able. He and Dracontius (towards the end 
of the 5th century) are among the last who 
take their subjects from mythology. 

Didactic poetry, which suited the sober 
character of the Romans, was early repre- 
sented at Rome. Here the Romans were 
in many ways superior to the Greeks. 
Appius Claudius Csecus and the elder 
Cato were the authors of gnomic poetry. 
Ennius, the tragedian Accius, and several 
of his contemporaries, wrote didactic pieces; 
the satires of Lucilius and Varro were also 
in part didactic. It was however not till 
the end of the republican period that the 
influence of Greek literature gave predomi- 
nance to the Greek epic form. It was then 
adopted by Varro of Atax, the orator 
Cicero, and above all by Lucretius, whose 
poem De Rerum Natura is the only did- 
actic poem of this period that has been pre- 
served intact. In the Augustan age many 
writers were active in this field, Valgius 
Rufus and ^Emilius Macer followed closely 
in the steps of the Alexandrians. Grattius 
wrote a poem on hunting, a part of which 
still survives ; Manilius an astronomical 
poem which survives entire. But the 
Georgics of Vergil throws all similar works, 
Greek or Latin, into the shade. Ovid 
employs the epic metre in his Metamor- 
phoses and Hdlieutica, the elegiac in his 

In the 1st century aj>. GermanTcus 



translated Ai'iitus. Oolumelli wrote ■ poem 
urieaing; an onknown uthoi said 
to be Looiuna). tl"' JStna. Tha 8rd 
centui v produoed khl medii 1 1 poem of 
Sammonlous Serehus. and thai oi Nemesi- 
anua mi hunting. In the 1 1 1 1 we have 
\n onlus, mnoh of whose work is didootic : 
Pallftdlua "ii agriculture; an m la ( >t :it i< >n <>f 
Arams and <>( Dlonyaius Periegfttes by 
Aviiiius, with a deaoription of t ho sea- 
. oi the known world in iambics; in 
tho 5th. beaides some of Claudian'a pieces, 

■ deaoription by Rutiliua Namatl&nus in 
elegiacs of his return homo. Tho book of 
Uemysius Pcriegetes was adapted by I'ris- 

■ Ian in the 6th century. A collection of 
proverbs, bearing the name of Cato, belongs 
to tho 4th century. In most of these com- 
positions the metrical form is a mere set 
off; and in the school verses of the gram- 
marians, as in those by Terentlanus Maurus 
on metres, by an anonymous author on 
rhetorical figures, and on weights and 
measures, there is no pretence of poetry 
at all. 

Epulones (Masters of the Feast). The 
office of epulo was created 19G B.C. to re- 
lieve the Pontifices. It was, from the 
first, open to plebeians, and could be held 
with the great offices of state. The first 
duty of the epulones was to provide the 
banquets (<~/>uluni\ of the Capitoline deities 
see Lectisterxium). In later times they 
had also to provide for and superintend the 
public entertainments {epiihu) of the people, 
when the senate dined on the Capitol. 
Such entertainments were always provided 
at the games given by private individuals, 
or by the state, on occasions of religious 
festivals, dedications of temples, assump- 
tions of office, triumphs, funerals, birthdays 
in the imperial household, and the like. 
The Collegium epulonum consisted origin- 
ally of three members (tres viri epulones) 
and afterwards of seven (septem viri 
epitlones), a name which it retained even 
after Csesar had raised the number to ten. 
Its existence can be traced down to the end 
of the 4th century. 

Equirria. See Mars and Salii. 

Equites (horsemen or knights). The 
equites were originally a real division of 
the Roman army. At the oeginning of 
the kingly period they were called cFleres, 
and their number is said to have been 300, 
chosen in equal parts from the three tribes of 
the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. A hun- 
dred formed a centurla, each centuria being 
named after the tribe from which it was 

taken. Thirty made a turma, and ten were 
under the command "( ■ while the 

whole corps was commanded by tha 

lUS i,/, rum. Dining the course of 
the kingly period the body 1 1 equites won 
ini rea wd to sia a nturia , and thi 
stitution of Servius Tulliua finally i i 
eighteen. When tin- twelve new 
were formed, conaisting of the richest pi-rsons 
in the state, whoso iiicoiin- e.\ oat of 

the first class in tli -, the OOrpS of 

equites lost the exclusively patrician char- 
acter which had hitherto distinguished it. 
At the same time its military impoi 

was diminished, as it no longer formed the 
first rank, but took up a position on the 
wings of the phalanx {tee Lksio). The 
a/ ui tea, however, retained both in the state 
and in the array their personal prestige. 
In the cdmltla they voted first, and in 
centurice of their own. They were the 
most distinguished troops in the army. No 
other soldiers were in a position to keep 
two horses and a groom apiece, a costly 
luxury, although they received an allowance 
for the purchase and keep of their horse. 
Alter the introduction of the pay system 
they received three times as much as the 
ordinary troops; on occasion of a triumph 
three times the ordinary share of b< 
and at the foundation of a colony a much 
larger allotment than the ordinary colonist. 
The 1,800 equites SquO publico, oi equites 
whose horse was purchased and kept by the 
state, were chosen every five years, at the 
census. The election was carried out in 
the republican period originally by the 
consuls, but in later times by the censors. 
After the general census was completed, 
the censors proceeded to review the equites 
(rccognitio). They were arranged accord- 
ing to their tribes, and each of them, lead- 
ing his horse by the hand, passed before 
the tribunal of the censors in the forum. 
All who had served their time, and who 
were physically incapacitated, received 
their discharge. If an eques were judged 
unworthy of his position, he was dismi~.->- 1 
with the words : " Sell your horse " {Vende 
equum). If there were nothing against him, 
he was passed on with the words Trciduc 
equum (" lead your horse past "). The 
vacancies were then filled up with suitable 
candidates, and the new list {album equitum) 
read aloud. In later times, the eques whose 
name was first read out was called princeps 
iuventiitis {see Princeps). 

During their time of service (setat-17 46 
the equites were beund to serve in a number 



of campaigns not exceeding ten. Their 
service expired, they passed into the first 
censorial class. The senators alone among 
the equites were, in earlier times, allowed to 
keep their equus publicus, their name on the 
roll, and their rights as equites unimpaired. 
But of this privilege the senators were 
deprived in the time of the Gracchi. The 
number of the equites equo publico re- 
mained the same, as no addition was made 
to the sum expended by the state on the 
horses. Young men of property sometimes 
served on their own horses (equo privdto) 
without any share in the political privileges 
of the equites. After the Second Punic war 
the body of equites gradually lost its mili- 
tary position, and finally ceased to exist as 
a special troop. In the 1st century B.C. the 
members of the equestrian centuries only 
served in the collars prcetoria of the general, 
or in the capacity of military tribunes and 
prcefecti of cohorts. 

The wealthy class, who were in posses- 
sion of the large capital which enabled them 
to undertake the farming of the public 
revenues, and who consequently had the 
opportunity of enriching themselves still 
further, had long enjoyed a very influential 
position. In 123 B.C. the lex iudlclarla of 
Gaius Gracchus transferred to the possessors 
of the eauestrian census (400,000 sestertii, or 
about £3,500) to right to sit on juries, which 
had previously belonged exclusively to mem- 
bers of the senate. Thus an ordo equester 
or third order, standing between the senate 
and the people, was formed, which began 
to play an important part in politics. Its 
members were called equites even if they 
were not enrolled in the centuriee equituni. 
The contests between the senate and the 
equites for the exclusive right to sit on the 
juries, continued with varying fortunes 
until the end of the Republic. Augustus 
allowed the ordo equester to continue in 
existence as a class in possession of a cer- 
tain income ; but the old fiscal and judicial 
system came to an end, and the ordo accord- 
ingly lost all its former importance. On 
the other hand, the equites proper rose into 
a position of great consideration. They 
were divided into six titrma?, headed by an 
imperial prince as princeps iuventidis. 
True, they had no further standing as a 
corporation : but the emperor employed 
them in a varietj- of confidential posts. 
The title eques equo l publico was necessary 
for the attainment of the office of military 

1 The state did not actually provide the horse. 

tribune, and for a number of the most 
important military posts. The power of 
conferring or withdrawing the title came at 
length to rest with the emperor alone. 

The review of the equites, which used to 
take place every five years, now became a 
mere ceremony, and was united by Augustus 
with the ancient annual parade (transvectlO) 
of the 15th July. The equites, in full 
uniform, rode through the Forum to the 
Capitol, past the temple of Mars or Hdnos. 

After the transference of the seat of 
government to Constantinople, the turmcp 
equitum sank into the position of a city 
corporation, standing between the senate 
and the guilds, and in possession of special 
privileges. The insignia of the equites 
were a gold ring and a narrow purple border 
on the tunic (see Tunica). At the trans- 
vectio they wore the trdbea, a mantle 
adorned with purple stripes, and crowns of 
olive. From 67 B.C. the fourteen first rows 
were assigned to them honoris causd. 

Eranos. The Greek term for an organized 
club or society, for the purposes of feast- 
ing and amusement, whose members were 
called erdnistce. Sometimes it would be 
formed in connexion with the worship of 
particular deities. Sometimes, again, the 
object of an eranos would be mutual assist- 
ance by advances of money. The govern- 
ment encouraged these clubs, because their 
corporate character made it easier to settle 
with expedition any legal proceedings 
arising out of their affairs. Trials of this 
kind, for refusal to pay subscriptions, or 
to repay loans, had to be settled within a 

Erato. See Muses. 

Eratosthenes. A Greek savant, born at 
Cyrene in 275 B.C. He completed his philo- 
sophical education at Athens, where he 
made his first public appearance as a 
lecturer on philosophy. His learning won 
him such a reputation that Ptolemy III 
(Euergetes) invited him in 247 B.C. to 
Alexandria, and made him librarian there 
in the place of Callimachus. He is said to 
have died, after nearly losing his eye-sight, 
by voluntary starvation in 195 B.C. He 
was a master of science in all its branches — 
history, geography, geometry, astronomy, 
philosophy, grammar and poetry. As a 
writer he treated an astonishing variety 
of subjects, and won thereby the name of 
Pentctthlds (or master in the five great 
exercises of the arenaV It is said that he 
was the first person who assumed the name 
of Philologos, or friend of science. His 


neatest servies consists In the fad that ha 

mi the founder of scientific geography. 

i work m bis QlOgrdphlca, in 

three books. The Brst « u a] ph] 

raphy, the * id treated mathematical 

aphy "ii i In 1 h.i-is of ilif measurement 

nl dcgn i • end by himself. Tin' 

subjeol oj the third was ohorographt , band 
.1 map "i Ins own dray ing. The work 
i> unfortunately lost, and known only by 
ar writers, especially Strabo,have 
■ vcl. Historical investigation owes 
.1 peat deal totheCftt^n0or«lpAtfa,inwhioh 
In' undertook to found chronology mi as- 
tronomy ami mathematics. His compre- 
hensive book on Ancient Comedy was a con- 
tribution to the history of literature. The 
CdMUOgoi was a work on astronomy and 
mythology, in which were collected the 
fables of the ancient writers on tin 
Btellations, with an enumerationof the single 
stars in each group. A dry compendium, 
called the Catasterisinoi, containing a mere 
enumeration of 44 constellations, with 475 
stars, and the fables attached, is based on 
the great work of Eratosthenes. His jwetical 
efforts weir a short epic called Hermes, and 
a celebrated elegy, the ErlgSnP.. Besides 
the compendium above mentioned, and some 
fragments, we have aletter of Eratosthenes 
to Ptolemy Euergetes on the doubling of 
the cube, and an epigram on the same 

Ertbus. In Greek mythology, the pri- 
meval darkness, springing, according to 
II. -iod, from Chaos, brother of Night, and 
father by her of .Ether and Hemera (day). 
The word is commonly used of the lower 
world, filled with impenetrable darkness. 

Erechtheum (EreehtheionX The original 
sanctuary of the tutelary deities of Athens, 
Athene Polias, (the goddess of the city), 
Poseidon, and Erechtheus. It was situated 
on the Acr5p0lis. The old temple, said to 
have been built by Erechtheus, was burnt 
by the Persians in 480 B.C. The restoration 
was perhaps begun as far back as the time 
of Pericles, but, according to the testimony 
of an inscription in the British Museum 
(no. xxxv), was not quite finished in 409. 
The new temple was, even in antiquity, 
admired as one of the most beautiful and 
perfect works of the Attic-Ionic style. It 
was 65 feet long and nearly 36 broad ; and 
was divided into two main parts. Entering 
through the eastern portico of six Ionic 
pillars, one came into the cdla of Athene 
Polias, with an image of the goddess, and 
a lamp that was always kept burning. To 

ilid wall at tli. i the 

I'. I ■ i hi beam propei . Bare n en are* > Iturx, 
i. iir common to I n and En 

i h. o\ I., i to Uepha and tin- hero B 
Oonneoted witb tins, bj thn 

a small front-chamber, with -i-m-ii half 

ciiIiiiiiiis adorning the western wall, and 
three w indowa between them. Tin - 1 lumber 

pproaohed throngs a hall attach 
t he i>< .it h aide of the temple, with 

■even Conic columns in bront, and mie on 
each side. Under tins was ■ cleft in the 
rook, said to have been made by the stroke 
of Poseidon's trident during bis contest with 
Athene for the possession of the \ 
Corresponding to this on the smith side 
was a small hall, supported not by pillars, 
but by caryatides. This was called '!«■ 
Hall of Core, and it probably contained the 
tomb of Cecrops. From it a step led down 
to a court, once walled round, in which 
were the Pandroseum (see Paxhrosos), the 
sac red olive tree of Athene, and the altar 
of Zeus HerkeiOs. On the east side, in 
front of the temple of Athene Polias, stood 
the altar on which the great hecatomb was 
offered at the Panathenaa. (See plan of 

Erechtheus. A mythical king of Athens. 
According to Homer he was the son of 
Earth by Hephaestus, and brought up by 
Athene. Like that of Cecrops, half of his 
form was that of a snake — a sign that he 
was one of the aborigines. Athene put the 
child in a chest which she gave to the 
daughters of Cecrops. Agraulos, Herse, and 
Pandrosos, to take care of ; forbidding them 
at the same time to open it. The two 
eldest disobeyed, and in terror at the 
serpent-shaped child (or according to 
another version, the snake that surrounded 
the child), they went mad, and threw 
themselves from the rocks of the Acropolis. 
Another account made the serpent kill them. 
Erechtheus drove out Amphictyon, and got 
possession of the kingdom. He then es- 
tablished the worship of Athene, and built 
to her, as goddess of the city (Pdlias), a 
temple, named after him the Erechtheum. 
Here he was afterwards worshipped himself 
with Athene and Poseidon. He was also 
the founder of the Panathenaic festival. He 
was said to have invented the four-wheeled 
chariot, and to have been taken up to 
heaven for this by Zeus, and set in the sky 
as the constellation of the charioteer. His 
daughters were Orithyia and Procris (see 
Boreas andCEPHALDs). Originally identi- 
fied -with Erichthonlus, he was in later times 



distinguished from him. and was regarded 
as his grandson, and as son of Pandlon and 
Zeuxippe. His twin brother was Butes. 
his sisters Procne and Philomela. The 
priestly office fell to Butes, while Erech- 
theus assumed the functions of royalty. By 
Praxithea. the daughter of Cephissus, he 
was father of the second Cecrops ^see Pan- 
diox, 2, of Metlon (see D.edalds) ; of 
Creusa (see Ion), as well as of Protogeneia, 
Pandora, and Chthonia. When Athens 
was pressed hard by the Eleusinians 
under Eumolpus, the oracle promised him 
the victory if he would sacrifice one of 
his daughters. He chose the youngest, 
Chthonia ; but Protogeneia and Pandora, 
who had made a vow with their sister to 
die with her, voluntarily shared her fate. 
Erechtheus conquered his enemies and slew 
Eumolpus, but was afterwards destroyed 
by the trident of his enemy's father, 

Ergane. See Athene 

Erginus. King of the Minyse of Orcho- 
menus, son of Poseidon (or Clymenus, 
according to another account), and one of 
the Argonauts. At the games of Poseidon 
at Onchestos, Clymenus was killed bv a 
stone thrown by a noble Theban. Erginus 
in consequence compelled the Thebans to 
pay him an annual tribute of 100 oxen for 
twenty years. Heracles, on returning from 
his slaughter of the lions of Cithseron, came 
upon the heralds who were collecting the 
tribute. He cut off their noses and ears, 
tied their hands round their necks, and told 
them that this was the tribute they might 
take back to their master. War broke out. 
Heracles armed the Thebans with the arms 
hanging in the temples, the Minyje having 
carried off all the others ; slew Erginus, 
destroyed Orehomenus, and forced the Minya- 
to pay double the tribute to Thebes. The 
sons of Erginus were the mythical architects 
Agamedes and Trophonius. 

Erichthonlus. (1) Son of Dardanus (see 
Dardanus^ and Bateia, father of Tros. (2) 
See Erechtheus. 

Erigone. Daughter of Icarius, who 
hanged herself for grief at the murder of 
her father, and was taken up to heaven as 
the constellation of the Virgin. (See 

Erinna. A famous Greek poetess, a native 
of the island of Telos. She was a friend 
and contemporary of Sappho, with whom 
she lived in Mltylene. She flourished about 
600 B.C. and died at the age of nineteen. 
The poem by which she is best known is 

the Spindte (ElakSte) consisting of 300 
hexameters. A few verses of this, and a 
few epigrams, are all of her writing which 
survives. A poem in five Sapphic strophes, 
addressed to Rome as the mistress of the 
world, is from the hand of a much larer 
poetess, ilelinno, who probably lived in 
Lower Italy at the time of the war with 
Pyrrhus, or the First Punic War. 

Erinyes (Greek). The goddesses of venge- 
ance. Homer speaks sometimes of one, 
sometimes of several, but without any 
definite statement about either number, 
name, or descent. Hesiod makes them the 
daughters of Gaia (Earth), sprung from the 
blood of the mutilated Uranus. According 
to others they were the daughters of Nigh - 



(Nyx) or of the Earth, and Darkness 
(Skotos). Euripides is the earliest writer 
who fixes their number at three, and con- 
siderably later we find them with the 
names Allecto (" She who rests not " . 
Tisiphone (" Avenger of murder "), and 
Megsera ("The jealous one") They are the 
avengers of every transgression of natural 
order, and especially of offences which 
touch the foundation of human society. 
They punish, without mercy, all violations 
of filial duty, or the claims of kinship, or 
the rites of hospitality : murder, perjury, 
and like offences : in Homer even beggars 
have their Erinvs. The punishment begins 
on earth and is continued after death. 
Thus they pursue Orestes and Alcmaeon, 
who slew their mothers, and (Edipus for 

!■ I.'ll'll 1 


murder of his Father and marriage 
wcili his mother, without regard to the 

oiroumstanoes bj which then i were 

hxoubi d, Their prinoiple is ■ imp] , 

•• .in <\ i for ;ni eye, and •> I h for a toot a. 

In spite of their terrible attributes as god- 
engeance they were oalled Semnai 
I thehonoorabli u nidi s| the kindly I, 

For tin' punishment of the evil 
well-being of the good, and b\ pursuing 
inn! destroyin sapors i be E&i inyi 

prove themselves benevolent and bene 
fioent Thej were worshipped in Athens 
under the name of Semnai, and bad a shrine 
on the Arfiopagus, and tho hill of (Johmus. 
Fresh water and Mark sheep were offered 
to them in sacrifice. The terrible picture 
drawn of them by SSsohylus in his Eu- 
menides, as women like Gorgons, with 
snakes for hair, bloodshot eyes, grinding 
i, and long black robes with blood-red 
girdles, was softened down in later times. 
Thov appear as maidous of stern aspect, 
with snakes in their hair or round their 
girdles and arms, torches, scourges, or 
sickles in their hands, generally in the 
costume of huntresses, and sometimes with 
wings as a sign of the swiftness of their 
vengeance (see cut). 

The Furies [Fi'irhr or Dfrce) of the 
Roman poets are a mere adaptation of 
the Greek Erinyes. They are generally 
represented as torturing the guilty in the 
world below, but as sometimes appearing 
on earth, to excite to crime and throw men 
into madness. 

Kiiphyle. In Greek mythology, sister of 
Adrastus and wife of Amphlaraus. (See 
Adrastus.) Bribed with a necklace by 
Podynices, she prevailed on her husband to 
take part in the war of the Seven Chiefs 
against Thebes, in which he met his death. 
[8a Amphiaraus.) In revenge for this 
she was slain by her son Alcmseon. (See 

Eris. The goddess of discord, fighting, 
and quarrelling in the Greek mythology. 
In Homer she is sister and companion of 
Ares, and like him insatiate of blood ; in 
Hesiod she is daughter of Night, and mother 
of trouble, oblivion, hunger, pain, murder 
and carnage, brawls, deceit, and lawless- 
ness. She was the only one among the 
gods who was not bidden to the marriage of 
Peleus and Thetis. In revenge, she threw 
a golden apple among the guests, and thus 
gave occasion for the Trojan War. (See 
Trojan War.) Side by side with this 
destructive Eris was a beneficent Eris, the 

D. C. A. 

ording to ll> iod, of the 
She wa i ' be pei si 

and i stimulating 

dullards ' 11. 

Eros. The god of lovi 

( iieeks. His OS i IT ill 

Homer ; imt in Eesiod be is the fain 
the deities, who subdues the beu bs of all 

ind n. He is I i it the 

same lime OS I lie Karlli and 'I ud is 

the comrade of Aphrfidlti from the mom< nl 
of her birth. Besiod oonoei 

merely as the god of sensual lovo, bl 
a power which forms the world by 
union of the separated elements; an 
very prevalent in antiquity, especially 
among the philosophers. But according 
to the later and commoner notion, Eros was 
tho youngest of the gods, generally the son 
of Aphrodite by Arcs or Hermes, alway 


(1) EROS. 

Probably as tbe Genius of Death. Ascribed to the timt. 
of Hadrian. Found at Centocdle (Rome, Vatican). 

a child, thoughtless and capricious. He is 
as irresistible as fair, and has no pity even 
for his own mother. Zeus, the father of 
gods and men, arms him with golden wings, 
and with bow and unerring arrows, or 
burning torches. Anteros, the god of 
mutual love, is his brother, and his com- 
panions are Pothos and Himeros, the per- 
sonifications of longing and desire, with 




Peitho (Persuasion), the Muses, and the 
Graces. In later times he is surrounded 
by a crowd of similar beings, Erotes or 
loves. (For the later legend of Eros and 
Psyche, see Psyche.) 

One of the chief and oldest seats of his 
worship was Thesplae in Bceotla. Here 
was his most ancient image, a rough, un- 
hewn stone. His festival, the Erotia or 
Krotldia, continued till the time of the 
Roman Empire to be celebrated every fifth 
year with much ceremony, accompanied 
by gymnastic and musical contests. Be- 
sides this he was paid special honour 
and worship in the gymnasia, where his 
statue generally stood near those of Her- 
mes and Heracles. In the gymnasia Eros 

(2) EROS. 
(Rome, Capitoline Museum.) 

was the personification of devoted friend- 
ship and love between youths and men ; 
the friendship which proved itself active 
and helpful in battle and bold adventure. 
This was the reason why the Spartans and 
Cretans sacrificed to Eros before a battle, 
and the sacred band of youths at Thebes 
was dedicated to him : why a festival of 
freedom (Eleuthe ria) was held at Samos in 
his honour, as the god who bound men and 
youths together in the struggle for honour 
and freedom ; and why at Athens he was 
worshipped as the liberator of the citv, in 
memory of Harmodfus and Aristoglton. 

In works of art Eros was usually repre- 
sented as a beautiful boy, close upon the 
age of youth. In later times he also appears 
as a child with the attributes of a bow and 

arrows, or burning torches, and in a great 
variety of situations. The most celebrated 
statues of this god were by Lysippus, 
Scfipas, and Praxiteles, whose Eros at 
Thespia' was regarded as a master-piece, 
and unsurpassable. The famous torso in 
the Vatican, in which the god wears a 
dreamy, lovelorn air, is popularly, but 
probably erroneously, traced to an original 
by Praxiteles (fig. 1). The Eros trying his 
bow, in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, 
is supposed to be the copy of a work by 
Lysippus (fig. 2). 

The Roman god Amor or Cupido was a 
mere adaptation of the Greek Eros, and was 
never held in great honour. 
Erse or Herse. See Cecrops. 
Eryinanthian Boar. See Heracles. 
Erysichthon. (1) Son of the Athenian 

(2) Son of Triopas in Thessaly. For dese- 
crating the sacred enclosure of Demeter, and 
felling an oak consecrated to the goddess, 
he was punished with insatiable hunger. 
Having consumed all that he had, he was 
supported by his daughter Mestra, to whom 
her lover Poseidon had given the power of 
transferring herself into any shape that she 
liked. In various forms she continually got 
herself sold, and then returned to her father 
with the proceeds. At last Erysichthon was 
reduced to devouring his own limbs. 
Erytheia. One of the Hesperides. 
Eryx. Son of Poseidon (or, according to 
another account, of Butes) and Aphrodite, 
who was worshipped on Eryx, a mountain 
in Sicily. He was king of the Elymi in the 
neighbourhood of the mountain. Eryx was 
a powerful boxer, but was slain in a fight 
with Heracles about a bull, which had run 
away from the latter, and which Eryx had 

Essedarii. See Gladiatores. 
Essedum. See Chariots. 
Etedcles. Son of (Edipus king of Thebes 
and Iocaste, brother of Polynlces and 
Antigone. He broke the agreement he 
had made with his brother to give him the 
kingdom of Thebes for one year. Polynices 
accordingly organized the campaign of the 
Seven Chiefs against Thebes, and fell in 
single combat with Eteocles. (See (Edipcs 
and Seven against Thebes.) 

Euadne. Daughter of Iphls, wife of 
Capaneus. Her husband fell before Thebes, 
and at his funeral she threw herself into the 
flames of the pyre and was consumed with 
the corpse. 

Euandros. See Evander. 

El i;i i.i 

El MMLl'US. 


Kuimlus. \ Qnili pool "i the Middle 

i\ , who Bom ' ■ I B.C. Bis 

were mainly on myth 

and i I be earlier tra •■ ipe 

i i ., i Ine bundred and foui 

« ere attributed to bun, oi \\ bioh only 

mollis bave been presei rad\i 

in pure and \\ ell ol n 

Euolldii Eukl id\ s). | l ' A philosopher 
of JJ disciple of Socrate i, and the 

founder ol the Bfegarian sol I. 

\ Greek mathematioiaii who taught at 
Alexandria about 800 B.C. All thai is known 
of his life is thai be was bold in much es- 
.,i w .mi the lii" li regard of king 
my I. His labours in putting the dis- 
ss of Former mathematicians into 
oompleting them, and expounding 
them with matchless olearness and concise- 
won liim the position of the founder 
of mathemat ical literature. We still possess 
liis Elements of Mathematics (Stoicheia) 
which have been used until quite lately as 
the foundation of all geometrical textbooks, 
rhese are in L5 books; tho 13th and 14th, 
iver, are said to have been added by 
BypsIclSs of Alexandria about 1(>0 b.c. 
Besides tliis, we have what are called his 
Data, or 96 geometrical propositions as 
an introduction to geometrical analysis, an 
astronomical work entitled PhaenOmSna, 
and a musical work on the division of the 
canon. Some other treatises, probably 
from the hands of other authors, have been 
attributed to Euclid. Such are the Ele- 
ments of Optii's and Catoptrics, and the 
Introduction to Music. 

Eudeinus. A Greek philosopher, native 
of Rhodes. After Theophrastus he was the 
chief of Aristotle's disciples, and was the 
author of the seven books of Eudcmian 
Ethics, which have come down to us among 
his writings. 

Euhenierus. A Greek writer, who flou- 
rished about 300 B.C. Under the title of 
Hard Anagraph?, or Sacred History, he 
wrote a work which purported to explain 
the whole mythology, on the theory of the 
apotheosis of men who by their bravery and 
cleverness had deserved well of mankind. 
Zeus, for instance, his kinsfolk and children, 
he represented as in reality an ancient family 
of Cretan kings. To prove his assertion he 
appealed to a representation of the whole 
primitive history of the world, from the 
time of Uranus onwards, given on a golden 
pillar in the temple of Zeus on the island 
of Paucba?a. This, he said, he had dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood of India, when 

round the • ■ . the 

ci. inim r. The 

oi ImiJ: only fragments now 

remain, w u n ell known i n ben ii 

was 1 1 anslated and adapted bj Enni a ■■. The 
met bod of ral ionalixins or an ■' • ingm 
into Hi" history "i human kings, bi 
and adventurers, is oalled Euhemei ism, aftei 
m Founder. 

Kiuoh. ,Si e I torn 

Eumaeus. The faithful swineherd of 

OdySBeuB, who gave his master a friendly 

\\ SIC "ii his ri'turn 1 1 ■ > 1 1 1 « ■ in t li. 

a beggar, and aided him in the slaughter of 

tin 1 suitors, i See < b>\ ssei s. i 

Eumclus. See Epos i 

Eumenldes. See EEDn bs. 

Euinenlus. One of the Roman writers of 
ryrics on the emperors. He was born 
about 250 A.D. at Aug